Symphonie fantastique

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Symphonie fantastique: Épisode de la vie d'un artiste ... en cinq parties (Fantastical Symphony: An Episode in the Life of an Artist, in Five Parts) Op. 14, is a program symphony written by the French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. It is an important piece of the early Romantic period. The first performance was at the Paris Conservatoire in December 1830. Franz Liszt made a piano transcription of the symphony in 1833 (S. 470).[1]

Leonard Bernstein described the symphony as the first musical expedition into psychedelia because of its hallucinatory and dream-like nature, and because history suggests Berlioz composed at least a portion of it under the influence of opium. According to Bernstein, "Berlioz tells it like it is. You take a trip, you wind up screaming at your own funeral." [2][3]

In 1831, Berlioz wrote a lesser known sequel to the work, Lélio, for actor, orchestra and chorus.

Instrumentation[edit]

The score calls for a total of over 90 instruments:

Woodwinds
2 flutes (one doubling piccolo)
2 oboes (one doubling cor anglais) (in movement 3, the first oboist plays briefly offstage)
2 clarinets (one doubling E clarinet)
4 bassoons
Brass
4 horns
2 cornets
2 trumpets
3 trombones
2 ophicleides (modern performances have tubas playing these parts)
Percussion
2 timpani
cymbals
snare drum (used in 4th movement)
bass drum
bells in C and G
Strings
2 harps (used in movement 2)
Violins I, II
Violas
Celli
Double basses

Berlioz specified at least 15 1st violins, 15 2nd violins, 10 violas, 11 celli and 9 basses on the score.

Outline[edit]

The symphony is a piece of program music that tells the story of an artist gifted with a lively imagination who has poisoned himself with opium in the depths of despair because of hopeless, unrequited love. Berlioz provided his own preface and program notes for each movement of the work. They exist in two principal versions – one from 1845 in the first score of the work and the second from 1855.[4] From the revised preface and notes, it can be seen how Berlioz, later in his life, downplayed the programmatic aspect of the work.

In the first score from 1845, he writes:[4]

The composer's intention has been to develop various episodes in the life of an artist, in so far as they lend themselves to musical treatment. As the work cannot rely on the assistance of speech, the plan of the instrumental drama needs to be set out in advance. The following programme must therefore be considered as the spoken text of an opera, which serves to introduce musical movements and to motivate their character and expression.

In the 1855 preface, a different outlook towards the work's programmatic undertones is established by Berlioz:[4]

The following programme should be distributed to the audience every time the Symphonie fantastique is performed dramatically and thus followed by the monodrama of Lélio which concludes and completes the episode in the life of an artist. In this case the invisible orchestra is placed on the stage of a theatre behind the lowered curtain. If the symphony is performed on its own as a concert piece this arrangement is no longer necessary: one may even dispense with distributing the programme and keep only the title of the five movements. The author hopes that the symphony provides on its own sufficient musical interest independently of any dramatic intention.

There are five movements instead of four that were conventional for symphonies at the time:

  1. Rêveries – Passions (Reveries – Passions)
  2. Un bal (A Ball)
  3. Scène aux champs (Scene in the Fields)
  4. Marche au supplice (March to the Scaffold)
  5. Songe d'une nuit du sabbat (Dream of the Night of the Sabbath)

First movement: "Rêveries – Passions" (Reveries – Passions)[edit]

"Rêveries – Passions"

In program notes from 1845, the composer writes:[4]

The author imagines that a young musician, afflicted by the sickness of spirit which a famous writer has called the vagueness of passions (le vague des passions), sees for the first time a woman who unites all the charms of the ideal person his imagination was dreaming of, and falls desperately in love with her. By a strange anomaly, the beloved image never presents itself to the artist's mind without being associated with a musical idea, in which he recognizes a certain quality of passion, but endowed with the nobility and shyness which he credits to the object of his love.

This melodic image and its model keep haunting him ceaselessly like a double idée fixe. This explains the constant recurrence in all the movements of the symphony of the melody which launches the first allegro. The transitions from this state of dreamy melancholy, interrupted by occasional upsurges of aimless joy, to delirious passion, with its outbursts of fury and jealousy, its returns of tenderness, its tears, its religious consolations – all this forms the subject of the first movement.

Berlioz writes in the program notes from 1855:[4]

He remembers first the uneasiness of spirit, the indefinable passion, the melancholy, the aimless joys he felt even before seeing his beloved; then the explosive love she suddenly inspired in him, his delirious anguish, his fits of jealous fury, his returns of tenderness, his religious consolations.

