Synchronous grid of Continental Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Map of European Transmission System Operators Organizations (Regional Groups) Continental Europe, Nordic, Baltic, Great Britain and Ireland/Northern Ireland (former UCTE, UKTSOA, NORDEL, ATSOI, IPS/APS).

The synchronous grid of Continental Europe (also known as Continental Synchronous Area; formerly known as the UCTE grid) is the largest synchronous electrical grid (by connected power) in the world. It is interconnected as a single phase-locked 50 Hz mains frequency electricity grid that supplies over 400 million customers in 24 countries, including most of the European Union. In 2009, 667 GW of production capacity was connected to the grid, providing approximately 80 GW of operating reserve margin.[1] The transmission system operators operating this grid formed the Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE), now part of the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E).

Area[edit]

Map of synchronous grids, with the European grid shown in dark green.

The synchronous grid of Continental Europe covers territory of the ENTSO-E Continental Europe regional group and some neighboring countries not involved in the ENTSO-E. The synchronous grid includes part or all of Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark (western part), France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Montenegro, the Netherlands, North Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland as a members of the ENTSO-E Continental Europe regional group. In addition to the ENTSO-E members, the small west electricity island of Ukraine is synchronized with the grid of Continental Europe. Albania is operating the national grid synchronously with the synchronous grid of Continental Europe. The grids of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are synchronized with the European grid through the Gibraltar AC link and form the SWMB. In April 2015, the grid of Turkey was synchronized with the European grid.[2]

Although synchronous, some countries operate in a near island mode, with low connectivity to other countries. The European Commission considers high connectivity to be beneficial,[3] and has listed several interconnection projects as Projects of Common Interest.[4] However, the national grids must also be upgraded to handle increased power flows if the values of a free energy market are to be realised in the EU.[5]

On 16 March 2022, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the ENTSO-E announced synchronization with Ukraine and Moldova had been set up on an emergency basis to provide external support for the power supply in those countries.[6]

List of electricity interconnection levels[edit]

External images
image icon 2011 interconnection levels, and 2020 plans
image icon 2019 grid map

Electricity interconnection as percentage (EIL = electricity interconnection level) of installed electricity production capacity in 2014; the EU goal of at least 10% for 2020, and 15% for 2030.[3]

Alternative formulas for calculating interconnection levels are based on peak load instead of installed capacity. [7]

Some border transmissions, particularly around the Alps, have both high utilization rate and high price difference, implying that further transmission would be beneficial.[8]

Country EIL 2014 EIL 2017 Capacity 2019 [GW] Peak load
2018 [GW]
Interconnection level with
Interconnection Generation 2002 method 1st Expert
Group's method [7]
Austria 29% 11.8 21.3 12.1 55% 98%
Belgium 17% 19%[9] 8.6 23.1 13.5 37% 64%
Bulgaria 11% 1.9 12.7 6.5 15% 29%
Croatia 69% 3.2 5.0 3.2 64% 99%
Cyprus 0% 0.0 1.5 1.0 0% 0%
Czech Republic 17% 9.5 20.8 11.1 45% 85%
Denmark 44% 51% 7.4 15.9 6.1 46% 121%
Estonia 1.8 2.8 1.5 65% 120%
Finland 30% 3.9 17.3 14.2 23% 28%
France 10% 22.3 130.7 96.3 17% 23%
Germany 10% 28.4 222.4 79.1 13% 36%
Greece 11% 1.1 17.1 9.1 6% 12%
Hungary 29% 6.4 9.1 6.6 70% 97%
Ireland 9% 0.5 9.8 4.9 5% 11%
Italy 7% 11.0 94.4 57.6 12% 19%
Latvia 2.0 2.8 1.3 71% 161%
Lithuania 2.4 3.6 2.0 67% 121%
Luxembourg 245% 1.1 0.3 1.0 409% 105%
Malta 0.2 0.7 30%
Netherlands 17% 18% 11.2 30.5 18.5 37% 61%
Norway 8.7 30.5 24.1 28% 36%
Poland 4% 6.0 42.5 24.5 14% 24%
Portugal 7% 4.0 19.6 8.7 20% 46%
Romania 7% 2.2 18.8 8.9 12% 24%
Slovakia 61% 5.5 7.6 4.5 73% 122%
Slovenia 65% 4.7 3.7 2.4 127% 199%
Spain 2% 7.6 104.7 40.6 7% 19%
Sweden 26% 12.3 40.8 27.4 30% 45%
Switzerland 16.8 16.1 9.8 105% 172%
United Kingdom 6% 5.7% (2019)[10] 4.7 78.4 61.4 6% 8%

Interconnections[edit]

HVDC connections around Europe, red are existing, blue are proposed, green are approved

The British grid is not synchronized with the Continental Europe frequency, but it is interconnected using high-voltage direct current (HVDC) via the HVDC Cross-Channel, BritNed, Nemo Link, IFA-2 and Norway cable links. In 2014, before Nemo Link, IFA-2 and NSN became operational, the United Kingdom's electricity interconnection level was 6%.[3]

The networks of Ireland and Northern Ireland form the ENTSO-E Irish regional group, which is not yet interconnected with the Continental Europe grid, but has DC interconnections with the British network through the HVDC Moyle Interconnector and the East–West Interconnector.

