Symphony No. 6 (Tchaikovsky)
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The Symphony No. 6 in B minor, Op. 74, Pathétique is Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's final completed symphony, written between February and the end of August 1893. The composer led the first performance in Saint Petersburg on 16/28 October of that year, nine days before his death. The second performance, conducted by Eduard Nápravník, took place 21 days later, at a memorial concert on 6/18 November. It included some minor corrections that Tchaikovsky had made after the premiere, and was thus the first performance of the work in the exact form in which it is known today. The first performance in Moscow was on 4/16 December, conducted by Vasily Safonov. It was the last of Tchaikovsky's compositions premiered in his lifetime; his last composition of all, the single-movement 3rd Piano Concerto, Op. 75, which was completed in October 1893, a short time before his death, received a posthumous premiere.
After completing his 5th Symphony in 1888, Tchaikovsky did not start thinking about his next symphony until April 1891, on his way to the United States. The first drafts of a new symphony were started in the spring of 1891. However, some or all of the symphony was not pleasing to Tchaikovsky, who tore up the manuscript "in one of his frequent moods of depression and doubt over his alleged inability to create." In 1892, Tchaikovsky wrote the following to his nephew Vladimir "Bob" Davydov:
The symphony is only a work written by dint of sheer will on the part of the composer; it contains nothing that is interesting or sympathetic. It should be cast aside and forgotten. This determination on my part is admirable and irrevocable.
This work was the Symphony in E-flat, the first movement of which Tchaikovsky later converted into the one-movement 3rd Piano Concerto (his final composition), and the latter two movements of which Sergei Taneyev reworked after Tchaikovsky's death as the Andante and Finale.
In 1893, Tchaikovsky mentions an entirely new symphonic work in a letter to his brother:
I am now wholly occupied with the new work ... and it is hard for me to tear myself away from it. I believe it comes into being as the best of my works. I must finish it as soon as possible, for I have to wind up a lot of affairs and I must soon go to London. I told you that I had completed a Symphony which suddenly displeased me, and I tore it up. Now I have composed a new symphony which I certainly shall not tear up.
The symphony was written in a small house in Klin and completed by August 1893. Tchaikovsky left Klin on 19 October for the first performance in St. Petersburg, arriving "in excellent spirits." However, the composer began to feel apprehension over his symphony, when, at rehearsals, the orchestra players did not exhibit any great admiration for the new work. Nevertheless, the premiere was met with great appreciation. Tchaikovsky's brother Modest wrote, "There was applause and the composer was recalled, but with more enthusiasm than on previous occasions. There was not the mighty, overpowering impression made by the work when it was conducted by Eduard Nápravník, on November 18, 1893, and later, wherever it was played."
Richard Taruskin notes, "Suicide theories were much stimulated by the Sixth Symphony, which was first performed under the composer's baton only nine days before his demise, with its lugubrious finale (ending morendo, 'dying away'), its brief but conspicuous allusion to the Orthodox requiem liturgy in the first movement and above all its easily misread subtitle. . . . When the symphony was done again a couple of weeks later, in memoriam and with subtitle in place, everyone listened hard for portents, and that is how the symphony became a transparent suicide note. Depression was the first diagnosis. 'Homosexual tragedy' came later." David Brown describes the idea of the Sixth Symphony as some sort of suicide note as "patent nonsense". Alexander Poznansky writes, "Since the arrival of the 'court of honour' theory in the West, performances of Tchaikovsky's last symphony are almost invariably accompanied by annotations treating it as a testimony of homosexual martyrdom." Other scholars, including Michael Paul Smith, believe that with or without the supposed 'court of honour' sentence, there is no way that Tchaikovsky could have known the time of his own death while composing his last masterpiece.