The first movement is radical in its harmonic outline, building a vast arch back to the home key; while similar to the sonata form of the classical period, Parisian critics regarded this as unconventional. It is here that the listener is introduced to the theme of the artist's beloved, or the idée fixe. Throughout the movement there is a simplicity in the way melodies and themes are presented, which Robert Schumann likened to Beethoven's epigrams' ideas that could be extended had the composer chosen to. In part, it is because Berlioz rejected writing the more symmetrical melodies then in academic fashion, and instead looked for melodies that were "so intense in every note as to defy normal harmonization", as Schumann put it. The theme itself was taken from Berlioz's scène lyrique "Herminie", composed in 1828.[5]

Second movement: "Un bal" (A Ball)[edit]

"Un bal"

In the first edition of the score from 1845, he writes:[4]

The artist finds himself in the most diverse situations in life, in the tumult of a festive party, in the peaceful contemplation of the beautiful sights of nature, yet everywhere, whether in town or in the countryside, the beloved image keeps haunting him and throws his spirit into confusion.

The revised program notes from 1855 state:[4]

He meets again his beloved in a ball during a glittering fête.

The second movement has a mysterious-sounding introduction that creates an atmosphere of impending excitement, followed by a passage dominated by two harps; then the flowing waltz theme appears, derived from the idée fixe at first,[6] then transforming it. More formal statements of the idée fixe twice interrupt the waltz.

The movement is the only one to feature the two harps, providing the glamour and sensual richness of the ball, and may also symbolize the object of the young man's affection. Berlioz wrote extensively in his memoirs of his trials and tribulations in having this symphony performed, due to a lack of capable harpists and harps, especially in Germany.

Another feature of this movement is that Berlioz added a part for solo cornet to his autograph score, although it was not included in the score published in his lifetime. The work has most often been played and recorded without the solo cornet part.[7] Conductors Jean Martinon, Colin Davis, Otto Klemperer, Gustavo Dudamel and Leonard Slatkin have employed this part for cornet in performances of the symphony.

Third movement: "Scène aux champs" (Scene in the Fields)[edit]

"Scène aux champs"

Berlioz's program notes from the first score:[4]

One evening in the countryside he hears two shepherds in the distance dialoguing with their ranz des vaches; this pastoral duet, the setting, the gentle rustling of the trees in the wind, some causes for hope that he has recently conceived, all conspire to restore to his heart an unaccustomed feeling of calm and to give to his thoughts a happier colouring. He broods on his loneliness, and hopes that soon he will no longer be on his own... But what if she betrayed him!... This mingled hope and fear, these ideas of happiness, disturbed by dark premonitions, form the subject of the adagio. At the end one of the shepherds resumes his ranz des vaches; the other one no longer answers. Distant sound of thunder... solitude... silence.

In the 1855 program notes, Berlioz writes:[4]

One summer evening in the countryside he hears two shepherds dialoguing with their ranz des vaches; this pastoral duet, the setting, the gentle rustling of the trees in the light wind, some causes for hope that he has recently conceived, all conspire to restore to his heart an unaccustomed feeling of calm and to give to his thoughts a happier colouring; but she reappears, he feels a pang of anguish, and painful thoughts disturb him: what if she betrayed him... One of the shepherds resumes his simple melody, the other one no longer answers. The sun sets... distant sound of thunder... solitude... silence...

The two "shepherds" Berlioz mentions in the notes are depicted with a cor anglais and an offstage oboe tossing an evocative melody back and forth. After the cor anglais–oboe conversation, the principal theme of the movement appears on solo flute and violins. Berlioz salvaged this theme from his abandoned Messe solennelle.[5] The idée fixe returns in the middle of the movement, played by oboe and flute.[8] The sound of distant thunder at the end of the movement is a striking passage for four timpani.[5]

Fourth movement: "Marche au supplice" (March to the Scaffold)[edit]

"Marche au supplice"

From Berlioz's program notes in 1845:[4]

Convinced that his love is spurned, the artist poisons himself with opium. The dose of narcotic, while too weak to cause his death, plunges him into a heavy sleep accompanied by the strangest of visions. He dreams that he has killed his beloved, that he is condemned, led to the scaffold and is witnessing his own execution. The procession advances to the sound of a march that is sometimes sombre and wild, and sometimes brilliant and solemn, in which a dull sound of heavy footsteps follows without transition the loudest outbursts. At the end of the march, the first four bars of the idée fixe reappear like a final thought of love interrupted by the fatal blow.

Description of the movement by Berlioz in 1855:[4]

He dreams that he has killed his beloved, that he is condemned to death and led to execution. The procession advances to the sound of a march that is sometimes sombre and wild, and sometimes brilliant and solemn, in which a dull sound of heavy footsteps follows without transition the loudest outbursts. At the end, the idée fixe reappears for a moment like a final thought of love interrupted by the fatal blow.

