|Languages||Sylheti, Bengali-Assamese languages|
Sylheti Nagri, recognised by Unicode as Syloti Nagri (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ Silôṭi Nagri),, referred to in classical manuscripts as Sylhet Nagri, and also known as Sylheti Nagari, is an endangered script used to write the Sylheti language. The script was also used in Kishoreganj, Mymensingh and Netrakona in Bangladesh; and Tripura, Meghalaya and Assam in India. It is closely related to Kaithi, and has some Eastern Nagari, Arabic and Devanagari influences. Although it has in recent times lost much ground to the Bengali script, the script is beginning to be reintroduced.
The script has been known by many names such as Jalalabadi Nagri (ꠎꠣꠟꠣꠟꠣꠛꠣꠖꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ) after the name of Jalalabad (Greater Sylhet). Phul Nagri (ꠚꠥꠟ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ) amongst others. Another popular but somewhat misleading term is Musalmani Nagri (ꠝꠥꠍꠟ꠆ꠝꠣꠘꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ) which can be found in Achyut Charan Choudhury's Srihatter Itibritta book. In the time when Sylhet was known as "Srihatta" different indigenous scripts were used in Sylhet, some of them archived in Sylhet Muslim Shahitto from 600 BC.
The specific origin of Sylheti Nagri is debated. The general hypothesis is the Muslims of Sylhet were the ones to invent it. Suniti Kumar Chatterji, however, is of the opinion that Shah Jalal brought the script with him when he arrived in the area in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. The bulk of text written in Sylheti Nagri being influenced by Sufism seems to support this hypothesis. On the other hand, according to Ahmad Hasan Dani it was the Afghans living in Sylhet during the Afghan rule who invented the script, since some of Sylheti Nagri's letters resemble the symbols on Afghan coins, and there were a large number of Afghans living in Sylhet at that time. Other less-supported hypotheses are:
- Since the people of Sylhet were familiar with the Devanagari script, they fashioned Sylheti Nagri after it;
- The script was invented by immigrant Bhikkhus from neighbouring countries such as Nepal;
- The script could have been invented in the seventeenth—eighteenth century to facilitate the Muslim sepoys coming from the joint state of Bihar and other immigrant Muslims;
- A folk belief is that a Muslim invented the script from Bengali writing system for the purpose of mass education
But scholars now validate the three hypotheses: By the followers of Shah Jalal, by Afghans or that the script is indigenous to Sylhet.
The simplistic nature of the script inspired a lot of poets, and the bulk of Nagri literature was born. During the British colonial period, a Sylheti student by the name of Moulvi Abdul Karim studying in London, England, after completing his education, spent several years in London and learned the printing trade. After returning home in the 1870s, he designed a woodblock type for Sylheti Nagri and founded the Islamia Press in Sylhet town. Other Sylheti presses were established in Sunamganj, Shillong and Kolkata such as the Sarada Press and Calcutta's General Printing Press. The manuscripts were of prosaic quality, but poetry was also abundant.
The script in prior times was used in Srihatta. With the advent of printing the script now has spread to all of the Srihatta district, Kachar, Tripura, Noakhali, Chittagong, Mymensingh and to Dhaka, that is, to the Muslims of the entire region of Bengal east of Padma.
The script is thought to have spread to Chittagong and Barisal via river.
The Sylheti Nagri script was written in the Dobhashi dialect of the Bengali language. Like the rest of Muslim Bengal, Bengali Muslim poetry was written in a colloquial dialect of Bengali which came to be known as Dobhashi, and has had a major influence on the current Sylheti dialect. Manuscripts have been found of works such as Rag Namah by Fazil Nasim Muhammad, Shonabhaner Puthi by Abdul Karim and the earliest known work Talib Husan (1549) by Ghulam Husan.
The Munshi Sadeq Ali is considered to have been the greatest and most popular writer of the script. The script has also been used in the daily lives of the inhabitants of Sylhet apart from using in religious literature. Letters, receipts, and even official records has been written using this script. Apart from renowned literary works such as Halat-un-Nabi, Jongonama, Mahabbatnama or Noor Noshihot, it has been used to write medicine and magical manuscripts, as well as Poems of the Second World War. The script, never having been a part of any formal education, reached the common people with seeming ease.
