Symphony in D minor (Bruckner)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Symphony No. 0 (Bruckner))
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Symphony in D minor
by Anton Bruckner
Bruckner circa 1860.jpg
A portrait of Anton Bruckner, c. 1860
Key D minor
Catalogue WAB 100
Composed 1869 (1869)
Published
Recorded 1951 (1951) Henk Spruit, Netherlands Philharmonic Orchestra
Movements 4
Premiere
Date 12 October 1924 (1924-10-12)
Location Klosterneuburg
Conductor Franz Moissl

The Symphony in D minor, WAB 100, was composed by Anton Bruckner in 1869 between Symphony No. 1 (1866) and Symphony No. 2 (1872). In 1895 Bruckner declared that this symphony "gilt nicht" (does not count) and he did not assign a number to it. The work was published and premiered in 1924.

Composition[edit]

Bruckner composed this symphony from 24 January to 12 September 1869. It was initially designated Symphony No. 2, while the C minor symphony of 1872 was called Symphony No. 3.[1]

According to the conductor Georg Tintner, "How an off-hand remark, when directed at a person lacking any self-confidence, can have such catastrophic consequences! Bruckner, who all his life thought that able musicians (especially those in authority) knew better than he did, was devastated when Otto Dessoff (then the conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra) asked him about the first movement: "But where is the main theme?"[2]

In 1895, when Bruckner reviewed his symphonies in order to have them published, he declared that this symphony "does not count" ("gilt nicht"). He wrote on the front page "annulli(e)rt" (nullified) and replaced the original "Nr. 2" with the symbol "∅".[3]

The symbol "∅" was later interpreted as the numeral zero[4] and the symphony got the nickname Die Nullte ("No. 0"). In the words of David Griegel, "Like many other composers, I believe Bruckner was merely being too self-critical, and the unnumbered symphonies are also works worthy of our enjoyment".[1]

Because of the designation Die Nullte, the biographers Göllerich and Auer felt it was composed before Symphony No. 1. Contrary to this assumption, the autograph score is dated 24 January to 12 September 1869, and no earlier sketch or single folio of this work has been retrieved.[4] The work, which is sometimes referred to as "Symphony in D minor, opus posthumous", but is in English most often called "Symphony No. 0",[4] was premiered in Klosterneuburg on 12 October 1924.

Editions[edit]

The symphony is available in two editions:

Description[edit]

The score calls for a pair each of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, timpani, and strings.

It has four movements:

  • I. Allegro
  • II. Andante
  • III. Scherzo: Presto - Trio: Langsamer und ruhiger
  • IV. Finale: Moderato

First movement[edit]

The work begins with a D minor ostinato in the strings:


{ \new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff \relative a' { \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key d \minor \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo "Allegro" 4 = 100
  r2 \p r4 a16 a16 d,16 d16 | % 2
  a16 a16 d16 d16 f16 f16 e16 e16 d8 r8 r4
  }
\new Staff \relative d { \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key d \minor \clef bass \time 4/4
  <d f>8 \p r8 <a d>8 r8 <f a'>8
  r8 <a d>8 r8 | % 2
  <d f>8 r8 <a d>8 r8 <f a'>8 r8 <a d>8 r8 }
>> }

Leopold Nowak suggested[citation needed] that the answer to Desoff's question is that the principal theme is in the first movement of Symphony No. 3 in D minor, which also begins with an ostinato. The second theme group, starting in A major, features syncopated exchanges between the first violins:


{ \new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff \relative e'' { \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key a \major \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 100 \stemUp
  e2.. \p a8 ~ | % 2
  a8 gis4 fis4 e4 d'8 | % 3
  << { \voiceOne cis4 r4 r2 
        s1 
        cis2 ~ cis8 r8 r4 }
  \new Voice { \voiceTwo cis,2.. fis8 ~ 
         fis8 eis4 \< d4 cis4 b'8\! 
          a4\> r4 r2\! }
>> \oneVoice
  }
\new Staff \relative a { \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key a \major \clef treble \time 4/4
  <a cis e a>8 \p r8 <e' a cis>8
  r8 <d e b'>8 r8 <cis e a>8 r8 | % 2
  <b d e>8 r8 <a d e>8 r8 <gis d' e>8 r8 <b e gis>8 r8 | % 3
  <a e' a>8 r8 <cis fis a>8 r8 <b cis gis'>8 r8 <a cis fis>8 r8 |
  <gis b cis>8 r8 \< <fis a cis>8 r8 <eis gis cis>8 r8 <a cis eis>8 \! r8\> |
  <fis cis' fis>8 r8 \! <cis'' fis a>8 r8 <b cis gis'>8 r8 <a cis fis>8 r8}
>> }

