Synod of Diamper

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Synod of Diamper (Udayamperoor Synod) (Malayalam: ഉദയംപേരൂർ സൂനഹദോസ്, romanizedUdayampērūṟ Sūnahadōs), held at Udayamperoor (known as Diamper in non-vernacular sources) in June 1599, was a diocesan synod, or council, that created rules and regulations for the ancient Saint Thomas Christians (also known as Mar Thoma Nasranis) of the Malabar Coast, a part of modern-day Kerala state, India, formally subjugating them and their whole Metropolitanate of India, which was mainly based in modern Kerala to the Archdiocese of Goa administered by Roman Catholic Padroado missionaries. This synod also introduced many Latin practices in the liturgy of the Saint Thomas Christians which they had been following from centuries. The forced Latinization and disregard for the eastern and local tradition led to a massive protest by Saint Thomas Christians known as Coonan Cross Oath and subsequent schism among them the by mid-17th century.[1]

Interior of the Udayamperūr Syro-Malabar Church which had hosted the Synod of Diamper

Background[edit]

Early history of Saint Thomas Christians[edit]

The Saint Thomas Christians, who traces there origin were in communion with the Church of the East of Persia and the Patriarch of the Seleucia-Ctesiphon, and relied on their bishops.[2] Thus, while the bishops from the Middle East were the spiritual heads of the Church, the general administration of the Church of Kerala was governed by an indigenous priest known as Arkkadiyakkon or Archdeacon.[3] He was the community leader of Saint Thomas Christians. Even in times when there were multiple foreign bishops, there was only one archdeacon for entire Saint Thomas Community .[4]

Portuguese missionaries and Saint Thomas Christians[edit]

The Portuguese fleet led by Pedro Alvarez Cabral, arrived in Malabar in 1500 with a missionary team of 19 members. More than half of them were Franciscans .[5] Later, most of the groups that came from Portugal included missionaries. Initially, the Portuguese missionaries were on good terms with the Saint Thomas Christians, but between 1520 and 1530, relations between them began to fall apart. This is because the Portuguese began to impose their church traditions on the Malabar Christians.

The Church of the East collapsed by 1552, through the schism of 1552, and a faction (the modern day Chaldean Catholic Church) under the leadership of Yohannan Sulaqa joined in communion with the Church of Rome. It is difficult to say exactly how this split affected the Church of Saint Thomas Christians in Malabar. Following the split, both factions - the Nestorian and Chaldean Catholic - began sending their bishops to Kerala. Abraham, later known as Abraham of Angamaly was one of the last bishops from the Church of the East. Mar Abraham first arrived in India before 1556 as a Nestorian bishop from the traditional Nestorian Patriarchate. The Portuguese managed to arrest him and sent him off to Lisbon, but on the way he escaped at Mozambique and left to Mesopotamia and presented himself to Abdiso, the Chaldean patriarch who had declared allegiance to the Pope of Rome. The patriarch re-consecrated the Abraham, sent him with letters to Pope Pius IV.[6] Abraham received his episcopal ordination again, third time,[6] in Rome in 1565 and returned in India in 1568. In spite of the express approbation by Pope, he was not welcomed by the Portuguese authorities in Goa and was arrested second time. However, Abraham escaped in 1570 and reached Malabar, there he directed his faithful in defiance of the Portuguese until his death in 1597.

Preparations for the Synod[edit]

After the death of Abraham, Aleixo de Menezes the Archbishop of Goa began efforts to bring Archdiocese of Angamaly under Goa. Menezes nominated Francis Ros as Administrator of Angamaly.[7] But by this time the Archdeacon, George (of the Cross), according to the custom and by appointment of Abraham, took up the administration of the Archdiocese of Angamaly. Therefore, Menezes had to withdraw the administrator.[8] But Menesis decided that Saint Thomas Christians should be unconditionally placed under the spiritual authority of the Pope. For this, he sought the help of viceroy of Goa, the Portuguese Captain of Kochi and the King of Kochi.[8] Also, the Portuguese were very careful at the ports to prevent any Eastern Bishops from entering Kerala.

