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The orbital period is the time taken for a given object to make one complete orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy to mostly either planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
For objects in the Solar System, this is often referred as the sidereal period, determined by one 360° revolution of two planetary bodies. I.e. The Earth orbiting the Sun. The name 'sidereal' is added as it implies that the alignment returns to the same place as projected in the sky by the stars. Usually the orbital period is referred just as the period or (P), for example, as used describing orbits of binary stars. I.e. Jupiter has a sidereal period of 11.86 years or the main binary star Alpha Centauri AB has a period of about 79.91 years
Another important orbital period definition can refer to the repeated cycles for celestial bodies as observed from the Earth's surface. An example is the so-called synodic period, applying to the elapsed time where planets return to the same kind of phenomena or location. For example, when any planet returns between its consecutive observed conjunctions or oppositions with the Sun. I.e. Jupiter synodic period from Earth is 398.8 days, so that, successive oppositions of Jupiter occur roughly once every 13 months apart.
Periods in astronomy are conveniently expressed in various units of time, often in hours, days or years. They can be also defined under different specific astronomical definitions that are mostly caused by small complex eternal gravitational influences by other celestial objects. Such variations also include the true placement of the centre of gravity between two astronomical bodies (barycentre), perturbations by other planets or bodies, orbital resonance, general relativity, etc. Most are investigated by detailed complex astronomical theories using celestial mechanics using precise positional observations of celestial objects via astrometry.
- The sidereal period is the amount of time that it takes an object to make a full orbit, relative to the stars. This is the orbital period in an inertial (non-rotating) frame of reference.
- The synodic period is the amount of time that it takes for an object to reappear at the same point in relation to two or more other objects (e.g. the Moon's phase and its position relative to the Sun and Earth repeats every 29.5 day synodic period, longer than its 27.3 day orbit around the Earth, due to the motion of the Earth about the Sun). The time between two successive oppositions or conjunctions is also an example of the synodic period. For the planets in the solar system, the synodic period (with respect to Earth) differs from the sidereal period due to the Earth's orbiting around the Sun.
- The draconitic period, or draconic period, is the time that elapses between two passages of the object through its ascending node, the point of its orbit where it crosses the ecliptic from the southern to the northern hemisphere. This period differs from the sidereal period because both the orbital plane of the object and the plane of the ecliptic precess with respect to the fixed stars, so their intersection, the line of nodes, also precesses with respect to the fixed stars. Although the plane of the ecliptic is often held fixed at the position it occupied at a specific epoch, the orbital plane of the object still precesses causing the draconitic period to differ from the sidereal period.
- The anomalistic period is the time that elapses between two passages of an object at its periapsis (in the case of the planets in the solar system, called the perihelion), the point of its closest approach to the attracting body. It differs from the sidereal period because the object's semi-major axis typically advances slowly.
- Also, the Earth's tropical period (or simply its "year") is the time that elapses between two alignments of its axis of rotation with the Sun, also viewed as two passages of the object at right ascension zero. One Earth year has a slightly shorter interval than the solar orbit (sidereal period) because the inclined axis and equatorial plane slowly precess (rotate with respect to the stars), realigning with the Sun before the orbit completes. The Earth's precession cycle completes in about 25,770 years.
Small body orbiting a central body
- a is the orbit's semi-major axis in meters
- μ = GM is the standard gravitational parameter in m3/s2
- G is the gravitational constant,
- M is the mass of the more massive body.
For all ellipses with a given semi-major axis the orbital period is the same, regardless of eccentricity.
Inversely, for calculating the distance where a body has to orbit in order to pulse a given orbital period:
- a is the orbit's semi-major axis in meters,
- G is the gravitational constant,
- M is the mass of the more massive body,
- T is the orbital period in seconds.
Orbital period as a function of central body's density
When a very small body is in a circular orbit barely above the surface of a sphere of any radius and mean density ρ (in kg/m3), the above equation simplifies to (since M = Vρ = 4/πa3ρ):
So, for the Earth as the central body (or any other spherically symmetric body with the same mean density, about 5,515 kg/m3) we get:
- T = 1.41 hours
and for a body made of water (ρ ≈ 1,000 kg/m3)
- T = 3.30 hours
Thus, as an alternative for using a very small number like G, the strength of universal gravity can be described using some reference material, like water: the orbital period for an orbit just above the surface of a spherical body of water is 3 hours and 18 minutes. Conversely, this can be used as a kind of "universal" unit of time if we have a unit of mass, a unit of length and a unit of density.
Two bodies orbiting each other
- a is the sum of the semi-major axes of the ellipses in which the centers of the bodies move, or equivalently, the semi-major axis of the ellipse in which one body moves, in the frame of reference with the other body at the origin (which is equal to their constant separation for circular orbits),
- M1 + M2 is the sum of the masses of the two bodies,
- G is the gravitational constant.
In a parabolic or hyperbolic trajectory, the motion is not periodic, and the duration of the full trajectory is infinite.
When two bodies orbit a third body in different orbits, and thus different orbital periods, their respective, synodic period can be found. If the orbital periods of the two bodies around the third are called P1 and P2, so that P1 < P2, their synodic period is given by:
Examples of sidereal and synodic periods
Table of synodic periods in the Solar System, relative to Earth:
|Object||Sidereal period (yr)||Synodic period (yr)||Synodic period (d) |
|Mercury||0.240846 (87.9691 days)||0.317||115.88|
|Venus||0.615 (225 days)||1.599||583.9|
|Earth||1 (365.25636 solar days)||—||—|
|Moon||0.0748 (27.32 days)||0.0809||29.5306|
|99942 Apophis (near-Earth asteroid)||0.886||7.769||2,837.6|
|90377 Sedna||12050||1.00001||365.1|
In the case of a planet's moon, the synodic period usually means the Sun-synodic period, namely, the time it takes the moon to complete its illumination phases, completing the solar phases for an astronomer on the planet's surface. The Earth's motion does not determine this value for other planets because an Earth observer is not orbited by the moons in question. For example, Deimos's synodic period is 1.2648 days, 0.18% longer than Deimos's sidereal period of 1.2624 d.
|Binary star||Orbital period|
|AM Canum Venaticorum||17.146 minutes|
|Beta Lyrae AB||12.9075 days|
|Alpha Centauri AB||79.91 years|
|Proxima Centauri – Alpha Centauri AB||500,000 years or more|
- Geosynchronous orbit derivation
- Rotation period – time that it takes to complete one revolution around its axis of rotation
- Sidereal time
- Sidereal year
- Opposition (astronomy)
- List of periodic comets
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