Earle with a Lego figure in her likeness, 2012
August 30, 1935 |
Gibbstown, New Jersey, U.S.
|Institutions||NOAA, National Geographic|
|Alma mater||Florida State University
|Notable awards||TED Prize, National Women's Hall of Fame|
Sylvia Alice Earle (born August 30, 1935) is an American marine biologist, explorer, author, and lecturer. Since 1998 she has been a National Geographic explorer-in-residence. Earle was the first female chief scientist of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and was named by Time Magazine as its first Hero for the Planet in 1998.
Early life and education
Born in 1935 in the Gibbstown section of Greenwich Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, Earle received an associate degree from St. Petersburg Jr. College, a bachelor of science degree from Florida State University (1955), and a master of science (1956) and doctorate of phycology (1966) from Duke University.
Earle was the Curator of Phycology at the California Academy of Sciences (1979–1986) and a research associate at the University of California, Berkeley (1969–1981), Radcliffe Institute Scholar (1967–1969) and research fellow or associate at Harvard University (1967–1981).
After receiving her Ph.D. in 1966, Earle spent a year as a research fellow at Harvard, then returned to Florida as the resident director of the Cape Haze Marine Laboratory. In 1969, she applied to join the Tektite Project, an installation fifty feet below the surface of the sea off the coast of the Virgin Islands that allowed scientists to live submersed in their area of study for up to several weeks. Although she had logged more than 1,000 research hours underwater, Earle was rejected from the program. The next year, she was selected to lead the first all-female team of aquanauts in Tektite II.
In 1979, she made an open-ocean JIM suit dive to the sea floor near Oahu, setting a women's depth record of 381 metres (1,250 ft). In 1979 she also began her tenure as the Curator of Phycology at the California Academy of Sciences, where she served until 1986.
From 1980 to 1984 she served on the National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere.
In 1982 she and her husband, Graham Hawkes, an engineer and submersible designer, founded Deep Ocean Engineering to design, operate, support and consult on piloted and robotic subsea systems. In 1985, the Deep Ocean Engineering team designed and built the Deep Rover research submarine, which operates down to 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). By 1986, Deep Rover had been tested, and Earle joined the team conducting training off Lee Stocking Island in the Bahamas.
She left the company in 1990 to accept an appointment as Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, where she stayed until 1992. She was the first woman to hold that position. In 1992 she founded Deep Ocean Exploration and Research (DOER Marine) to further advance marine engineering. The company, now run by her daughter, Elizabeth, designs, builds and operates equipment for deep-ocean environments.
From 1998 to 2002 she led the Sustainable Seas Expeditions, a five-year program to study the United States National Marine Sanctuary sponsored by the National Geographic Society and funded by the Goldman Foundation. She was a leader of the Sustainable Seas Expeditions, council chair for the Harte Research Institute for the Gulf of Mexico Studies at Texas A&M-Corpus Christi, and chair of the Advisory Council for the Ocean in Google Earth. She also provided the DeepWorker 2000 submersible used to quantify the species of fish as well as the space resources utilized within the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary.
Earle has written children's books, including Coral Reefs, Hello Fish, Sea Critters and Dive!
Earle has founded three companies, among them DOER Marine (Deep Ocean Exploration and Research) in Alameda, California. In 2009, Earle won a TED Prize. With TED's support, she launched Mission Blue, which aims to establish marine protected areas (dubbed "hope spots") around the globe.
Accomplishments and honors
1970: Earle was awarded the U.S. Department of Interior Conservation Service Award and was named Los Angeles Times Woman of the Year.
1986: Earle tied the world solo dive depth record in a sub (and setting the record for a woman), going 1000 m in Deep Ocean Engineering's "Deep Rover", tying the record set by her then husband Graham Hawkes.
1991: An expert on the impact of oil spills, Earle was called upon to lead several research trips during the Persian Gulf War in 1991 to determine environmental damage caused by Iraq's destruction of Kuwaiti oil wells. She also received the American Academy of Achievement Golden Plate Award that year.
In 2005 Earle received the John P. McGovern Science and Society Award from Sigma Xi.
When Earle won the TED Prize in 2009, she gave a TED Talk in which she made a wish: "I wish you would use all means at your disposal — films! expeditions! the web! new submarines! — to create a campaign to ignite public support for a global network of marine protected areas, Hope Spots large enough to save and restore the blue heart of the planet." This wish launched Mission Blue, Earle's initiative to create public awareness, access and support for marine protected areas worldwide. That year, Earle also received the Artiglio Award (Premio Artiglio 2009).
Earle founded Mission Blue (also known as the Sylvia Earle Alliance, Deep Search Foundation, and Deep Search), a non-profit foundation for protecting and exploring the Earth's ocean. In addition, she serves on several boards, including Marine Conservation Institute.