Archbishop Menezes visited Malabar in February 1599. Menezes threatened to depose Archdeacon George and appoint in his place Thomas Kurian, another nephew of George whose claims had been ignored in 1593. In order to prevent a division, George gave in to the demands of Menezes.[7] After carrying out a visitation in various parishes of Saint Thomas Christians, gaining the support of the local rulers and some of the local clergy, also by ordaining a large number of new priests, and forcing Archdeacon, to submit to him, Menezes called for a synod to be convened in June 1599.[9] Instead of Angamaly, the headquarters of the diocese, a small place called Diamper (Udayamperur) near Kochi, the Portuguese stronghold, was chosen as the venue for the Synod.

The Synod[edit]

The synod solemnly began on the third Sunday after Pentecost, 20 June 1599, in the church of Diamper (Udayamperoor) and continued until 26 June 1599.[10] The synod, attended by 153 local priests and 660 lay representatives.[11] Menezes presided over the synod. The Patriarch of Babylon,[12] was condemned as a heretic and schismatic, and they were made to swear that they would not accept any bishop except the one nominated by Rome.[13] The controversial Synod of Diamper canonized the Romanisation of the Church of Saint Thomas Christians.[14] Aleixo de Menezes, labouring under the shadow of the Protestant Reformation and the Council of Trent, was unwilling to give an inch to the customs of the Saint Thomas Christians.

Decrees of the Synod[edit]

The synod issued 200 decrees distributed in nine actions (sessions).[13] It has been suggest that the differences between the decrees of the synod, are due to translation. It has been suggested that these decrees were first formulated in the Portuguese language by Don Menezes and then translated to Malayalam. It has been suggested that the participants signed the Malayalam document, which lacks 35 of the Canons given in the Portuguese text.[14]

Mar Sabor and Mar Proth

Changes in liturgy[edit]

The text on which the synod worked was a composite East Syriac text of Anaphora of Addai and Mari.[15] The synod declared certain passages of the Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari as impious, sacrilegious and resulting from Nestorian heresy. The changes made by the synod consist of six in litanies, seven in hymns or anthems, four in formulae of the deacon, one in the response of the people, one in the text of the gospel lesson, and one affecting the whole creed. In the prayer of the priest, there are five changes in the pre-anaphora part of the Qurbana of Addai and Mari. There are four changes within the anaphora and eleven in the four variable hutame (Sealing prayers).[16]

Decisions impacted social life[edit]

Udayamperūr Syro-Malabar Church

The Synod of Diamper condemned a multitude of Hindus beliefs, especially those related to transmigration, fate, and astrology. Hindu ceremonies and customs related to matrimony, death, birth, and purification on touching lower castes, which were prevalent among the Christians of Saint Thomas, were abandoned altogether. They were even banned from frequenting to Hindu festivities including Onam. The synod also condemned the belief that every man might be saved by his laws, all of which are good and lead to heaven, irrespective of his religion. The synod banned Christian teachers from installing or using any Hindu idols in their schools. Polygamy and concubinage were forbidden, and clergymen were banned from marital relations, military services to Hindu princes, and other secular indulgences. Previously, Hindu musicians had been used to conduct programs in Christian churches, but the synod banned the practice outright.[17]

Prohibition of books[edit]

The synod prohibited the use of many heretic books. These books are listed below.[18][19][20][21]

The Infancy of our Saviour (The History of our Lady) (Language: Syriac)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts, which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The annunciation of the angel was made in the Temple of Jerusalem, which contradicts the Gospel of Luke, which says it was made in Nazareth.
  2. Joseph had another wife and children when he was betrothed to Mary.
  3. Child Jesus was reproved for his naughty tricks.
  4. Child Jesus went to school and learned from them.
  5. Joseph, suspecting Mary of adultery, took her to priests, who gave her the water of jealousy to drink; that Mary brought forth with pain, and parting from her company, not being able to go farther, she retired to a stable at Bethlehem.
  6. None of the saints are in heaven but are all in a terrestrial paradise, where they should remain till the Day of Judgement.

