Sydenham Hill Wood
Sydenham Hill Wood is a nine-hectare wood on the northern slopes of the Norwood Ridge in the London Borough of Southwark, and is an important wildlife site. With the adjacent Dulwich Wood, Sydenham Hill Wood is the largest extant tract of the ancient Great North Wood. The two woods were separated after the relocation of The Crystal Palace in 1854 and the creation of the high level line in 1865.
The oak-lined formal avenue, known as Cox's Walk, leading from the junction of Dulwich Common and Lordship Lane was cut soon after 1732 by Francis Cox to connect his Green Man Tavern and Dulwich Wells with the more popular Sydenham Wells. When the poet Thomas Campbell lived in Sydenham (between 1805 and 1822) he visited his friend Dr Glennie, in Dulwich Grove. After the relocation of the Crystal Palace in 1854, the Dulwich Estate made plots along Sydenham Hill available on long leases, and a series of large houses was built. Between the junction with Crescent Wood Road and Cox's Walk there were seven houses. One of the largest was The Hoo, standing almost opposite the present 36 Sydenham Hill.
The folly was in the former grounds of Fairwood at 53 Sydenham Hill; the house was first occupied by Alderman David Henry Stone. Stone commissioned James Pulham & Son to build the folly. Incised lines simulating stonework on the folly's arch resemble those on the bridge in Buckingham Palace Gardens. The Pulham catalogue indicates that the firm of James Pulham and Son worked extensively in the Sydenham/Dulwich area in the 1870s. In the grounds in front of Kingswood House, there are remains of features in Pulhamite.
The Crystal Palace and South London Junction Railway went through Sydenham Hill Wood, the Dulwich College estate and two tunnels, terminating at the west of the Crystal Palace. It opened on 1 August 1865. In 1871, Camille Pissarro painted the view down the tracks to Lordship Lane from the wood and brick bridge on Cox's Walk. The image, of a train billowing steam, grasps the optimism of the Industrial Revolution. In 1908 the footbridge was renewed in teak and iron to the same design as the original. The fortunes of the railway waned with those of the Crystal Palace, declining after the Crystal Palace burned down in 1936. It closed during the war, and the post-war re-opening was unsuccessful; the last service ran in 1954. The track was lifted in 1956 and the terminus demolished in 1961.
In 1983, Southwark Council leased the Wood to the London Wildlife Trust to manage as a nature reserve. In 1984 Southwark Council’s Mid/South Southwark Local Plan included proposals for blocks of up to 146 flats on the top part of the Wood. London Wildlife Trust's Southwark Wildlife Group ran a "Save the Woods" campaign backed by West Lewisham MP John Maples and other local MPs. Dulwich MP Gerald Bowden asked the Secretary of State for the Environment to intervene. A full-page Evening Standard article set the scene for a New Year public inquiry into the Plan. The January inquiry heard evidence from a dozen ecologists on the Wood's wildlife diversity, other witnesses describing the Wood’s educational and amenity value, visited the site and listened to views from several hundred members of the public at an evening meeting at Kingswood House. Southwark MP Simon Hughes spoke in favour of saving the wood in the House of Commons. Further, Dulwich College Estates applied for planning permission to build 36 flats on the site of Beechgrove House. In July, the Local Plan inspector reported that most of the Wood should be protected from development. The written report was published in the same week that Southwark Council’s planning committee rejected the Beechgrove application. In advance of a public inquiry into the Beechgrove plans held in November 1986, Gerald Bowden MP said: "I’ve never had quite such a wide range of ordinary people writing to me on one subject. There is very broad opposition to the flats." The inspector's decision against the plan was hailed as "Wood reprieve a policy precedent." "The need to preserve areas of existing natural woodland within the urban areas is of as much importance in preserving our heritage and improving the quality of the environment as that of preserving the countryside," the inspector said.