Many Sylheti Nagri presses fell out of use during the Bangladeshi Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, including Islamia Press in Sylhet town which was destroyed by a fire. Since then, the script has been used mainly by linguists and academics. It gradually became very unpopular. In the 18th century, Munshi Ashraf Hussain, a researcher of Bengali folk literature, contributed immensely to Sylheti Nagari research. Fakharuddin Chowdhury of the Assam-based Vision Prototype launched a tutorial app to learn the script titled Sylheti Nagri. In the 2010s, Md. Salik Ahmed, Md. Nizam Uddin and Md. Mamunur Rasid translated the last juz' of the Qur'an into the Sylheti language for the first time using both the Eastern Nagari and Sylheti Nagri scripts.
Fonts and keyboards
In 1997, Sue Lloyd-Williams of STAR produced the first computer font for script. The New Surma is a proprietary font. Noto fonts provides an open source font for the script. Syloti Nagri was added to the Unicode Standard in March 2005 with the release of version 4.1, and is available on Apple devices. Other fonts include Mukter Ahmed's Fonty 18.ttf, developed from manuscripts to include traditional Sylheti numbers. As a routine project of the Metropolitan University, Sylhet, Sabbir Ahmed Shawon and Muhammad Nurul Islam (under the name CapsuleStudio) developed and launched the Syloti Nagri Keyboard, also for Google Play, on 9 December 2017. Different keyboards and fonts are available now:
- Syloti Nagri Notes, by the UK-based Sureware Ltd on Google Play.
- Multiling O Keyboard, with additional app Sylheti Keyboard plugin by Honso, on Google Play.
- Google's GBoard has also made Sylheti (Syloti Nagri) available as an input from April 2019.
The Sylheti Nagri script can be divided into vowels and vowel diacritics/marks, consonants and consonant conjuncts, diacritical and punctuation marks. Vowels & consonants are used as alphabet and also as diacritical marks. The script is characterised by its simplistic glyph, with fewer letters than Bengali. The total number of letters is 32; there are 5 vowels and 28 consonants.
The widely accepted number of vowels is 5, although some texts show additional vowels. For example, the diphthong ôi has sometimes been regarded as an additional vowel. The vowels don't follow the sequence of Bengali alphabet. The vowels also have their own respective diacritics known as "horkot".
- "ꠅ" /ɔ/ sounds as the default inherent vowel for the entire script.
- When a vowel sound occurs syllable-initially or when it follows another vowel, it is written using a distinct letter. When a vowel sound follows a consonant (or a consonant cluster), it is written with a diacritic which, depending on the vowel, can appear above, below, before or after the consonant. These vowel marks cannot appear without a consonant and are called horkot.
- An exception to the above system is the vowel /ɔ/, which has no vowel mark but is considered inherent in every consonant letter. To denote the absence of the inherent vowel [ɔ] following a consonant, a diacritic called the oshonto (꠆) may be written underneath the consonant.
- Although there is only one diphthong in the inventory of the script: "ꠂ" oi /oi/, its phonetic system has, in fact, many diphthongs. Most diphthongs are represented by juxtaposing the graphemes of their forming vowels, as in ꠇꠦꠃ /xeu/.
|Letter||Diacritic||Transliteration 1||Transliteration 2||IPA|
There are 27 consonants. The names of the letters are typically just the consonant sound plus the inherent vowel "ꠅ" /ɔ/. Since the inherent vowel is assumed and not written, most letters' names look identical to the letter itself (the name of the letter ꠊ is itself ghô, not gh).