The third theme group is in F major:


{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff \relative e'' {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key f \major \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 120
      <<
        {
          \voiceOne \stemDown c2. \f r4 | % 2
          c2. r4 | % 3
          a'2. r4
        }
        \new Voice {
          \voiceTwo \stemUp f4. ^( g8 a4 ) r4 | % 2
          f4. ^( g8 a4 ) r4 | % 3
          r4 r4 r2
        }
      >> \oneVoice
    }
    \new Staff \relative c'' {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key f \major \clef treble \time 4/4
      r4 \f c8 c,8 a'8 f'8 a8 g8 | % 2
      f8 r8 c8 c,8 a'8 f'8 a8 bes8 | % 3
      a8 r8 r4 r2
    }
  >>
}

Second movement[edit]

Nowak places all markings of Andante for this B major movement in parentheses:


{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff \relative d' {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"string ensemble 1" \key bes \major \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo "Andante" 4 = 50
      <<
        {
          \voiceOne \stemUp d2 \p es2 | % 2
          d2 f2 | % 3
          d2 \< es2 ~ | % 4
          es4 \! \> d4 c2 \!
        }
        \new Voice \relative bes {
          \voiceTwo \stemDown
          bes2 a2 | % 2
          bes1 ~ | % 3
          bes2 c2 ~ | % 4
          c4 bes4 a2
        }
      >> \oneVoice
    }
    \new Staff \relative f {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"string ensemble 1" \key bes \major \clef bass \time 4/4
      <<
        {
          \voiceOne \stemUp
          f1 \p ~ | % 2
          f1 | % 3
          f1 \< ~ | % 4
          f4 \! \> g4 c,2 \!
        }
        \new Voice \relative bes, {
          \voiceTwo \stemDown
          bes2 c2 | % 2
          bes2 d2 | % 3
          bes2 a2 | % 4
          c4 e,4 f2
        }
      >> \oneVoice
    }
  >>
}

Unlike most other Bruckner slow movements, this movement is in sonata form. The second theme is introduced by the first violins, accompanied by the second violins and violas:


{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff \relative a'' {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"string ensemble 1" \key bes \major \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 50
      r2 \p a2 | % 2
      d,4 e8_\markup { \italic cresc. } f8 g4. gis8 | % 3
      a8 f'4 e4 d4 c8 ~ | % 4
      c8 bes8 a8 _\markup { \italic dim. } g8 f4. e8 | % 5
      e8 d8 r4 r2
    }
  >>
}

Third movement[edit]

Loud and rather ferocious, the theme has something of the qualities of the Mannheim rocket, but its chromaticism suggests the future music of Shostakovich.[citation needed]


{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff \relative d' {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key d \minor \clef treble \time 3/4 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo "Presto" 4 = 250
  d8 \ff ( -> cis8 d2 ~ | % 2
  d4 ) a'4 -! d4 -! | % 3
  es4 -! e4 -! f4 -! | % 4
  fis4 -! g4 -! gis4 -! | % 5
  a8 ( -> gis8 a4 ) bes8 c8 | % 6
  d8 -. e8 -. f8 -. e8 -. d8 -. c8 -. | % 7
  bes8 -. a8 -. g8 -. f8 -. e8 -. d8 -. | % 8
  cis4 -> c4 -> b4 -> | % 9
  bes2 \trill a4 -! | 
  bes4 \trill a4 -! r4
    }
  >>
}

The Trio's theme in G major has hints of G minor:


{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff \relative d'' {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key g \major \clef treble \time 3/4 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo "Langsamer und ruhiger" 4 = 180
      d2.^\markup { \italic legato }\p | % 2
      d,2 ( a'8 b8 )| % 3
      a2 ( g4 ) | % 4
      fis2_\markup { \italic cresc. } ( g4 ) | % 5
      bes2. | % 6
      es2 ( es,4 ) | % 7
      e4 ( c'4 bes4 ) | % 8
      a4 ( g4 f4 )
    }
  >>
}

Unlike later scherzi, this one has a separate coda for the reprise of the Scherzo.