Book of John Barialdan (Language: Syriac)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. In Christ, there were two persons: divine and human.
  2. The names Christ and Emmanuel are that of only the human person, so the name Jesus should not be adored.
  3. The union of incarnation is common to all the three divine persons, who were all incarnated.
  4. The union of the incarnation is only an accidental union of love.

The Procession of the Holy Spirit (Language: Persian)[edit]

This book contained the following concept which is against Roman Catholic modified creed (see Filioque):

  1. The Holy Spirit proceeds only from the Father, and not from the Son.

Margarita Fidei (The Jewel)[edit]

This is written by Abed Isho, a Nestorian prelate. This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. Mary is not ought to be called the mother of God, but only the mother of Christ.
  2. In Christ there are two persons, the one of the Word, and the other of Jesus.
  3. The union of the incarnation is only an accidental union of love and power and not a substantial union.
  4. Out of three distinct faiths Nestorian, Jacobite, and Roman, only the Nestorian faith is the true one taught by the Apostle, and the Roman faith is false and heretical.
  5. Matrimony is not a sacrament.
  6. The fire of hell is metaphorical, not real.
  7. Roman Church is fallen from the faith as they do not celebrate in leavened bread.

Fathers (Language: Unknown)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. Mary ought not to be called the mother of God.
  2. The Patriarch of Nestorians is the universal head of the Church immediately under Christ.
  3. The fire of hell is not real, but spiritual.
  4. It is heresy to say God was born, or died.
  5. There are two persons in Christ.

Life of Abed Isho (Language: Arabic)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The whole Trinity was incarnated.
  2. Cyril of Alexandria, who condemned Nestorius, was a heretic and is now in hell, for having taught, that there is only one person in Christ.
  3. Nestorius, Theodoras and Diodorus are saints and are blessed.
  4. None of the saints are in heaven but are all in a terrestrial paradise, where they should remain till the Day of Judgement.
  5. God dwelt in Christ as in a rational temple, giving him the power to do all the good things he did.
  6. The souls of the just will be in a terrestrial paradise till the Day of Judgement.

Book of Synods (Language: Syriac)[edit]

It contains a forged letter of Pope Caius, with false subscriptions of many other Western bishops, directed to Nestorian bishops, wherein it is acknowledged that the Church of Rome ought to be subject to Nestorian church.

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The Roman Church is fallen from the faith, having perverted the canons of the Apostles, by the force of heretical emperors' arms.
  2. The Romans are heretics, for not celebrating in leavened bread.
  3. All bishops who followed Nestorius ought to be much esteemed and styled saints and their relics must be revered.
  4. Matrimony is not a sacrament. It may be dissolved for the bad conditions of the parties.
  5. Usury is lawful, and there is no sin in it.

Book of 'Timothy the Patriarch' (Language: Persian)[edit]

This book contained the following concept which is against Catholic creed:

  1. That the true body of our Lord Christ is not there in the sacrament of the altar, but only its figure.

Domingo or Letter of the Lord's-day (Language: Malayalam)[edit]

A letter believed to have come from heaven, in which the Roman Church is accused of having fallen from the faith.

Maclamatas (Language: Syriac)[edit]

It claims the distinction of two persons in Christ, and the accidental union of the incarnation is proved.

Uguarda or Rose (Language: Greek)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. There are two persons in Christ.
  2. The union of the incarnation was accidental.
  3. When Mary brought forth with pain, the sons of Joseph, which he had by his other wife, went for a midwife to her.

Camiz (Language: Syriac)[edit]

This book contained the following concept which is against Catholic creed:

  1. The Divine Word and the Son of the Virgin Mary are not the same.

Menra (Language: Hebrew)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. Christ is only the image of the Word.
  2. The substance of God dwelt in Christ as in a temple.
  3. Christ is next to the divinity and was made the companion of God.

Book of Orders (Language: Tamil)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The form, and not the matter, is necessary to orders.
  2. There are only two orders: diaconate and priesthood.
  3. Altars of wood, and not of stone, are to be consecrated.

It also contains prayers for those converted to Nestorianism from any other sect.

