Sycamore processor

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Sycamore is a quantum processor created by Google Inc.'s Artificial Intelligence division.[1] It comprises 53 qubits.

In 2019, Sycamore completed a task in 200 seconds that Google claimed, in a Nature paper, would take a state-of-the-art supercomputer 10,000 years to finish. Thus, Google claimed to have achieved quantum supremacy. To estimate the time that would be taken by a classical supercomputer, Google ran portions of the quantum circuit simulation on the Summit, the most powerful classical computer in the world.[2][3][4][5] Later, IBM made a counter-argument, claiming that the task would only take 2.5 days on a classical system like Summit.[6][7] If Google's claims are upheld, then it would represent an exponential leap in computing power.[8][9][10][11]

In August 2020 quantum engineers working for Google reported the largest chemical simulation on a quantum computer – a Hartree-Fock approximation with Sycamore paired with a classical computer that analyzed results to provide new parameters for the 12-qubit system.[12][13][14]

In December 2020, the Chinese photon-based Jiuzhang processor, developed by USTC, achieved a processing power of 76 qubits and was 10 billion times faster than Sycamore, making it the second computer to attain quantum supremacy.[15]


  1. ^ Kan, Michael (October 23, 2019). "Google Claims Quantum Computing Achievement, IBM Says Not So Fast". PCMAG.
  2. ^ Arute, Frank; Arya, Kunal; Babbush, Ryan; Bacon, Dave; Bardin, Joseph C.; Barends, Rami; Biswas, Rupak; Boixo, Sergio; Brandao, Fernando G. S. L.; Buell, David A.; Burkett, Brian (October 2019). "Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor". Nature. 574 (7779): 505–510. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1666-5. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 31645734.
  3. ^ "Google claims 'quantum supremacy' for computer". BBC News. 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Hello quantum world! Google publishes landmark quantum supremacy claim". Nature. 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  5. ^ "Google Claims Breakthrough in Blazingly Fast Computing". The New York Times. 2019-10-23. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-11-03.
  6. ^ "On "Quantum Supremacy"". IBM Research Blog. 2019-10-22. Retrieved 2019-10-28.
  7. ^ Whyte, Chelsea (October 5, 2019). "What next for quantum computers?". New Scientist. 243 (3250): 15. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(19)31852-4.
  8. ^ Shankland, Stephen. "Quantum supremacy? Done. Now the hard work begins for mere quantum practicality". CNET.
  9. ^ Savage, Neil. "Hands-On with Google's Quantum Computer". Scientific American.
  10. ^ Mack, Eric (October 24, 2019). "No, Google and Its Quantum Computer Aren't Killing Bitcoin Anytime Soon".
  11. ^ "IBM Search". February 26, 2018.
  12. ^ "Google conducts largest chemical simulation on a quantum computer to date". Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  13. ^ Savage, Neil. "Google's Quantum Computer Achieves Chemistry Milestone". Scientific American. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  14. ^ Google AI Quantum Collaborators (28 August 2020). "Hartree-Fock on a superconducting qubit quantum computer". Science. 369 (6507): 1084–1089. arXiv:2004.04174. doi:10.1126/science.abb9811. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 32855334. S2CID 215548188. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  15. ^ Ball, Philip (2020-12-03). "Physicists in China challenge Google's 'quantum advantage'". Nature. 588 (7838): 380. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03434-7. PMID 33273711.