There is a difference in the pronunciation of ꠠ ṛo with that of ꠞ. Yet in ordinary speech these letters are pronounced the same as ꠞ in modern Sylheti.
|Letter||Transliteration 1||Transliteration 2||IPA||Note|
|ꠇ||xo||kô||/xɔ/||Like the k in "kite". Pronounced and transliterated respectively as /k/ and k before and after /i/, /u/ and /k/.|
|ꠈ||xó||khô||/xɔ́/||Like the ch in Scottish "loch". Pronounced and transliterated respectively as /kh/ and kh before and after /i/, /u/ and /k/.|
|ꠉ||go||gô||/gɔ/||Like the g in "garage".|
|ꠊ||gó||ghô||/gɔ́/||Like the ghayn in the Arabic language.|
|ꠌ||cho||cô||/sɔ/||Like the ch in "chat".|
|ꠍ||só||sô||/sɔ́/||Like the s in "super".|
|ꠎ||jo||jô||/zɔ~jɔ/||Like the j in "jump".|
|ꠏ||zó||zhô||/jɔ́~zɔ́/||Like the z in "zoo".|
|ꠐ||ṭo||ṭô||/ʈɔ/||Like the t in "taxi".|
|ꠑ||ṭó||ṭhô||/ʈɔ́/||Like the t in "tower".|
|ꠒ||ḍo||ḍô||/ɖɔ/||Like the d in "doll".|
|ꠓ||ḍó||ḍhô||/ɖɔ́/||Like the d in "adhere".|
|ꠔ||to||tô||/t̪ɔ/||Like the t in "soviet'".|
|ꠕ||tó||thô||/t̪ɔ́/||Like the th in "theatre".|
|ꠖ||do||dô||/d̪ɔ/||Like the th in "the".|
|ꠗ||dó||dhô||/d̪ɔ́/||Like the th in "within"|
|ꠘ||no||nô||/nɔ/||Like the n in "net".|
|ꠙ||po||pô||/ɸɔ/||Like the p in "professor".|
|ꠚ||fó||phô||/fɔ́/||Like the f in "food".|
|ꠛ||bo||bô||/bɔ/||Like the b in "big".|
|ꠜ||vó||bhô||/bɔ́/||Like the b in "abhor".|
|ꠝ||mo||mô||/mɔ/||Like the m in "moon".|
|ꠞ||ro||rô||/ɾɔ/||Like the r in "rose".|
|ꠟ||lo||lô||/lɔ/||Like the l in "luck".|
|ꠡ||sho||shô||/ʃɔ/||Like the sh in "shoe".|
|ꠢ||ho||hô||/ɦɔ/||Like the h in "head".|
|ꠠ||ṛo||ṛô||/ɽɔ/||Like the r sound in "hurry".|
|꠆||–||–||This is called an "oshonto" and used to cancel the inherent vowel of a consonant letter.|
|ꠋ||ngô||/ŋɔ/||This is sometimes called "umo" and pronounced as "ng".|
|꠨||–||–||Poetry mark 1|
|꠩||–||–||Poetry mark 2|
|꠪||–||–||Poetry mark 3|
|꠫||–||–||Poetry mark 4|
Sylheti in Sylheti Nagari script
- ꠗꠣꠞꠣ ১: ꠢꠇꠟ ꠝꠣꠘꠥꠡ ꠡꠣꠗꠤꠘꠜꠣꠛꠦ ꠢꠝꠣꠘ ꠁꠎ꠆ꠎꠔ ꠀꠞ ꠢꠇ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠙꠄꠖꠣ ‘ꠅꠄ। ꠔꠣꠁꠘꠔꠣꠁꠘꠞ ꠛꠤꠛꠦꠇ ꠀꠞ ꠀꠇꠟ ꠀꠍꠦ। ꠅꠔꠣꠞ ꠟꠣꠉꠤ ꠢꠇꠟꠞ ꠄꠇꠎꠘꠦ ꠀꠞꠇꠎꠘꠞ ꠟꠉꠦ ꠛꠤꠞꠣꠖꠞꠤꠞ ꠝꠘ ꠟꠁꠀ ꠀꠌꠞꠘ ꠇꠞꠣ ꠃꠌꠤꠔ।
Sylheti in phonetic Romanization
- Dara ex: Hoxol manuṣ ṣadínbábe homan ijjot ar hox loia foeda óe. Taintainor bibex ar axol asé. Otar lagi hoxlor exzone aroxzonor loge biradorir mon loia asoron xora usit.