Book of Homilies (Language: Arabic)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. The Eucharist is only the image of Christ and is distinguished from him, as an image is from a true man.
  2. The body of Jesus Christ is not there in Eucharist, nor anywhere else but in heaven.
  3. The whole Trinity was incarnate.
  4. Christ is only the temple of the Divinity, and God only by representation.
  5. The soul of Christ descended not into hell but was carried to the paradise of Eden.

It also contains:

  1. Letters from some Nestorian synods, in which it is said that the Nestorian Patriarch is not subject to the Roman Bishop.
  2. An oath to be taken to the Nestorian Patriarch, as the head of the church, wherein people swear to obey him, and him only, and not the Bishop of Rome.

An Exposition of the Gospels (Language: Syriac)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. There are two persons in Christ.
  2. Christ is a pure creature.
  3. He was obliged to adore God, and stood in need of prayer.
  4. He was the temple of the holiest Trinity.
  5. Christ's soul, when he died, descended not into hell, but was carried to the paradise of Eden.
  6. Mary deserved to be reproved as well as the rest of the Jews for having vainly imagined that she was mother to one that was to be a great King; looking upon Christ as no other than a pure man and presuming that he was to have a temporal empire.
  7. Evangelists did not record all Christ's actions in truth as they were not present at many of them.
  8. The wise men that came from the East received no favor from God for their journey, neither did they believe in Christ.
  9. Christ was the adopted Son of God, and not God's natural Son.
  10. Christ received new grace in baptism, which he had not before.
  11. Christ is only the image of the Word and the pure temple of the Holy Spirit.
  12. Eucharist is only the image of the body of Christ, which is only in heaven at the right hand of the Father, and not here on earth.
  13. Christ, as pure man, did not know when the Day of Judgement was to be.
  14. When Saint Thomas put his hand into Christ's side, and said, "My Lord and my God!" he was not speaking to Christ as God, but it was only an exclamation made to God on such a miracle.
  15. The authority that Christ gave to Peter over the church was the same that he gave to other priests, so his successors have no more power or jurisdiction than other bishops.
  16. Mary is not the mother of God.
  17. The First Epistle of John, and that of James, are not the writings of those Apostles, but of some other persons of the same name, and therefore are not canonical.

Book of Hormisda Raban (Language: Greek)[edit]

This book contained the following concepts which are against Catholic creed:

  1. Nestorius was a saint and martyr and suffered for the truth.
  2. Cyril, who persecuted him, was the priest and minister of the devil and is now in hell.
  3. Images are filthy and abominable idols, and ought not to be adored.
  4. Cyril, as a heretic, invented and introduced them.

Book of Lots (Language: Aramaic)[edit]

It contains many non-Christian rituals and practices such as:

  1. Ring of Solomon
  2. Choice of good days to marry upon, and for several other uses.

A book of unknown title which is a Nestorian version of Flos Sanctorum (Language: Syriac)[edit]

Describes the lives of many Nestorian saints.

Parisman or Persian Medicine (Language: Persian)[edit]

It contains:

  1. Many sorceries.
  2. Certain methods whereby one may do mischief to their enemies and may gain women.
  3. The strange names of devils, that whosoever shall carry the names of seven of them about him writ in a paper shall be in no danger of any evil.
  4. Many exorcisms for the casting out of devils, mixing some Christian words with others that are not intelligible.
  5. The invocation of the Most Holy Trinity, often desiring the doing of lewd things and enormous sins, joining the merits of Nestorius and his followers, many times, in the same prayer with those of the Blessed Virgin, and those of their devils with those of the holy angels.

Destruction of books[edit]

The decree XVI ordered that all the Syriac manuscripts should be handed over to the Archbishop or his deputy on a visit to the Churches. Due to the lack of printed books, the Qurbana manuscripts were excluded from this.