Berlioz claimed to have written the fourth movement in a single night, reconstructing music from an unfinished project – the opera Les francs-juges.[5] The movement begins with timpani sextuplets in thirds, for which he directs: "The first quaver of each half-bar is to be played with two drumsticks, and the other five with the right hand drumsticks". The movement proceeds as a march filled with blaring horns and rushing passages, and scurrying figures that later show up in the last movement. Before the musical depiction of his execution, there is a brief, nostalgic recollection of the idée fixe in a solo clarinet, as though representing the last conscious thought of the soon-to-be-executed man.[9]

Fifth movement: "Songe d'une nuit du sabbat" (Dream of the Night of the Sabbath)[edit]

In both the program notes, Berlioz wrote:[4]

He sees himself at a witches' sabbath, in the midst of a hideous gathering of shades, sorcerers and monsters of every kind who have come together for his funeral. Strange sounds, groans, outbursts of laughter; distant shouts which seem to be answered by more shouts. The beloved melody appears once more, but has now lost its noble and shy character; it is now no more than a vulgar dance tune, trivial and grotesque: it is she who is coming to the sabbath ... Roar of delight at her arrival ... She joins the diabolical orgy ... The funeral knell tolls, burlesque parody of the Dies irae, the dance of the witches. The dance of the witches combined with the Dies irae.

This movement can be divided into sections according to tempo changes:

Idée fixe melody
  • The introduction is Largo, in common time, creating an ominous quality through dynamic variations and instrumental effects, particularly in the strings (tremolos, pizz, sf).
  • At bar 21 the tempo changes to Allegro and the metre to 6/8. The return of the idée fixe as a "vulgar dance tune" is depicted by the C clarinet. This is interrupted by an Allegro Assai section in cut common at bar 29.
  • The idée fixe then returns as a prominent E-flat clarinet solo at bar 40, in 6/8 and Allegro. The E-flat clarinet contributes a sharper, more shrill timbre than the C clarinet.
  • At bar 80, there is one bar of alla breve, with descending crotchets in unison through the entire orchestra. Again in 6/8, this section sees the introduction of tubular bells and fragments of the "witches' round dance".
  • The "Dies irae" begins at bar 127, the motif derived from the 13th-century Latin sequence. It is initially stated in unison between the unusual combination of four bassoons and two tubas.
  • At bar 222, the "witches' round dance" motif is repeatedly stated in the strings, to be interrupted by three syncopated notes in the brass. This leads into the Ronde du Sabbat (Sabbath Round) at bar 241, where the motif is finally expressed in full.
  • The Dies irae et Ronde du Sabbat Ensemble section is at bar 414.

There are a host of effects, including eerie col legno in the strings – the bubbling of the witches' cauldron to the blasts of wind. The climactic finale combines the somber Dies Irae melody with the wild fugue of the Ronde du Sabbat.[10]

Harriet Smithson[edit]

After attending a performance of Shakespeare's Hamlet on 11 September 1827, Berlioz fell in love with the Irish actress Harriet Smithson who had played the role of Ophelia. He sent her numerous love letters, all of which went unanswered. When she left Paris they had still not met. He then wrote the symphony as a way to express his unrequited love. It premiered in Paris on 5 December 1830; Harriet was not present. She eventually heard the work in 1832 and realized his genius. The two finally met, and they were married on 3 October 1833. Their marriage became increasingly bitter, and eventually they separated after several years of unhappiness.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Howard, Leslie (1991). "History of Liszt's Transcription of Symphonie fantastique". Hyperion Records. 
  2. ^ "Leonard Bernstein – Young People's Concerts". leonardbernstein.com. Retrieved 2014-11-30. 
  3. ^ Leonard Bernstein, Young People's Concerts, Amadeus Press (2006)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Translation of Berlioz's program notes to the Symphonie fantastique
  5. ^ a b c d Steinberg, Michael. "The Symphony: A Listener's Guide". pp. 61–66. Oxford University Press, 1995.
  6. ^ "Hector Berlioz – Discussion on Symphonie fantastique". ugcs.caltech.edu. Archived from the original on 2015-11-26. 
  7. ^ The Hector Berlioz Website: Berlioz Music Scores. Retrieved 26 July 2014
  8. ^ Bernstein, Leonard. "Berlioz Takes a Trip": Commentary on Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique
  9. ^ Transcript to "Berlioz Takes a Trip" episode of Leonard Bernstein's Young People's Concerts
  10. ^ Dallas County Community College District (2014). "Analysis of Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique". Course Hero. 
  11. ^ "Hector Berlioz: Mémoires – Chapitre 51". hberlioz.com. Retrieved 2014-11-30. 

External links[edit]