Fourth movement[edit]

The movement begins with a slow introduction, fairly unique for a Bruckner Finale; the only other Finale with a slow introduction is in the Fifth Symphony. The theme in the violins is accompanied by semiquavers (i.e. sixteenth notes) in the woodwinds, and will recur in the development:


{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff \relative e' {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key d \minor \clef treble \time 12/8 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo "Moderato" 4. = 55
  r2. \p r4. e4. | % 2
  d4._\markup { \italic cresc. } c4 bes8 a4. g4. | % 3
  a4. r8 r1
    }
  >>
}

This gives way to the main theme of the following Allegro-movement, which does double duty as a third theme:


{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff \relative d'' {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key d \minor \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo "Allegro vivace" 4 = 160
      d2 \ff -> d,2 -> | % 2
      f'2 ~ -> f8 e8 d8 c8 | % 3
      bes2 -> gis,2 \trill -> | % 4
      a4 r4 r2
    }
  >>
}

The second theme reminds of Rossini:[6]


{
  \new PianoStaff <<
    \new Staff \relative g' {
      \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"piano" \key c \major \clef treble \time 4/4 \set Score.tempoHideNote = ##t \tempo 4 = 150
      \once \override TupletBracket #'stencil = ##f
      \times 2/3  {
        g8 \p \< g8 g8
      }
      \once \override TupletBracket #'stencil = ##f
      \times 2/3  {
        g8 g8 g8
      }
      \once \override TupletBracket #'stencil = ##f
      \times 2/3  {
        g8 a8 b8
      }
      \once \override TupletBracket #'stencil = ##f
      \times 2/3  {
        c8 d8 e8
      }
      | % 2
      e4 \! \> d8 ( cis8 d2 \! ) | % 3
      \once \override TupletBracket #'stencil = ##f
      \times 2/3  {
        c8 \mf \< c8 c8
      }
      \once \override TupletBracket #'stencil = ##f
      \times 2/3  {
        c8 c8 c8
      }
      \once \override TupletBracket #'stencil = ##f
      \times 2/3  {
        f8 g8 gis8
      }
      \once \override TupletBracket #'stencil = ##f
      \times 2/3  {
        a8 b8 c8
      }
      | % 4
      c4 \! \> b8 ( a8 b2 \! )
    }
  >>
}

The symphony ends in D major with a coda marked Schnell.

Selected discography[edit]

The first commercial recording of the symphony was by Fritz Zaun with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra in 1933. It included only the scherzo, in the Wöss edition. The first commercial recording of the complete symphony was by Henk Spruit with the Concert Hall Symphony Orchestra in 1952.

Performances and recordings of the "complete" Bruckner Symphonies often exclude this "nullified" Symphony, most notably excepting the boxed sets of Riccardo Chailly, Eliahu Inbal, Bernard Haitink, Georg Tintner, Simone Young, Gennady Rozhdestvensky, Stanislaw Skrowaczewski and former Chicago Symphony Orchestra conductors Daniel Barenboim and Sir Georg Solti.

Wöss edition[edit]

  • Henk Spruit conducting the Concert Hall Symphony Orchestra, Concert Hall LP CHS 1142, 1952
This long out-of-print recording has recently been transferred to CD: Klassic Haus CD GSC 010

Nowak edition[edit]

This long out-of-print recording has recently been transferred to CD, together with the historical recording of the Windhaager Messe by Wolfgang Riedelbauch: Klassic Haus KHCD 2012-007

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b David Griegel, Bruckner Symphony Versions – Symphony No. 0
  2. ^ Georg Tintner - Notes for recording of the 8th and 0th symphonies, Naxos CD 8.554215-16, 1998
  3. ^ C. van Zwol, p. 674
  4. ^ a b c Hawkshaw, Paul (1983). "The Date of Bruckner's "Nullified" Symphony in D Minor". 19th-Century Music. 6 (3): 252–263. doi:10.2307/746590. JSTOR 746590. 
  5. ^ "Anton Bruckner Critical Complete Edition – Symphony in D minor". Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  6. ^ U. Harten, p. 411

Sources[edit]

  • Anton Bruckner – Sämtliche Werke, Band XI: Symphonie in d-Moll ("Nullte") 1869, Musikwissenschaftlicher Verlag der Internationalen Bruckner-Gesellschaft, Leopold Nowak (Editor), 1968/1994
  • Uwe Harten, Anton Bruckner. Ein Handbuch. Residenz Verlag, Salzburg, 1996. ISBN 3-7017-1030-9.
  • Cornelis van Zwol, Anton Bruckner 1824–1896 – Leven en werken, uitg. Thoth, Bussum, Netherlands, 2012. ISBN 978-90-6868-590-9

External links[edit]