Some of the other books which are said to have been burnt at the Synod of Diamper are:

  1. The book of the infancy of the savior (history of our Lord)
  2. Book of John Brandon
  3. The Pearl of Faith
  4. The Book of the Fathers
  5. The Life of the Abbot Isaias
  6. The Book of Sunday
  7. Maclamatas
  8. Uganda or the Rose
  9. Comiz
  10. The Epistle of Mernaceal
  11. Menra
  12. Of orders
  13. Homilies (in which the Eucharist is said to be the image of Christ)
  14. Exposition of Gospels
  15. The Book of Rubban Hormisda
  16. The Flowers of the Saints
  17. The Book of Lots
  18. The Parsimony or Persian Medicines.[20][21]

There are only very few Syriac manuscripts that withstood the destruction. Recently, Dr. Istvan Perczel, a Hungarian scholar researching Syrian Christians in India, found that certain texts survived the destruction of Syriac religious writings by the Portuguese missionaries.[22]

Reception of the synod[edit]

The Church authorities noted the result of the synod was not as helpful as they expected. As the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) says, "The only case in which an ancient Eastern rite has been wilfully romanized is that of the Uniat Malabar Christians, where it was not Roman authority but the misguided zeal of Alexius de Menezes, Archbishop of Goa, and his Portuguese advisers at the Synod of Diamper (1599) which spoiled the old Malabar Rite."

After the Synod of Diamper, on 25 November 1599, a letter was sent to Pope by the Archdeacon, giving information about the synod and its work. The letter praises the work of Menezes and requests the appointment of Menezes or Francis Ros as their bishop.[23] The letter does not fully represent the genuine sentiments of Archdeacon, as by that time he was completely at the mercy of the Portuguese and the only thing left for him to do was to follow their directives.[13]

In this way, the Synod of Diamper achieved one of the aims of the Portuguese policy in Kerala, to separate the Syrian Christians of Malabar from the Chaldean Patriarch and to extend the influence of Portuguese Padroado in India. As a result, the King of Portugal got the right of nomination to the ancient See of Saint Thomas in Malabar. The Archbishopric of Angamale was degraded to a Portuguese Padroado diocese under Goa on August 4, 1600, AD.[13]

Aftermath[edit]

After the Synod of Diamper, Menesis stayed in Kerala until November 1599, visited the churches, examined the traditional books preserved there and those deemed heretical were burned.[24]

Change in Administration[edit]

Tomb of Francis Roz, first Jesuit Metropolitan of Kodungalloor Archeparchy, inside Kottakkavu Mar Thoma Syro-Malabar Pilgrim Church, North Paravur.

The Archbishopric of Angamaly was downgraded to a bishopric under Goa in 1600. Portuguese Padroado rule was thus imposed and the bishops for Saint Thomas Christians were appointed by Portuguese Padroado.[25] Under Portuguese Padroado, Latin Bishops were appointed to govern the Saint Thomas Christians. Francis Ros was nominated as successor to Abraham on 5 November 1599. Bishop Ros, centralized in himself all the authority reducing almost to nothing the powers of Archdeacon. Roz died on 16 February 1624 and was succeeded by Bishop Stephen Britto. George of the Cross died c. 1634 and was succeeded by Archdeacon Thomas. Britto died in 1641 and Bishop Garcia Francis succeeded him. A regular fight ensued between the Francis and Thomas.[26]

Great Oath of Bent Cross (Coonan Cross Oath)[edit]

The oppressive rule of the Portuguese Padroado provoked a violent reaction by the Saint Thomas Christian community. The first solemn protest occurred in 1653. Under the leadership of Archdeacon Thoma, Nasranis gathered at Mattancherry church on Friday, 24 January 1653 (M.E. 828 Makaram 3), and made an oath that is known as the Great Oath of Bent Cross. Those who were not able to touch the cross-tied ropes on the cross held the rope in their hands and made the oath. Because of the weight, it is said that the cross bent a little and so it is known as Oath of the bent cross (Coonen Kurisu Sathyam)[27][28] The exact wording of the oath is a matter of dispute. There are various versions about the wording of oath, one version being that the oath was directed against the Portuguese, another that it was directed against Jesuits, yet another version that it was directed against the authority of Church of Rome[29]

Schism in Saint Thomas Christian Community[edit]

