Symphony No. 81 (Haydn)
In the first and third movements, Haydn explores "ambiguities of tonality ... which eventually reach their peak of subtlety" of the first movement of Symphony No. 94. The first movement begins "with an unusual and exciting pedal point ... [and] uses a subsidiary subject that appears like a cordial greeting to the newly won friend [Mozart]." The pedals and dissonances point to Mozart's K. 465.
The second movement is a siciliano theme with three variations. The variations are for the most part strophic and straightforward with the exception of a minor-key interlude in the center of the movement between the first and second variations. The final variation contains the fullest orchestration with pizzicato accompaniment and serves to recapitulate the movement.
- H. C. Robbins Landon, Haydn: Chronicle and Works, 5 vols, (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1976– ) v. 2: "Haydn at Eszterhaza, 1766–1790",[page needed].
- Hughes (1970) p. 185.
- Geiringer (1963) p. 322.
- Heartz (2009) p. 355.
- Hughes (1970) p. 186.
- A. Peter Brown, The Symphonic Repertoire (Volume 2) (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 2001) (ISBN 025333487X), pp. 207–208.
- Geiringer, Karl (1963). Haydn: A Creative Life in Music. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
- Heartz, Daniel (2009). Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven: 1781–1802. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
- Hughes (1970).[full citation needed]
- Hugues, Rosemary (1974). Haydn.London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd.
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