Sylheti in IPA
- /d̪aɾa ex | ɦɔxɔl manuʃ ʃad̪ínbábɛ ɦɔman id͡ʑd͡ʑɔt̪ aɾ ɦɔx lɔia fɔe̯d̪a ɔ́e̯ ‖ t̪aɪnt̪aɪnɔɾ bibex aɾ axɔl asé ‖ ɔt̪aɾ lagi ɦɔxlɔɾ ɛxzɔne arɔxzɔnɔɾ lɔgɛ birad̪ɔɾiɾ mɔn lɔia asɔɾɔn xɔɾa usit̪ ‖/
- Clause 1: All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence exist; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards biradri attitude taken conduct do should.
- Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Syloti Nagri was added to the Unicode Standard in March 2005 with the release of version 4.1.
The Unicode block for Syloti Nagri, is U+A800–U+A82F:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
- List of works written in Sylheti Nagri
- Ashraf Hussain, researcher of the script
- Sadeq Ali, popular writer of the script
- History of Sylhet
- Sylhet region
- "ISO 15924 - Alphabetical Code List". unicode.org. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
- Siloṭi Nagri . Sylheti.org.uk. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
- Constable, Peter; Lloyd-Williams, James; Lloyd-Williams, Sue; Chowdhury, Shamsul Islam; Ali, Asaddar; Sadique, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Matiar Rahman (1 November 2002). "Proposal for Encoding Syloti Nagri Script in the BMP" (PDF).
- "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- Islam, Muhammad Ashraful (2012). "Sylheti Nagri". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- "শ্রীহট্টে নাগরী সাহিত্য (জন্মকথা)", এম. আশরাফ হোসেন সাহিত্যরত্ন; শ্রীহট্ট সাহিত্য-পরিষৎ-পত্রিকা, ১ম বর্ষ ৩য় সংখ্যা; ১৩৪৩ বঙ্গাব্দ; পৃষ্ঠা ৯৮। উদ্ধৃতি: "সহজ ও সুন্দর বলিয়া জনসাধারণ ইহার অপর এক নাম দিয়াছিলেন সিলেটে 'ফুল নাগরী'।"
- Achyut Charan Choudhury. "Srihatter Musalmani Nagrakkar". Srihatter Itibritta Purbangsha.
- Sadiq, Mohammad (2008). Sileṭi nāgarī : phakiri dhārāra phasala সিলেটি নাগরী:ফকিরি ধারার ফসল (in Bengali). Asiatic Society of Bengal. OCLC 495614347.
- Ali, Syed Murtaza (2003) [First published 1965]. Hajarata Śāh Jālāla o Sileṭera itihāsa হজরত শাহ্ জালাল ও সিলেটের ইতিহাস (in Bengali). Utsho Prokashon. p. 148. ISBN 984-889-000-9.
- "শ্রীহট্ট-নাগরী লিপির উৎপত্তি ও বিকাশ", আহমদ হাসান দানী; বাঙলা একাডেমী পত্রিকা, প্রথম বর্ষ, দ্বিতীয় সংখ্যা, ভাদ্র-অগ্রহায়ণ, ১৩৬৪ বঙ্গাব্দ; পৃষ্ঠা ১।
- "সিলেট নাগরী", শ্রী পদ্মনাথ দেবশর্ম্মা; সাহিত্য-পরিষৎ-পত্রিকা, ৪র্থ সংখ্যা; ১৩১৫ বঙ্গাব্দ, পৃষ্ঠা ২৩৬।
- "Sylheti language and the Syloti-Nagri alphabet". www.omniglot.com.
- "Sylheti unicode chart" (PDF).
- Saleem, Mustafa (1 September 2018). নাগরীলিপিতে সাহিত্য প্রয়াস (in Bengali). Prothom Alo.
- "Sylheti Nagri - Apps on Google Play". Google Play.
- "SYLOTI BOOKS DESCRIPTION". Syloti Language Center.
- "Unicode Data-4.1.0". Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- "Syloti Nagri Keyboard". Google Play.
- "Syloti Nagri Notes".
- "Sylheti Keyboard plugin". Google Play.
- Wang, Jules (18 April 2019). "Gboard updated with 63 new languages, including IPA". Android Police. Retrieved 15 January 2020.