Synod of Verona

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The Synod of Verona was held November 1184 under the auspices of Pope Lucius III and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.[1]

The meeting was to address numerous issues. Some of these were; dispute over claims between empire and papacy in central Italy,[2] proprietary concerns of the bishopric of Gurk,[3] plans for a crusade to the Holy Land,[1] dispute over the investiture of the anti-Archbishop of Trier, Rudolf of Wied,[1] and the condemnation of heresy.[1]

Though Lucius and Frederick were able to agree on Gurk, a new crusade and heresy issues,[3][1] the remaining issues were left unsettled.[1]

The most significant event of the synod was the declaration of the papal bull Ad abolendam[4] and the joint condemnation of Arnoldists, Cathars, Humiliati, Josephini, Patarenes, Passagini, and Waldensians as heretics.[5]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Morris 1989, p. 199.
  2. ^ Freed 2016, p. 453.
  3. ^ a b Freed 2016, p. 454.
  4. ^ Robinson 1990.
  5. ^ Lambert 1977, p. 72.


  • Robinson, I.S. (1990). The Papacy. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Lambert, Malcolm (1977). Medieval Heresy: Popular Movements from Bogomil to Hus. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. 
  • Freed, John B. (2016). Frederick Barbarossa: The Prince and the Myth. Yale University Press. 
  • Morris, Colin (1989). The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250. Oxford University Press. 

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