Symphony No. 1 (Nielsen)
Symphony No. 1 in G minor, Op. 7, FS 16 is the first symphony of Danish composer Carl Nielsen. Written between 1891 and 1892, it was dedicated to his wife, Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen. The work's première, on 14 March 1894, was performed by Johan Svendsen conducting the Chapel Royal Orchestra (Royal Danish Orchestra), with Nielsen himself among the second violins. It is one of two symphonies by Nielsen without a subtitle (the other being his Symphony No. 5).
The symphony is in the standard four movements, with the following tempo markings:
- Allegro orgoglioso
- Allegro comodo — Andante sostenuto — Tempo I
- Finale. Allegro con fuoco
A typical performance takes approximately 35 minutes.
The symphony's melodies have a distinctive Danish flavour and are imbued with Nielsen's personal style. Nielsen scholar Robert Simpson describes the composer's symphonic debut as "probably the most highly organized first symphony ever written by a young man of twenty-seven."
The work opens in G minor, and closes with a rousing peroration in C major. This tendency to move away from the original key to C major is the basis of the whole symphony's tonal structure, and displays for the first time Nielsen's hallmark compositional device, "progressive tonality." (Nielsen at one stage even thought of calling the work "Symphony in C".) Simpson states "it is possibly the first symphony to end in a key other than that in which it started".
- 3 flutes, Flute 1 doubles piccolo in Movement 4
- 2 oboes
- 2 clarinets in B-flat
- 2 bassoons
- 4 horns (1 and 2 in E-flat, G, and C basso; 3 and 4 in B-flat basso and F)
- 2 trumpets in E-flat and C
- 3 trombones (2 tenor, 1 bass)
- Anderson, Keith. "Nielsen, C.: Symphonies, Vol. 1 – Nos. 1 and 6, "Sinfonia semplice" (Danish National Radio Symphony, Schonwandt)". About this recording. Naxos. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- Simpson 1979, p. 36.
- "Symphonist and opera composer". Carl Nielsen Society. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Simpson 1979, p. 24.
- Simpson, Robert (1952). Carl Nielsen, Symphonist (1st ed.). London: J. M. Dent. ASIN B0000CIDKO. See pages 8–24. Reprinted by Hyperion Press ISBN 978-0-88355-715-0.
- Simpson, Robert (1979). Carl Nielsen, Symphonist, 1865–1931 (2nd ed.). London: Kahn & Averill. ISBN 978-0-900707-46-9. See pages 23–37.
- Hauge, Peter, ed. (2001). Symphony No. 1 (PDF). Carl Nielsen Works. II. Instrumental Music. 1. The Carl Nielsen Edition, Royal Danish Library. ISBN 978-87-598-1025-5. ISMN M-66134-006-4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2014.
- Symphony No. 1 (Nielsen): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project