Four months after the Coonan Cross Oath, twelve priests of the church laid their hands on Archdeacon Thomas and ordained him as Thoma I. The Portuguese missionaries attempted to reconcile with Saint Thomas Christians but were not successful. Later, Pope Alexander VII sent a Carmelite delegation under Joseph Sebastiani who succeeded in convincing the majority of Saint Thomas Christians, including Palliveettil Chandy Kathanar and Kadavil Chandy Kathanar that the consecration of the archdeacon as metropolitan was not legitimate.As the validity of Thoma I's consecration was questioned, he began to lose followers. In the meantime, Sebastiani returned to Rome and was ordained as bishop by Pope on 15 December 1659.[30] Joseph Sebastiani returned to Kerala in 1661 and within a short time period he restored most of the churches that had been with Thoma I to Rome. Thus, by 1663, 84 of the 116 churches in existence were in favor of Sebastiani, leaving only 32 churches in favor of Thoma I. However, in 1663, with the conquest of Cochin by the Dutch, the control of the Portuguese on the Malabar coast was lost. The Dutch declared that all other the Europeans had to leave Malabar. Before leaving Kerala, on 1 February 1663 Sebastiani consecrated Palliveettil Chandy as the Metran of the Thomas Christians who adhered to the Church of Rome.[31][32]

Thoma I, meanwhile sent requests to various Oriental Churches to receive canonical consecration as bishop. In 1665, Gregorios Abdal Jaleel, a bishop from Syriac Orthodox Church, arrived in India and the faction under the leadership of Thoma I welcomed him. The bishop was sent in correspondence to the letter sent by Thoma to the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch. Bishop Abdul Jaleel regularized the Episcopal succession of Thoma I.[33][34] Thereafter the faction affiliated with the Catholic Church under Palliveettil Chandy was referred themselves as the Pazhayakūttukar ("Pazhayakoor faction" or "Old Party"), while the branch affiliated with Thoma I was called the Puthankūttukar ("Puthenkoor faction" or "New Party").[35][36][37][38] These appellations have been somewhat controversial, as both groups considered themselves the true heirs to the Saint Thomas tradition, and saw the other as heretical.[39][40]

This visit of Gregorios Abdal Jaleel gradually introduced the West Syriac liturgy, customs and script in the Puthenkoor faction. The visits of prelates from the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch continued since then and this led to gradual replacement of the East Syriac Rite liturgy with the West Syriac Rite and the faction affiliated to the Miaphysite Christology of the Oriental Orthodox Communion.[41][42][43] [44] The Pazhayakoor faction continued with the East Syriac traditions and Diophysite faith and stayed within the Catholic Church. By this process, Saint Thomas Christians were divided into East Syriac and West Syriac branches.