At The Hague International Model United Nations Conference, Earle gave a 14-minute speech in front of 3,500 delegates and United Nations ambassadors. In July 2012, Earle led an expedition to NOAA's Aquarius underwater laboratory, located off Key Largo, Florida. The expedition, entitled "Celebrating 50 Years of Living Beneath The Sea," commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of Jacques Cousteau's Conshelf I project and investigated coral reefs and ocean health. Mark Patterson co-led the expedition with Earle. Their aquanaut team also included underwater filmmaker D.J. Roller and oceanographer M. Dale Stokes.
In May 2013, the Science Laureates of the United States Act of 2013 (H.R. 1891; 113th Congress) was introduced into Congress. Sylvia Earle was listed by one commentator as a possible nominee for the position of Science Laureate, if the act were to pass. In June 2013 Earle was awarded the Hubbard Medal, the National Geographic Society's highest honor, "for distinction in exploration, discovery and research."
Earle was recognized for her lifetime achievements throughout 2014, receiving the 2014 Walter Cronkite Award, and a UN Champions of the Earth Award and becoming a Glamour Woman of the Year. Earle was also the first woman to be celebrated at an Explorers Club Tribute Ceremony.
“I wish you would use all means at your disposal – films! expeditions! the web! more! — to ignite public support for a global network of marine protected areas, hope spots large enough to save and restore the ocean, the blue heart of the planet.” – Sylvia Earle
With Mission Blue and its partners, Earle leads expeditions to Hope Spots around the globe. Past expeditions include Cuba in 2009, Belize in January 2010, the Galápagos Islands in April 2010, Costa Rica and the Central American Dome in early 2014 and the South African Coast in late 2014.
As of January 2015, there were 50 official Hope Spots around the world.
In August 2014, a Netflix exclusive documentary titled 'Mission Blue' was released. It focuses on Earle's life and career as well as her Mission Blue campaign to create a global network of marine protected areas.
Earle has authored over 150 publications; a selection is listed here.
- Earle, Sylvia and Al Giddings (1980). Exploring the Deep Frontier: The Adventure of Man in the Sea. National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-87044-343-7.
- Earle, Sylvia (1996). Sea Change: A Message of the Oceans. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-449-91065-2.
- Earle, Sylvia (1999). Dive: My Adventure in the Deep Frontier. National Geographic Children's Books. ISBN 0-7922-7144-0.
- Earle, Sylvia (1999). Wild Ocean: America's Parks Under the Sea. National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-7922-7471-7.
- Earle, Sylvia (2000). Sea Critters. National Geographic Children's Books. ISBN 0-439-28575-5.
- Ellen, Prager and Earle, Sylvia (2000). The Oceans. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138177-5.
- Earle, Sylvia (2001). Hello, Fish!: Visiting the Coral Reef. National Geographic Children's Books. ISBN 0-7922-6697-8.
- Earle, Sylvia (2001). National Geographic Atlas of the Ocean: The Deep Frontier. National Geographic. ISBN 0-7922-6426-6.
- Earle, Sylvia (2003). Jump into Science: Coral Reefs. National Geographic Children's Books. ISBN 0-7922-6953-5.
- Earle, Sylvia and Linda K. Glover (2008). Ocean: An Illustrated Atlas (National Geographic Atlas). National Geographic. ISBN 1-4262-0319-5.
- Earle, Sylvia (2009). The World Is Blue: How Our Fate and the Ocean's Are One. National Geographic Books. ISBN 1-4262-0541-4.
- Co-author (2011). The Protection and Management of the Sargasso Sea: The golden floating rainforest of the Atlantic Ocean. Summary Science and Supporting Evidence Case. Sargasso Sea Alliance.
- Earle, Sylvia (2012). The Sweet Spot in Time. Why the Ocean Matters to Everyone, Everywhere. Virginia Quarterly Review, Fall.
- Rosenblatt, Roger (October 5, 1998). "Sylvia Earle: Call Of The Sea". Time. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
- "Sylvia Earle, Oceanographer Information, Facts, News, Photos". National Geographic. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- "Sylvia A. Earle, Ph.D.". Academy of Underwater Arts and Sciences. Retrieved March 18, 2014.
