Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven)
|Symphony No. 6|
|by Ludwig van Beethoven|
|Other name||Pastoral Symphony|
|Duration||About 40 minutes|
|Date||December 22, 1808|
|Location||Theater an der Wien, Vienna|
|Conductor||Ludwig van Beethoven|
The Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68, also known as the Pastoral Symphony (German: Pastorale), is a symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven and completed in 1808. One of Beethoven's few works containing explicitly programmatic content, the symphony was first performed alongside his fifth symphony in the Theater an der Wien on 22 December 1808 in a four-hour concert.
Beethoven was a lover of nature who spent a great deal of his time on walks in the country. He frequently left Vienna to work in rural locations. The composer said that the Sixth Symphony is "more the expression of feeling than painting", a point underlined by the title of the first movement.
The first sketches of the Pastoral Symphony appeared in 1802. It was composed simultaneously with Beethoven's more famous Fifth Symphony. Both symphonies were premiered in a long and under-rehearsed concert in the Theater an der Wien in Vienna on 22 December 1808.
Frank A. D'Accone suggested that Beethoven borrowed the programmatic ideas (a shepherd's pipe, birds singing, streams flowing, and a thunderstorm) for his five-movement narrative layout from Le Portrait musical de la Nature ou Grande Symphonie, which was composed by Justin Heinrich Knecht (1752–1817) in 1784.
The symphony is scored for the following instrumentation:
The symphony has five, rather than the four movements typical of symphonies preceding Beethoven's time, although there are no pauses between the last three movements. Beethoven wrote a programmatic title at the beginning of each movement:
No. German title English translation Tempo marking Key I. Erwachen heiterer Empfindungen bei der Ankunft auf dem Lande Awakening of cheerful feelings on arrival in the countryside Allegro ma non troppo F major II. Szene am Bach Scene by the brook Andante molto mosso B♭ major III. Lustiges Zusammensein der Landleute Merry gathering of country folk Allegro F major IV. Gewitter, Sturm Thunder, Storm Allegro F minor V. Hirtengesang. Frohe und dankbare Gefühle nach dem Sturm Shepherd's song. Cheerful and thankful feelings after the storm Allegretto F major
The third movement ends on an imperfect cadence that leads straight into the fourth. A performance of the work lasts about 40 minutes.
I. Allegro ma non troppo
The symphony begins with a placid and cheerful movement depicting the composer's feelings as he arrives in the country. The movement, in 2
4 meter, is in sonata form, and its motifs are extensively developed. At several points, Beethoven builds up orchestral texture by multiple repetitions of very short motifs. Yvonne Frindle commented that "the infinite repetition of pattern in nature [is] conveyed through rhythmic cells, its immensity through sustained pure harmonies."
II. Andante molto mosso
The second movement is another sonata-form movement, this time in 12
8 and in the key of B♭ major, the subdominant of the main key of the work. It begins with the strings playing a motif that imitates flowing water. The cello section is divided, with just two players playing the flowing-water notes on muted instruments, and the remaining cellos playing mostly pizzicato notes together with the double basses.
Towards the end is a cadenza for woodwind instruments that imitates bird calls. Beethoven helpfully identified the bird species in the score: nightingale (flute), quail (oboe), and cuckoo (two clarinets).
The third movement is a scherzo in 3
4 time, which depicts country folk dancing and reveling. It is in F major, returning to the main key of the symphony. The movement is an altered version of the usual form for scherzi, in that the trio appears twice rather than just once, and the third appearance of the scherzo theme is truncated. Perhaps to accommodate this rather spacious arrangement, Beethoven did not mark the usual internal repeats of the scherzo and the trio. Theodor Adorno identifies this scherzo as the model for the scherzos by Anton Bruckner.
The final return of the theme conveys a riotous atmosphere with a faster tempo. The movement ends abruptly, leading without a pause into the fourth movement.
The fourth movement, in F minor and 4
4 time, is the part where Beethoven calls for the largest instrumentation in the entire piece. It depicts a violent thunderstorm with painstaking realism, building from distant thunder (quiet tremolos on cellos and basses) and a few drops of rain (eighth-note passages on the violins) to a great climax with loud thunder (timpani), lightning (piccolo), high winds (swirling arpeggio-like passages on the strings), and heavy downpours of rain (16-note tremolo passages on the strings). With the addition of the trombones later in the movement, Beethoven makes an even more tremendous effect. The storm eventually passes, with an occasional peal of thunder still heard in the distance. An ascending scale passage on the solo flute represents a rainbow. There is a seamless transition into the final movement. This movement parallels Mozart's procedure in his String Quintet in G minor K. 516 of 1787, which likewise prefaces a serene final movement with a long, emotionally stormy introduction.