Successive divisions have taken place and as a result, Saint Thomas Christians were transformed into the seven existing Syrian Churches in Kerala today.[45] The Pazhayakoor faction divided into Syro-Malabar Church and Chaldean Syrian Church while the Puthenkoor faction divided into Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Mar Thoma Syrian Church, Syro-Malankara Catholic Church and Malabar Independent Syrian Church.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Synod of Diamper". britannica.com. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 10 January 2021. The forced Latinization and disregard for local tradition were accompanied by violence and led to schism among Thomas Christians by the mid-17th century.
  2. ^ Brock, Sebastian P. (2011c). "Chaldean Syrian Church". In Brock, Sebastian P.; Butts, Aaron M.; Kiraz, George A.; Van Rompay, Lucas (eds.). Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage: Electronic Edition. Gorgias Press. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  3. ^ "Thomas Christians". e-GEDSH:Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage. Although India was supplied with bishops from the Middle East, the effective control lay in the hands of the indigenous Archdeacon.
  4. ^ Joseph, Clara. A.B (2019). Christianity in India: The Anti-Colonial Turn. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781351123846. Documents address him as the Jathikku Karthavyan [the head of the caste], that is, the head of the Thomas Christians.....even when there were more than one foreign bishop, there was only one Archdeacon for entire St.Thomas Community"
  5. ^ Frykenberg, Robert Erick (2008). Christianity in India From Beginnings to the Present. Oxford University Press. p. 122.
  6. ^ a b Neil, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. p. 204.
  7. ^ a b Ninan, M.M. "5". HISTORY OF CHRISTIANITY IN INDIA.
  8. ^ a b Neil, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. p. 208.
  9. ^ "Thomas Christians". e-GEDSH:Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  10. ^ Synod of Diamper Church, Garvasis and Protasis church and All Saints church.
  11. ^ "Diamper, Synod of". gedsh.bethmardutho.org. Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage. Retrieved 11 January 2022. The synod, attended by 153 local priests and 660 lay representatives, lasted from the 20th to the 27th of June, and passed more than 200 decrees in rapid succession and evidently without any serious debate.
  12. ^ Neil, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. p. 213. The second day was entirely taken up with receiving from the participants the profession and declaration of the faith. ...and to repudiate all Nestorian error and in particular all allegiance to the patriarch of Babylon, 'whom I condemn, reject and anathematize as being a Nestorian heretic and schismatic,...'
  13. ^ a b c d Dr. Thekkedath, History of Christianity in India"
  14. ^ a b J Thaliath, The Synod of Diamper
  15. ^ D. Webb, " Versions of the Malabar Liturgy"
  16. ^ Connolly, " Work of Menezes", Codrington, " The Malabar Liturgy and the Synod of Diamper"
  17. ^ The history of the church of Malabar: Together with the Synod of Diamper 1599 - Michael Geddes - the Bavarian State Library
  18. ^ [1], The history of Christianity in India: Volume 2 By James Hough
  19. ^ Acts and Decrees of the Synod are exhaustively given by Michael Geddes, "A Short History of the Church of Malabar Together with the Synod of Diamper &c." London, 1694;Repr. in George Menachery, Ed., Indian Church History Classics, Vol.1, Ollur 1998, pp.33-112. Also in James Hugh Vol.2. Cf.Relevant articles in The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, 1973, 1982,2009
  20. ^ a b Ferroli, "Jesuits in Malabar" Vol.1
  21. ^ a b Save Syriac, NSC Network.
  22. ^ Nagarajan, Saraswathy (19 June 2009) Journey of discovery The Hindu hindu.com
  23. ^ Giuseppe Beltrami, La Chiesa Caldea pp 253–6, Full text reproduced
  24. ^ "Diamper, Synod of". gedsh.bethmardutho.org. Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage. Retrieved 11 January 2022. After the synod, Menezes remained in Kerala until Nov. 1599 and made a tour of the diocese, during which books preserved in the local churches were submitted to his entourage for examination and those deemed heretical were consigned to the flame.
  25. ^ Divisions and Rite of the Churches- Syro Malabar Church, Malankara Syriac Orthodox Church, Malankara Orthodox Syriac Church, Thozhiyur Church, Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, Syro Malankara Church, Chaldean Syrian Church- Synod of Diamper, NSC Network.
  26. ^ Frykenberg, Robert Erick (2008). Christianity in India From Beginnings to the Present. Oxford University Press. p. 367. Refusal of those loyal to the Church of the East to submit to dictates from the Church of the West entered a new phase with the rise of two new figures. The new Archdeacon, named Thomas, challenged the new Padroado Archbishop of Kodungallur (Cranganore), named Francis Garcia(SJ). Each claimed that the other could do nothing without his consent.
  27. ^ Eastern Churches Journal : A Journal of Eastern Christendom-Volume 10. Society of Saint John Chrysostom. 2003. p. 55. The crowd outside shared in the oath by holding on to a rope tied to a cross in the Churchyard . It is said that the cross bent as a result . Hence the oath is known as Coonan ( bent ) Cross Oath.
  28. ^ Oommen, M. A. (1999). Rethinking Development - Kerala's Development Experience · Volume 1. Institute of Social Sciences and Concept Publishing Company. p. 81. ISBN 9788170227649. The oath is known in history as the Kunan Kurisu Satyam , an oath taken by holding a rope tied to a cross that consequently developed a bend.
  29. ^ India Census Division, . (1965). Census of India (1961: Kerala. Office of the Registrar General. p. 111. There are various versions about the wording of swearing, one version being that it was directed against the Portugese, another that it was directed against Jesuits, yet another that it was directed against the authority of church of RomeCS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  30. ^ Neil, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. p. 324. To bring one of the cattanars to Rome for consecration would have resulted in endless delays...So at the age of thirty-six Joseph Sebastiani, in religion Fr Joseph of Saint Mary OCD, was consecrated secretly on 15 December 1659, and given the title bishop of Hierapolis.....He is appointed as apostolic commissary for the whole of the Serra
  31. ^ Neil, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. p. 325. The consecration took place on 1 February 1663....But Chandy was not consecrated as archbishop of Cranganore, but as bishop of Megara i.p.i., and with the title of vicar apostolic.
  32. ^ Frykenberg, Robert Erick (2008). Christianity in India From Beginnings to the Present. Oxford University Press. p. 361.
  33. ^ Menachery G; 1973, 1982, 1998; Podipara, Placid J. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956; Tisserant, E. 1957
  34. ^ Mundadan & Thekkedath 1982.
  35. ^ Vadakkekara, p. 84; 86.
  36. ^ Frykenberg, p. 361.
  37. ^ Fernando, p. 79.
  38. ^ Chaput, pp. 7–8.
  39. ^ Vadakkekara, p. 84 and note.
  40. ^ Sebastian P. Brock , "Thomas Christians," in Thomas Christians, edited by Sebastian P. Brock, Aaron M. Butts, George A. Kiraz and Lucas Van Rompay, https://gedsh.bethmardutho.org/Thomas-Christians.
  41. ^ Gregorios & Roberson, p. 285.
  42. ^ Vadakkekara, p. 91.
  43. ^ Gouvea, Antonio de (2003) [1606]. Malekandathil, Pius (ed.). Jornada of Dom Alexis de Menezes: A Portuguese Account of the Sixteenth Century Malabar (2003 ed.). Coimbra. ISBN 9788188979004.
  44. ^ Vadakkekara 2007, p. 88.
  45. ^ Brock, Sebastian P. (2011). "Thomas Christians". In Brock, Sebastian P.; Butts, Aaron M.; Kiraz, George A.; Van Rompay, Lucas (eds.). Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage: Electronic Edition. Gorgias Press. Retrieved 14 June 2021.