The Russian title of the symphony, Патетическая (Pateticheskaya), means "passionate" or "emotional," not "arousing pity," but it is a word reflective of a touch of concurrent suffering. Tchaikovsky considered calling it Программная (Programmnaya or "Programme Symphony") but realised that would encourage curiosity about the programme, which he did not want to reveal. According to his brother Modest, he suggested the Патетическая title, which was used in early editions of the symphony; there are conflicting accounts about whether Tchaikovsky liked the title, but in any event his publisher chose to keep it and the title remained. Its French translation Pathétique is generally used in French, Spanish, English, German and other languages. It was published in reduction by Jurgenson of Moscow in 1893, and by Robert Forberg of Leipzig in 1894.
Dedication and suggested programs
The Pathétique has been the subject of a number of theories as to a hidden program. This goes back to the first performance of the work, when fellow composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov asked Tchaikovsky whether there was a program to the new symphony, and Tchaikovsky asserted that there was, but would not divulge it.
A suggested program has been what Taruskin disparagingly termed "symphony as suicide note." This idea began to assert itself as early as the second performance of the symphony in Saint Petersburg, not long after the composer had died. People at that performance "listened hard for portents. As always, they found what they were looking for: a brief but conspicuous quotation from the Russian Orthodox requiem at the stormy climax of the first movement, and of course the unconventional Adagio finale with its tense harmonies at the onset and its touching depiction of the dying of the light in conclusion". Countering this is Tchaikovsky's statement on 26 September/8 October 1893 that he was in no mood to write any sort of requiem. This was in reply to a suggestion from his close friend Grand Duke Konstantin that he write a requiem for their mutual friend the writer Aleksey Apukhtin, who had died in late August, just as Tchaikovsky was completing the Pathétique.
Tchaikovsky specialist David Brown suggests that the symphony deals with the power of Fate in life and death. This program would not only be similar to those suggested for the Fourth and Fifth Symphonies, but also parallels a program suggested by Tchaikovsky for his unfinished Symphony in E flat. That program reads, "The ultimate essence ... of the symphony is Life. First part – all impulse, passion, confidence, thirst for activity. Must be short (the finale death – result of collapse). Second part love: third disappointments; fourth ends dying away (also short)."
The symphony contains four movements
- Adagio – Allegro non troppo (B minor – D major – ambiguous key – B major) – This sonata-form movement frequently alternates not only in speed and mood but also in key, though with the main key being B minor. The movement concludes with the secondary theme in the recapitulation and a coda where both parts are in B major, finally ending very quietly, looking forward to the next movement.
- Allegro con grazia (D major – B minor – D major) – This ternary movement is waltz-like and in 5/4 meter, featuring a darker B minor middle section where the timpani sound on every beat. A graceful coda also ends the movement in quietness.
- Allegro molto vivace (G major – E major – G major) – The scherzo is in a compound meter – 12/8 and 4/4, and in modified sonata form without development. It begins with quiet but busy strings playing triplet-like notes (actually the music is in 12/8 meter then) and later involves woodwind instruments 4/4 meter, leading to the E major secondary theme in the exposition beginning with clarinet solo with string accompaniment but later involving other instruments. Then again comes the opening theme (which is now the first theme in the recapitulation), which later leads to the secondary theme, but this time in G major being a cheerful march in high spirits and featuring cymbals. Finally the movement ends with a triplet turbulently.
- Finale: Adagio lamentoso – Andante (B minor – D major – B minor) – Back in B minor, the modified-ternary-form slow movement turns the music back to despair. In the middle comes a calmer D major section that is finally interrupted by the full orchestra speeding up the music and later bringing the music back to the opening melody. Shortly before the coda comes a very turbulent section by the full orchestra, where brass instruments sound on each beat and the timpani constantly sounds, which is followed by the opening melody that is now even more agitated and fades away at last. After several short phrases by the winds comes the B minor coda where the rhythm resembles that of the D major section. The melody is then repeated with lower notes on cellos, accompanied by tuba. Finally several long and low notes sound, with the last one having the whole work fading away in complete despair. Ending in B minor, this symphony is the only one ending in a minor key among all the symphonies by Tchaikovsky.
