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Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Sar
(unranked): Alveolata
Phylum: Dinoflagellata
Class: Syndiniophyceae
Order: Syndiniales
Loeblich III, 1976
  • Coccidinales Chatton & Biecheler 1934

The Syndiniales are an order of dinoflagellates, found exclusively as endosymbionts of the tintinnid ciliates, crustaceans, fish, protozoa, algae, and other dinoflagellates.[1] The trophic form is often multinucleate, and ultimately divides to form motile spores, which have two flagella in typical dinoflagellate arrangement. They lack a theca and chloroplasts, and unlike all other orders, the nucleus is never a dinokaryon. A well-studied example is Amoebophrya, which is a parasite of other dinoflagellates and may play a part in ending red tides.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hoek, C. van den; Mann, D. G.; Jahns, Hans Martin (1995). Algae: an Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 277–280. ISBN 0-521-31687-1. 
  2. ^ Gómez, F.; Moreira, D.; López-García, P. N. (2010). "Molecular Phylogeny of Noctilucoid Dinoflagellates (Noctilucales, Dinophyceae)". Protist. 161 (3): 466–478. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2009.12.005. PMID 20188628. 
  3. ^ Gómez F (2012). "A checklist and classification of living dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata, Alveolata)" (PDF). CICIMAR Océanides. 27 (1): 65–140.