Books (Studies on Synod of Diamper)[edit]

  • Paul Pallath, "The Synod of Diamper: valid or invalid?"
  • George Nedungatt S.J., "The Synod of Diamper Revisited", Pontifical Instituto Orientale, Rome, 2001.
  • Joseph Kuzhinjalil, "The disciplinary Legislation of Synod of Diamper" (1975)
  • Jonas Thaliath, " The Synod of Diamper" (1958)
  • Connolly, " The Work of Meneses"
  • Codrington, " The Chaldean Liturgy"
  • Codrington," The Malabar Liturgy and Synod of Diamper"
  • Neill, Stephen – (1977) A history of Christian missions Neill, Stephen- The story of the Christian church in India and Pakistan
  • Eric Frykenberg, Robert- Christianity in India
  • Hough, James – 1845 - The history of Christianity in India: Volume 4
  • Sir William Kaye, John- Christianity in India
  • Bruce Firth, Cyril- An introduction to Indian church history
  • Hunter, W.W. – (1886) The Indian Empire; Its People History and Products pp 240
  • Logan, William – (1887) Malabar Manual pp 119
  • Nangam Aiya, V.-(1906) The Travancore State Manual Volume 2 pp 243
  • Barton, John M. –(1872) The Syrian Christians: Narrative of a Tour in the Travancore Mission of the Church Missionary Society Mission Life, Vol. III * * Geddes, Michael- (1694) A short History of the Church of Malabar
  • Henry, J. & Parker, J - The Christians of St. Thomas and their liturgies
  • Milne Rae, George- Syrian Church in India Whitehouse, Thomas – (1873) Lingerings of light in a dark land: researches into the Syrian church of Malabar * * Brown, Leslie- The Indian Christians of St Thomas
  • David Macbride, John – (1856) - The Syrian church in India

External links[edit]