In 1988 there were still many wild rhododendrons, a lone monkey puzzle, the remains of a formal pool near the cedar of Lebanon, fragments of Pulhamite ornaments and the folly. The trackbed was partly built on, but elsewhere it has reverted to nature. Part of the route adjacent to the Horniman Museum and Gardens is now a "Railway Nature Trail", maintained for the museum by the Trust for Urban Ecology. In Sydenham Hill Wood, its path can be followed from the footbridge on Cox's Walk to the entrance of the Crescent Wood tunnel. The tunnel emerges again in the north west corner of Wells Park. On the western edge there is a small stream in the woods called the Ambrook, formerly a tributary of the River Effra. From here it flows across the golf course, then alongside Cox's Walk, under Dulwich Common and into the lake in Dulwich Park. In wet weather it rises above the drains and flows along the road around Dulwich Park by Frank Dixon Way.
Now a unique mix of old woodland, Victorian garden survivors, and recent woodland, it is one of the closest ancient woods to central London and is home to over 200 species of trees and flowering plants. A multitude of fungi, rare insects, birds and elusive woodland mammals including the Wood mouse are also present.
Mostly sessile oak-hornbeam woodland, the site includes a wide variety of other tree and shrub species, including numerous exotics planted when the wood included parts of large gardens. The flora includes numerous indicators of long-established woodland; ramsons (Allium ursinum), wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis) and hairy wood-rush (Luzula pilosa). The last two of these are uncommon in London. All three British woodpeckers breed, along with nuthatch, treecreeper, tawny owl, kestrel and sparrowhawk. Hawfinches are recorded occasionally and may also breed. Invertebrates are well recorded and include the purple hairstreak and speckled wood butterflies, several nationally scarce bees and wasps, and stag beetles. Fungi are also well recorded (174 species) and mosses include Mnium punctatum at its only known London locality.
There is only one small pond in Sydenham Hill Wood which tends to dry up in summer, so there are no frogs or toads on any regular basis.
Of the bat species using the wood, there are records of common and soprano pipistrelles, noctules (which are in decline nationally) at least one species of the myotis bats, and brown long-eared bats (the only site in Southwark where these have been recorded).
There is a map and numbered trail from the entrance on Crescent Wood off Sydenham Hill and there is another entrance by the footbridge on Cox's Walk. By public transport the Crescent Wood entrance can be reached by bus 356 from Forest Hill station alighting at the 'Crescent Wood Road' stop. Buses on route 363 from Crystal Palace also pass near the entrance at an adjacent 'Crescent Wood Road' stop. The wood can also be reached from Sydenham Hill railway station. From the station turn right a short distance along College Road, past St Stephen's church, then through the white gate on the opposite side of the road into Low Cross Wood Lane and on the left just ahead is a gate to Dulwich Wood. In Dulwich Wood follow the path straight ahead until turning to the right just before the pond. This will bring you out close to Crescent Wood tunnel in Sydenham Hill Wood. If the gate into Dulwich Wood is locked follow the steeply upward sloping lane onto Crescent Wood Road, turning left at the top and following the road will bring you to the Crescent Wood Road entrance.
- Evans, Humphrey (28 December 2003). "Secret London: Sydenham Hill - The view from the bridge". The Independent on Sunday. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- The Great North Wood - A brief history of ancient woodlands from Selhurst to Deptford by LSC Neville, London Wildlife Trust, 1987
- "Sydenham Hill Wood & Cox's Walk". London Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Based on post by local historian Steve Grindlay to Sydenham Town Forum Topic: Old Sydenham Hill
- "Sydenham Hill Wood". London Parks and Gardens Trust. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "Sydenham Hill Wood and Fern Bank". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Map of Sydenham Hill Wood and Fern Bank". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- MaB Urban Forum[dead link]
- "london-footprints.co.uk". london-footprints.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
- Hall, Edwin (1922). DULWICH HISTORY AND ROMANCE 2nd Edition. Bickers and Sons. p. 46.
- From the Nun's Head to the Screaming Alice by Mathew Frith, The Friends of the Great North Wood, 1995
- "Thomas Campbell" in A Book of Memories: Great Men and Women of the Age, from Personal Acquaintance (1871) pages 345-58 by Samuel Carter Hall
- From a search for "The Hoo, Sydenham Hill" on Google Books
- Ye parish of Camerwell : a brief account of the parish of Camberwell : its history and antiquities by William Harnett Blanch, page 407
- History of Beechgrove, Sydenham Hill and Pulhamite in Sydenham by Steve Grindlay
- Durability Guaranteed - Pulhamite Rockwork by Camilla Beresford and David Mason, English Heritage 2008
- Great Credit upon the Ingenuity and Taste of Mr. Pulham by Sally Festing, Garden History, Vol. 16, No. 1. (Spring, 1988), pp. 90-102
- London Chatham And Dover Railway(Metropolitan Extensions) Act of 17 July 1862
- Goode, Charles (1984). To the Crystal Palace. Forge Books. ISBN 0-904662-13-6.
