Sylvatic cycle

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The sylvatic cycle, also enzootic or sylvatic transmission cycle, is a portion of the natural transmission cycle of a pathogen. Sylvatic refers to the occurrence of a subject in or affecting wild animals. The sylvatic cycle is the fraction of the pathogen population's lifespan spent cycling between wild animals and vectors. Humans are usually an incidental or dead-end host, infected by a vector. This is opposed to a "domestic" or "urban" cycle, in which the pathogen cycles between vectors and non-wild, urban, or domestic animals; humans may have differing infection rates from these cycles due to transmission efficiencies and environmental exposure levels.[1][2]

Examples of pathogens that contain a sylvatic cycle include trichinosis,[3] dengue viruses,[4] Yersinia pestis,[2] and Chagas disease.[1][5]

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  1. ^ a b Fernandes O, Mangia RH, Lisboa CV, et al. (1999). "The complexity of the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil) revealed by the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon gene". Parasitology. 118 (2): 161–6. doi:10.1017/s0031182098003709. PMID 10028530.
  2. ^ a b Plague: Yersinia pestis Archived 2008-01-13 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Schmitt N, Saville JM, Greenway JA, Stovell PL, Friis L, Hole L (1978). "Sylvatic trichinosis in British Columbia: potential threat to human health from an independent cycle". Public Health Rep. 93 (2): 189–93. PMC 1431877. PMID 635095.
  4. ^ Vasilakis N, Holmes EC, Fokam EB, et al. (2007). "Evolutionary processes among sylvatic dengue type 2 viruses". J. Virol. 81 (17): 9591–5. doi:10.1128/JVI.02776-06. PMC 1951459. PMID 17553878.
  5. ^ Epidemiology of Chagas disease