Similarly, the Nordic regional group of ENTSO-E (former NORDEL), composed of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the eastern part of Denmark (Zealand with islands and Bornholm), is not synchronized with the Continental Europe, but has a number of non-synchronous DC connections with the Continental Europe grid. Gotland is not synchronized with the Swedish mainland, as it is connected by HVDC.

The network of ENTSO-E Baltic regional group, composed of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, currently part of the IPS/UPS system, is interconnected with the Nordic grid at an electricity interconnection level of 10% through the HVDC Estlink cables and NordBalt cable, which is functioning since 2015.[3] The Baltics are also connected with the Continental Europe grid through the Lithuania–Poland interconnection.

The networks of Iceland and Cyprus are not yet interconnected with the other grids. Malta is connected up to 35% via the Malta-Sicily interconnector, commissioned in 2015.

Future extension plans[edit]

UCTE/ENTSO-E and the corresponding partner TSO companies are planning the following extensions of the grid and synchronous frequency
  1. UCTE-Ukraine/Moldova, to disconnect only these networks from the IPS/UPS system and synchronously interconnecting them to the synchronized grid of Central Europe[11]
  2. Tunisia-Libya synchronous connection, that would extend the Continental Europe frequency to Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon (the latter five countries constitute the SEMB of the Mediterranean Electricity Ring project.[citation needed]
HVDC planned projects
  1. The EuroAsia Interconnector between the Greek, Cypriot, and Israeli via the world's longest submarine power cable.

Separately, there is another option concerning Ukraine and Moldova, and the ENTSO-E Baltic regional group: to disconnect only these networks from the IPS/UPS system and synchronously interconnect them to the synchronized grid of Central Europe.[12] In early 2021 Ukraine announced that it will be disconnecting from Russia and Belarus by the end of 2023 and integrating into the European grid.[13][14] On 16 March 2022, the connection to the European grid was done on an emergency basis.[15]

Further possibilities are extension to the Nordic regional group, the Turkey-Iraq interconnection, and the DESERTEC concept for interconnection with other countries in the Middle East.[citation needed] In the past the Armenia and Turkmenistan networks were part of the Soviet unified system, but currently they are connected to the Iran grid.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UCTE Annual REport 2008" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
  2. ^ "ENTSO-E at a Glance" (PDF). ENTSO-E. June 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d COM/2015/082 final: "Achieving the 10% electricity interconnection target" Text Archived 8 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine PDF Archived 2 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine pp. 2–5. European Commission, 25 February 2015. Archive Mirror Archived 18 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Union list of projects of common interest Archived 20 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine" p. 10. European Commission, 18 November 2015.
  5. ^ ACER Market Monitoring Report - 2015 (PDF). www.acer.europa.eu. Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators. 30 November 2015. ISBN 978-92-95083-19-6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  6. ^ "ENTSO-E agrees to start trial synchronization of continental European power grids with those of Ukraine, Moldova from March 16". Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Modelling the European cross-border electricity transmission" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  8. ^ Mezősi, András; Pató, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, László (3 July 2016). "Assessment of the EU 10% interconnection target in the context of CO 2 mitigation". Climate Policy. 16 (5): 659. doi:10.1080/14693062.2016.1160864. S2CID 156191690.
  9. ^ "North Sea Region interconnection, Interreg VB North Sea Region Programme". northsearegion.eu. Archived from the original on 5 October 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  10. ^ "New cable between Germany and UK advances Europe's integrated power system". Clean Energy Wire. 26 July 2021. Archived from the original on 5 October 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  11. ^ "Regional Group Continental Europe". Archived from the original on 31 May 2013.
  12. ^ Trakimavicius, Lukas (10 February 2021). "The Hidden Threat To Baltic Undersea Power Cables". NATO ENSEC COE Energy Security blog. Archived from the original on 10 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  13. ^ "Kyiv: Ukraine will cut itself off from power grids of Russia and Belarus". UAWire. 25 January 2021. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  14. ^ "Ukraine to disconnect from Russia and Belarus' power systems by end of 2023". TASS. 23 February 2021. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  15. ^ Blaustein, Anna (23 March 2022). "How Ukraine Unplugged from Russia and Joined Europe's Power Grid with Unprecedented Speed". Scientific American. Retrieved 15 April 2022.

External links[edit]