In popular culture
The second theme of the first movement formed the basis of a popular song in the 1940s, "(This is) The Story of a Starry Night" (by Mann Curtis, Al Hoffman and Jerry Livingston) which was popularized by Glenn Miller. This same theme is the music behind "Where," a 1959 hit for Tony Williams and the Platters as well as "In Time," by Steve Lawrence in 1961, and John O'Dreams by Bill Caddick. All four songs have completely different lyrics.
Excerpts from Tchaikovsky's Sixth can be heard in a number of films, including Now, Voyager, the 1997 version of Anna Karenina, The Ruling Class, Minority Report, Sweet Bird of Youth, Soylent Green and The Aviator. It has also accompanied the cartoon The Ren & Stimpy Show, specifically the episode 'Son of Stimpy' where the eponymous cat walks out into a blizzard. In addition, Tchaikovsky's Sixth is featured in the sci-fi video game Destiny, during the mission The Last Warmind, in which the player must defend Rasputin, an old planetary defense system.
- Dates written with a "/" mean that the date before the "/" is the Julian calendar date and the date after the "/" is the Gregorian calendar date. See "Old Style and New Style dates".
- Steinberg, 635.
- Alexander Poznansky, Tchaikovsky: The Quest for the Inner Man, p. 603
- Tchaikovsky Research.net
- Bagar, 754.
- qtd. in Bagar, 754.
- Bagar, 755.
- qtd. in Bagar, 755.
- Taruskin, Richard (1 July 2000). "The Essential Tchaikovsky". Russian Life.
- Brown, David (Nov 1997). "How Did Tchaikovsky Come to Die: And Does It Really Matter". Music & Letters (Oxford University Press) 78 (4): 581–588. doi:10.1093/ml/78.4.581.
- Poznansky, Alexander (Aug 1998). "'Tchaikovsky's Last Days': I". Music & Letters (Oxford University Press) 79 (3): 463–467. doi:10.1093/ml/79.3.463-c.
- Listen to "Discovering Music - Tchaikovsky's 6th Symphony". from 2:30
- Steinberg, 638.
- see IMSLP
- coproduction with Jurgenson of Moscow most likely; also, see "Hofmeisters Monatsberichte" (in German). March 1894. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
- Jackson, Timothy (1999). Symphony No. 6 (Pathétique), p.51. ISBN 0-521-64676-6.
- Poznansky, Quest, 558.
- Rimsky-Korsakov, My Musical Life, 339–340.
- Taruskin, 133.
- Alexander Poznansky, Tchaikovsky: The Quest for the Inner Man, p. 569
- Tchaikovsky Research: Aleksey Apukhtin. Retrieved 21 June 2015
- Brown, Final Years, 445.
- David Brown, Final Years, 388.
- Keeling, Bret L. "No Trace of Presence": Tchaikovsky and the Sixth in Forster's Maurice, Mosaic, Vol. 36, No. 1, March 2003.
- Bagar, Robert, "Peter Ilyitch Tchaikowsky", The Concert Companion: A Comprehensive Guide to Symphonic Music (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947).
- Brown, David, Tchaikovsky: The Final Years (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1992). ISBN 0-393-03099-7.
- Cross, Milton and Ewen, David, "Peter Ilitch Tchaikovsky", in Vol. II of Milton Cross' Encyclopedia of Great Composers and Their Music (Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1962).
- Holden, Anthony, Tchaikovsky: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1995). ISBN 0-679-42006-1.
- Keller, Hans, "Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky", in Vol. I of The Symphony, ed. Robert Simpson (Harmondsworth, 1966).
- Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai, Letoppis Moyey Muzykalnoy Zhizni (St. Petersburg, 1909), published in English as My Musical Life (New York: Knopf, 1925, 3rd ed. 1942). ISBN n/a.
- Ritzarev, Marina, Tchaikovsky's Pathétique and Russian Culture (Ashgate, 2014). ISBN 9781472424112.
- Steinberg, Michael, The Symphony (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). ISBN 0-19-512665-3 (paperback)
- Taruskin, Richard, On Russian Music (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2009). ISBN 9780520268067.