Symphony No. 85 (Haydn)
Nickname (La Reine)
The nickname La Reine originated because the work was a favorite of Marie Antoinette, at the time Queen of France. It is the only one of the Paris symphonies whose nickname is of 18th-century origin.
The first movement contains a reference to Symphony No. 45. The second movement is described by H. C. Robbins Landon as "a set of variations on the old French folk-song 'La gentille et jeune Lisette'; see Haydn and folk music.
- Robbins Landon 1963, xv
- Kirk, 1986, 18
- Steinberg (1995, 204)
- Bernard Harrison, Haydn: The 'Paris' Symphonies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1998): 101
- Harrison, 88
- Robbins Landon 1963, xvii
- Robbins Landon, H. C. (1963) Joseph Haydn: Critical Edition of the Complete Symphonies, Universal Edition, Vienna
- Steinberg, Michael (1995) The Symphony: A Listeners Guide. Oxford University Press.
- Harrison, Bernard Haydn: The "Paris" Symphonies (Cambridge University Press, 1998)
- Kirk, Elise K. Music at the White House: A History of the American Spirit (University of Illinois Press, 1986)
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