Synod of Verona
The meeting was to address numerous issues. Some of these were the dispute over claims between empire and papacy in central Italy, the proprietary concerns of the bishopric of Gurk, plans for a crusade to the Holy Land, a dispute over the investiture of the rival Archbishops of Trier, Folmar of Karden (the pro-papal candidate) and Rudolf of Wied (afterward invested as anti-archbishop by Barbarossa under the terms of the Concordat of Worms), and the condemnation of heresy. It also addressed the issue of marriage, particularly in response to the condemnation of marriage by the Cathars, finally listing it as a sacrament.
The most significant event of the synod was the declaration of the papal bull Ad abolendam and the joint condemnation of Arnoldists, Cathars, Humiliati, Josephini, Patarenes, Passagini, and Waldensians as heretics. The Waldensians were charged for being in rebellion since they continued to preach despite being forbidden from doing so. The synod also identified this group as part of the Humiliati or "Poor Men of Lyons" and put them in the same category as the Cathari and Patarenes, anathematizing them in the process. A decree was included that detailed a system of trial and punishment for heretics.
- Morris 1989, p. 199.
- Freed 2016, p. 453.
- Freed 2016, p. 454.
- Kochuthara, Shaji George (2007). The Concept of Sexual Pleasure in the Catholic Moral Tradition. Rome: Editrice Pontificia Universita Gregoriana. p. 275. ISBN 9788878391000.
- Robinson 1990.
- Lambert 1977, p. 72.
- Schmidt, Muhammad Wolfgang G. A. (2017). „And on this Rock I Will Build My Church“. A New Edition of Philip Schaff’s „History of the Christian Church“: Medieval Church History. From Gregory VII. to the Protestant Reformation A.D. 1049-1517. Hamburg: disserta Verlag. p. 180. ISBN 9783959353908.
- Schaff, Philip (2015-03-24). The Christian Church from the 1st to the 20th Century. Delmarva Publications, Inc.
- Robinson, I.S. (1990). The Papacy. Cambridge University Press.
- Lambert, Malcolm (1977). Medieval Heresy: Popular Movements from Bogomil to Hus. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd.
- Freed, John B. (2016). Frederick Barbarossa: The Prince and the Myth. Yale University Press.
- Morris, Colin (1989). The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250. Oxford University Press.
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