Synbiotics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Synbiotics refer to food ingredients or dietary supplements combining probiotics and prebiotics in a form of synergism, hence synbiotics.[1] The synbiotic concept was first introduced as "mixtures of probiotics and prebiotics that beneficially affect the host by improving the survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal tract, by selectively stimulating the growth and/or by activating the metabolism of one or a limited number of health-promoting bacteria, thus improving host welfare".[2]

Probiotics are live bacteria which are intended to colonize the large intestine and confer physiological health benefits to the host. A prebiotic is a food or dietary supplement product that confers a health benefit on the host associated with modulating the microbiota. Prebiotics are not drugs, not functioning because of absorption of the component, not due to the component acting directly on the host, and are due to changes to the resident bacteria – either changing the proportions of the resident bacteria or the activities thereof. Measurable changes to the microbiota in the absence of a desirable physiological consequence in the host does not qualify as a prebiotic. A prebiotic may be a fiber, but a fiber is not necessarily a prebiotic.

Using prebiotics and probiotics in combination is often described as synbiotic, but the United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommends that the term "synbiotic" be used only if the net health benefit is synergistic.[3] Probiotic bacteria may colonise the upper part of the intestine to avoid the adhering of pathogens to the intestinal tract and may help in digestion. A prebiotic is a fiber such as fructose oligosaccharide, galactose oligosaccharide, etc., and is consumed that is intended to stimulate the microflora in the large intestine. The combination thus works separately in the small and large intestine, but synergistically as they increase the overall gut health. A common mistake is to require that the prebiotic be shown to increase the population and/or function of the probiotic it is paired with, as the probiotic is an external species, whereas prebiotics stimulate the flora which is already present.

Examples[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pandey KR, Naik SR, Vakil BV. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics- a review. J Food Sci Technol. 2015 Dec;52(12):7577-87. Review. PMID 26604335
  2. ^ Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995). "Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics". J. Nutr. 125 (6): 1401–12. PMID 7782892. 
  3. ^ Pineiro M et al. FAO Technical meeting on prebiotics. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S156-9. PMID 18685504
  • Kentaro Shimizu; Hiroshi Ogura; Takashi Asahara; Koji Nomoto; Masami Morotomi; Osamu Tasaki; Asako Matsushima; Yasuyuki Kuwagata; Takeshi Simazu; Hisashi Sugimoto (2013). "Probiotic/Synbiotic Therapy for Treating Critically Ill Patients from a Gut Microbiota Perspective" (PDF). Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 58: 23–32. doi:10.1007/s10620-012-2334-x. 
  • de Vrese M, Schrezenmeir J (2008). "Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics". Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 111: 1–66. doi:10.1007/10_2008_097. PMID 18461293. 
  • Pineiro M, et al. (2008). "FAO Technical Meeting on Prebiotics. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 2007". J Clin Gastroenterol. 42 Suppl 3 Pt 2: S156–9. doi:10.1097/MCG.0b013e31817f184e. PMID 18685504. 
  • Vandenplas Y, De Hert SG & PROBIOTICAL-study group (2011). "Randomised clinical trial: the synbiotic food supplement Probiotical vs. placebo for acute gastroenteritis in children". Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 34 (8): 862–7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04835.x. PMID 21899583. 
  • Björklund M, Ouwehand AC, et al. (2012). "Gut microbiota of healthy elderly NSAID users is selectively modified with the administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and lactitol". Age (Dordr). 34 (4): 987–99. doi:10.1007/s11357-011-9294-5. PMID 21853265. 
  • Fateh R, Iravani S, Frootan M, Rasouli MR, Saadat S (2011). "Synbiotic preparation in men suffering from functional constipation: a randomised controlled trial". Swiss Med Wkly. 141: w13239. doi:10.4414/smw.2011.13239. PMID 21805410. 
  • Simakachorn N, Bibiloni R, Yimyaem P, Tongpenyai Y, Varavithaya W, Grathwohl D, Reuteler G, Maire JC, Blum S, Steenhout P, Benyacoub J, Schiffrin EJ (2011). "Tolerance, safety, and effect on the faecal microbiota of an enteral formula supplemented with pre- and probiotics in critically ill children". J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 53 (2): 174–81. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e318216f1ec. PMID 21788759.