The finale, which is in F major, is in 6
8 time. The movement is in sonata rondo form, in an Intro-[A-B-A]-C-[A-B-A]-Coda structure. Like many finales, this movement emphasizes a symmetrical eight-bar theme, in this case representing the shepherds' song of thanksgiving.
The final A section starts quietly and gradually builds to an ecstatic culmination for the full orchestra (minus piccolo and timpani) with the first violins playing very rapid triplet tremolo on a high F. There follows a fervent coda suggestive of prayer, marked by Beethoven pianissimo, sotto voce; most conductors slow the tempo for this passage. After a brief period of afterglow, the work ends with two emphatic F-major chords.
In film and television
- The symphony was used in the 1940 Disney animated film Fantasia, albeit with alterations and mythology in the length of the piece made by conductor Leopold Stokowski.
- In Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance, the first and second movements of the symphony are reused as the background themes that play when Sora is in the Symphony of Sorcery world, based on the film.
- Excerpts from the last movement were featured in the death scene in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green.
- The fifth movement is used extensively in Chuck Jones' 1975 animated adaptation of Rudyard Kipling's The White Seal.
- The composition features prominently in Isao Takahata's 1982 anime adaptation of Kenji Miyazawa's Gauche the Cellist, with the title character rehearsing his part on cello. The sequence of the storm syncs up with the fourth movement.
- It was also used in The Simpsons episode "Itchy & Scratchy & Marge" (1990).
- The different movements were also featured in the opening credits and throughout various scenes of Barbie and the Magic of Pegasus (2005).
- The first movement was featured in the SpongeBob SquarePants episode "Atlantis SquarePantis".
- Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Op. 68 Pastorale (Schott), ed. Max Unger, pg. viii
- Jones, David W. (1996). Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 (Cambridge Music Handbooks). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45684-5.
- Jones, David W. (1996). Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 (Cambridge Music Handbooks). Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-521-45684-5.
- Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Op. 68 Pastorale (Schott), ed. Max Unger, pg. xi
- The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed., Stanley Sadie (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), vol. 20, p. 396.
- D'Accone, Frank (1996). "Musica Franca: Essays in Honor of Frank A. D'Accone". Festschrift Series. Pendragon Press: 596. ISSN 1062-4074.
- Program notes for the Cleveland Baroque Orchestra
- Theodor W. Adorno, Beethoven: The Philosophy of Music, edited by Rolf Tiedemann, translated by Edmund Jephcott. Stanford: Stanford University Press (1998): 111. "The Scherzo is, no doubt, the model for Bruckner's scherzi. ... The caricatured dance with the famous syncopation is practically as independent of the Scherzo itself as a trio, and is also in the same key. The movement is self-contained like a suite of three dances."
- The parallel is noted by Rosen (1997:402), who suggests that the Sixth Symphony be regarded as fundamentally a four-movement work, the storm music serving an extended introduction to the finale.
- Antony Hopkins, The Nine Symphonies of Beethoven (Scolar Press, 1981, ISBN 1-85928-246-6).
- David Wyn Jones, Beethoven: Pastoral Symphony (Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-45684-3).
- Charles Rosen, The Classical Style (2nd edition 1997, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, ISBN 0-393-31712-9).
- Sixth and Seventh Symphonies (Dover Publications, Inc., 1976, ISBN 0-486-23379-0).
- Frogley, Alain (1995). "Beethoven's Struggle for Simplicity in the Sketches for the Third Movement of the Pastoral." Beethoven Forum, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 99-134.
- Gossett, Philip (Summer 1974). "Beethoven's Sixth Symphony: Sketches for the First Movement". Journal of the American Musicological Society. 27 (2): 248–284. doi:10.2307/830560.
- Jander, Owen (Autumn 1993). "The Prophetic Conversation in Beethoven's 'Scene by the Brook'". The Musical Quarterly. 77 (3): 508–559. doi:10.1093/mq/77.3.508.
- Kirby, F. E. (October 1970). "Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony as a Sinfonia caracteristica". The Musical Quarterly. 56 (4): 605–623. doi:10.1093/mq/LVI.4.605.
- Knapp, Raymond (Summer 2000). "A Tale of Two Symphonies: Converging Narratives of Divine Reconciliation in Beethoven's Fifth and Sixth". Journal of the American Musicological Society. 53 (2): 291–343. doi:10.2307/832010.
- Lorenz, Christoph L. (1985). "Beethovens Skizzen zur 'Pastoralen.'" Die Musikforschung, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 95-108.
- Russell, Tilden (Spring 2003). "Unification in the Sixth Symphony: The Pastoral Mode." Beethoven Forum, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-17.
- Will, Richard (Fall 2002). "The Nature of the Pastoral Symphony." Beethoven Forum, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 205-215.
- Will, Richard (July 1977). "Time, Morality, and Humanity in Beethoven's 'Pastoral' Symphony". Journal of the American Musicological Society. 50 (2–3): 271–329. doi:10.2307/831836.
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