Symphony in D minor (Bruckner)
|Symphony in D minor|
|by Anton Bruckner|
A portrait of Anton Bruckner, c. 1860
|Recorded||1951Henk Spruit, Netherlands Philharmonic Orchestra|
|Date||12 October 1924|
The Symphony in D minor, WAB 100, was composed by Anton Bruckner in 1869 between Symphony No. 1 (1866) and Symphony No. 2 (1872). In 1895 Bruckner declared that this symphony "gilt nicht" (does not count) and he did not assign a number to it. The work was published and premiered in 1924.
- 1 Composition
- 2 Editions
- 3 Analysis
- 4 Selected discography
- 5 References
- 6 Sources
- 7 External links
Bruckner composed this symphony from 24 January to 12 September 1869. It was initially designated Symphony No. 2, while the C minor symphony of 1872 was called Symphony No. 3.
In 1895, when Bruckner reviewed his symphonies in order to have them published, he declared that this symphony "does not count" ("gilt nicht"). He wrote on the front page "annulli(e)rt" (annulled) and replaced the original "Nr. 2" with the symbol "∅".
According to the conductor Georg Tintner, this lack of confidence in the work arose from a question by the puzzled conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, Felix Otto Dessoff, who asked Bruckner, "Where is the main theme?" The symbol "∅" was later interpreted as the numeral zero and the symphony got the nickname Die Nullte ("No. 0"). In the words of David Griegel, "Like many other composers, I believe Bruckner was merely being too self-critical, and the unnumbered symphonies are also works worthy of our enjoyment".
Because of the designation Die Nullte, the biographers Göllerich and Auer felt it was composed before Symphony No. 1. Contrary to this assumption, the autograph score is dated 24 January to 12 September 1869, and no earlier sketch or single folio of this work has been retrieved. The work, which is sometimes referred to as "Symphony in D minor, opus posthumous", but is in English most often called "Symphony No. 0", was premiered in Klosterneuburg on 12 October 1924.
The symphony is available in two editions:
It has four movements.
First movement, Allegro
Second movement, Andante
Third movement, Scherzo: Presto – Trio: Langsamer und ruhiger
Unlike later scherzos, this one has a separate coda for the reprise of the Scherzo.
Fourth movement, Finale: Moderato – Allegro vivace
The movement begins with a slow introduction. The theme in the violins,
is accompanied by semiquavers (i.e. sixteenth notes) in the woodwinds (music that shows up again in the development). This gives way to the main theme of the following allegro-movement,
which does double duty as a third theme. The second theme
The first commercial recording of the symphony was by Fritz Zaun with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra in 1933. It included only the scherzo, in the Wöss edition. The first commercial recording of the complete symphony was by Henk Spruit with the Concert Hall Symphony Orchestra in 1952.
Performances and recordings of the "complete" Bruckner Symphonies often exclude this "nullified" Symphony, most notably excepting the boxed sets of Riccardo Chailly, Eliahu Inbal, Bernard Haitink, Georg Tintner, Gennady Rozhdestvensky, Stanislaw Skrowaczewski and former Chicago Symphony Orchestra conductors Daniel Barenboim and Sir Georg Solti.
- Henk Spruit conducting the Concert Hall Symphony Orchestra, Concert Hall LP CHS 1142, 1952
- This long out-of-print recording has recently been transferred to CD: Klassic Haus CD GSC 010
- Ferdinand Leitner conducting the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, live performance, Orfeo CD 269921, 1960
- Bernard Haitink conducting the Concertgebouw Orchestra, Philips LP PHS900-131, 1966. Later re-issued in the Philips CD box 442 040-2.
- This long out-of-print recording has recently been transferred to CD, together with the historical recording of the Windhaager Messe by Wolfgang Riedelbauch: Klassic Haus KHCD 2012-007
- Daniel Barenboim conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Deutsche Grammophon DG CD 159327, 1979
- Georg Tintner conducting the RTÉ National Symphony Orchestra, Naxos CD 8.554215/6, 1996
- Stanisław Skrowaczewski conducting the Saarbrücken Radio Symphony Orchestra, 1999, Arte Nova CD 74321-75510, 1999
- Tatsuya Shimono conducting the Osaka Philharmonic Orchestra, live recording, November 17 & 18, 2005, Symphony Hall, Osaka, Avex Classics SACD AVCL-25099
- David Griegel, Bruckner Symphony Versions
- C. van Zwol, p. 674
- Georg Tintner, leaflet to CD 8.554215-16
- Hawkshaw, Paul (1983). "The Date of Bruckner's "Nullified" Symphony in D Minor". 19th-Century Music 6 (3): 252–263. doi:10.2307/746590. JSTOR 746590.
- "Anton Bruckner Critical Complete Edition – Symphony in D minor". Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Anonymous. Recording notes for Bruckner: Symphony No. 0 and Motets, SWR Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Sir Neville Mariner.
- Anton Bruckner – Sämtliche Werke, Band XI: Symphonie in d-Moll ("Nullte", 1869), Musikwissenschaftlicher Verlag der Internationalen Bruckner-Gesellschaft, Leopold Nowak (Ed), 1968
- Uwe Harten, Anton Bruckner. Ein Handbuch. Residenz Verlag, Salzburg, 1996. ISBN 3-7017-1030-9.
- Cornelis van Zwol, Anton Bruckner 1824-1896 - Leven en werken, uitg. Thoth, Bussum, Netherlands, 2012. ISBN 978-90-6868-590-9
- Symphony in D minor 'Nullte': Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Symphony in D Minor - Complete discography by John Berky
- William Carragan: Symphony in d minor – Timing analysis
- Bruckner Symphony Versions by David Griegel