- Collette, BB (1996). "Results of the Tektite Program: Ecology of coral-reef fishes.". In: MA Lang, CC Baldwin (Eds.) The Diving for Science…1996, "Methods and Techniques of Underwater Research" Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences Sixteenth Annual Scientific Diving Symposium, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- Kesling, Douglas E (2011). "Atmospheric Diving Suits – New Technology May Provide ADS Systems that are Practical and Cost-Effective Tools for Conducting Safe Scientific Diving, Exploration, and Undersea Research". In: Pollock NW, ed. Diving for Science 2011. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences 30th Symposium. Dauphin Island, AL: AAUS. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- New York Times, "SCIENTIST AT WORK: Graham Hawkes; Racing to the Bottom Of the Deep, Black Sea", William J. Broad, 1993 August 3 (accessed 30 Juli 2012)
- English, JG (1987). "DEEP ROVER submersible operations for science". In: Lang, MA (ed). Coldwater Diving for Science…1987. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences annual scientific diving symposium 31 October – 1 November 1987 Seattle, Washington, USA. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- Griffin, James J; Sharkey, Phillip I (1987). "Design of the next generation of research vessels". In: Lang, MA (ed). Coldwater Diving for Science…1987. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences annual scientific diving symposium 31 October – 1 November 1987 Seattle, Washington, USA. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- "About DOER Marine". DOER Marine. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
- White, Wallace. "Her Deepness". http://www.newyorker.com. The New Yorker. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Auster, Peter J; Lindholm, James (2005). "The Ecology of Fishes on Deep Boulder Reefs in the Western Gulf of Maine (NW Atlantic).". In: Godfrey, JM; Shumway, SE. Diving For Science 2005. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences Symposium on March 10–12, 2005 at the University of Connecticut at Avery Point, Groton, Connecticut. (American Academy of Underwater Sciences). Retrieved 2013-04-14.
- Earle (2009)
- "2009 Winners". Retrieved December 16, 2011.
- "Sylvia Earle". TED Prize. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- "Sylvia Earle". literati.net. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Sylvia Earle, Oceanographer". National Geographic Society. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
- Burnaby Mail, "Her Deepness drops in and warns of growing threat to the oceans", Deborah Smith, 2011 November 23 (accessed March 25, 2012)
- "Past Gold Medal Recipients". www.iswg.org. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Sylvia Earle Biography". www.achievement.org. Academy of Achievement. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Sylvia Earle". www.lindberghfoundation.org. Lindbergh Foundation. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Bal de la Mer". www.seakeepers.org. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "1998". www.global500.org. Global 500. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Sylvia Earle's Excellent Adventure". www.nwf.org. National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Sylvia A. Earle – National Women's Hall of Fame". Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- "2004 Award Winners & Finalists". www.banksiafdn.com. Banksia Foundation. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Past Speakers and Medalists". barnard.edu. Barnard College. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Sylvia A. Earle". www.sigmaxi.org. Sigma Xi. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Mission Blue – Sylvia Earle". ted.com. TED. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Edizioni Premio Artiglio". www.artiglio.org. Artiglio. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "About Mission Blue". www.missionblue.org. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Marine Conservation Institute
- "Sylvia Earle to be 2011 commencement speaker". Retrieved May 15, 2011.
- "Celebrating 50 Years of Living Beneath The Sea". University of North Carolina Wilmington. 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Rosser, Saul (July 2012). "A Personal Perspective on 50 Years of Living Beneath the Sea". National Undersea Research Center. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- This Week in Comics: What To Read Daily Ink Retrieved September 18, 2012
- "Ocean record-breaker to visit NMMU". Port Elizabeth Herald. April 12, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-17.
- Marlow, Jeffrey (May 9, 2013). "The Science Laureate of the United States". Wired Magazine. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "In Her Words". nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Shaw, Martha. "Sylvia Earle and Sam Low Win Cronkite Award as Mission Blue Debuts on Martha’s Vineyard". ecowatch.com. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "2014 Laureates". www.unep.org. UNEP. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Sylvia Earle". www.glamour.com. Glamour. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "The Tribute Ceremony in Honor of Sylvia Earle". explorers.org. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Mission Blue Expeditions". www.missionblue.org. Sylvia Earle Alliance. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Mission Blue Expeditions > Cuba". www.missionblue.org. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Mission Blue Expeditions > Belize". www.missionblue.org. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "The Mission Blue Voyage". TED. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
- "Mission Blue Expeditions > Costa Rica". www.missionblue.org. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Garling, Brett. "South Africans Unite Around Hope Spots". voices.nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Mission Blue Hope Spots". www.missionblue.org. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Mission Blue film". www.missionblue.org. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- "Mission Blue". imdb.com. IMDb. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sylvia Earle.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Sylvia Earle|
- Mission Blue
- National Geographic Profile
- DOER Marine
- Sylvia Earle on Literati.net
- Get to Know a Frog, or a Worm, or a Fish Says Sylvia Earle, at SeniorWomenWeb
- Sylvia Earle at TED
- Lee, Jane J. (June 14, 2013). "In Her Words: Sylvia Earle on Women in Science – News Watch (video)". National Geographic.
- on YouTube
- on YouTube