- Disused Stations in the UK Lordship Lane page
- "Subterranea Britannica Site: Upper Sydenham Station". Subbrit.org.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
- "Sydenham Hill Wood - Southwark Council". Southwark.gov.uk. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
- From a reminiscence by Kenny B about Sydenham Hill on Sydenham Town Forum
- South London Press, 9 September 1983
- City Wildspace by Bob Smyth (Hilary Shipman 1987)
- South London Press, 30 November 1983
- The Times, 4 December 1983, article by David Nicholson-Lord
- Evening Standard, December 20, 1984, article by Tom Pocock
- Country Life, 24 January 1985
- Time Out, 31 January 1985
- The Times, 2 February 1985
- Hansard, 8 February 1985. "In the borough of Southwark, part of which is in my constituency, Sydenham Hill Wood, one of the remaining very old woodlands in the south of England, is under threat. There is a very strong lobby against its destruction by the London Wildlife Trust. But it is primarily the local people who are fighting by means of a public inquiry to protect that wood."
- South London Press, 19 May 1985
- South London Press, 7 July 1985; The Guardian, July 1985
- South London Press, August 1985
- South London Press, 11 November 1986
- The Times, 23 February 1987, article by David Nicholson-Lord
- City Wildspace by Bob Smyth (Hilary Shipman, 1987)
- Greenwood, Daniel (24 March 2015). "The differing worlds of the Dulwich and Sydenham Hill Woods". The Dulwich Society. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- Walking the River Effra[dead link]
- Lapsewood Walk Interpretation Board. London Wildlife Trust. February 2008.
- British Trust for Ornithology
- Cox's Walk Interpretation Board. London Wildlife Trust. February 2008.
- "Sydenham Hill Wood and Dulwich Wood". Greenspace Information for Greater London (GiGL). London Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Crescent Wood Road Interpretation Board. London Wildlife Trust. February 2008.
- London Wildlife Trust News Archive Monday, 10 September 2007, Woodland Bat Roost Project at Sydenham Hill Wood
- Transport for London
- The Great North Wood - A brief history of ancient woodlands from Selhurst to Deptford by LSC Neville, London Wildlife Trust, 1987 Booklet (Now out of print)
- The Great North Wood the woodlands of the Norwood and Sydenham ridge by Mathew Frith, London Wildlife Trust, 1996 leaflet.
- City Wildspace by Bob Smyth, Hilary Shipman, 1987.
- Crystal Palace (High Level) and Catford Loop by V Mitchell & K Smith, Middleton Press, 1991
- The Railway through Sydenham Hill Wood, From the Nun's Head to the Screaming Alice by Mathew Frith, The Friends of the Great North Wood and London Wildlife Trust leaflet 1995.
- London's Local Railways by A A Jackson, David & Charles, 1978
- The Crystal Palace (High Level) Branch by W Smith, British Railway Journal 28, 1989
- Durability Guaranteed - Pulhamite Rockwork pdf file on the English Heritage website.
- New Scotland Yard, The Complete Series 3, Network DVD, episode Daisy Chain, filmed in January 1973 briefly features Beechgrove.
- About Lordship Lane station
- Pictures on Flickr
- The Dulwich Society
- Sydenham Town Forum
- "Sydenham Hill Wood and Dulwich Wood". Greenspace Information for Greater London. 2006.
- The Pulham Legacy About the Victorian firm James Pulham and Son, which may have built the folly and other garden features.
- The London Wildlife Trust
- The London Wildlife Trust's Sydenham Hill Wood page.
- The London Wildlife Trust's What's On page.
- Sydenham Hill Woods, 1862 photo set by Steve Grindlay on flickr