The synthetic chemical "aka drug" is sprayed or otherwise soaked into a base material which is often plant-based. There are several psychoactive artificial cannabinoid families (e.g. AM-xxx, HU-xxx, JWH-xxx, CP xx) that are used as designer drugs sprayed on herbs and sold as natural highs under brand names like K2 and Spice, both of which are genericized trademarks used for any synthetic marijuana product.
When synthetic cannabis blends first went on sale in the early 2000s, it was thought that they achieved an effect through a mixture of natural herbs. Laboratory analysis in 2008 showed that this was not the case, and that they in fact contain synthetic cannabinoids that act on the body in a similar way to cannabinoids naturally found in cannabis, such as THC. A large and complex variety of synthetic cannabinoids, most often cannabicyclohexanol, JWH-018, JWH-073, or HU-210, are used in an attempt to avoid the laws that make cannabis illegal, making synthetic cannabis a designer drug. It has been sold under various brand names, online, in head shops, and other stores.
It is often marketed as herbal incense or "herbal smoking blends", the products are usually consumed through smoking. Although synthetic cannabinoids may not produce positive results in drug tests for cannabis, it is possible to detect its metabolites in human urine. The synthetic cannabinoids contained in synthetic marijuana products have been made illegal in many countries.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Relationship to cannabis
- 3 History
- 4 Safety
- 5 Detection in body fluids
- 6 THC analogs
- 7 CBD analogs
- 8 Ingredients
- 9 Legal status
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
According to a 2012 US Federal Bureau of Investigation memo which mentions a group of five synthetic chemicals made temporarily illegal by the US Drug enforcement Agency the year before, the term for naming this compound is either herbal incense or synthetic marijuana. The memo suggests that Dr. John W. Huffman, an organic chemist at Clemson University, was responsible for the development of the first synthetic marijuana (JWH-018) created as a part of his groundbreaking research on cannabinoid receptors in the human brain. The FBI concludes that as a result of the publication of his research people searching for a "marijuana-like-high" would follow Dr Huffman's recipes and methods.
Relationship to cannabis
There is controversy about calling this substance Spice or K2 or synthetic marijuana. "Synthetic marijuana" is a misnomer according to Dr. Lewis Nelson, a medical toxicologist at the NYU School of Medicine who states "really quite different, and the effects are much more unpredictable. It's dangerous". Since the term synthetic does not apply to the plant but rather to the chemical that the plant contains (tetrahydrocannabinol), the term synthetic cannabinoid is more appropriate. Research on the safety of synthetic cannabinoids is now becoming available. Initial studies are focused on the role of synthetic cannabinoids in psychosis. Synthetic cannabinoids may precipitate psychosis and in some cases it may be prolonged. Some studies suggest that synthetic cannabinoid intoxication is associated with acute psychosis, worsening of previously stable psychotic disorders, and it may trigger a chronic (long-term) psychotic disorder among vulnerable individuals such as those with a family history of mental illness. Synthetic cannabis is stated to be more toxic to the brain and more addictive than regular cannabis.
The first synthetic cannabinoids were synthesized by Roger Adams in the early 1940s. Early cannabinoid research concentrated on tetrahydrocannabinol or "THC" as the main psychoactive and analgesic compound found in the cannabis plant. Other naturally cannabinoids such as cannabidiol or "CBD" are less well studied, and not illegal in most jurisdictions. Most synthetic cannabinoids are analogs of THC.
The first generation of THC analogs (synhexyl, nabilone, nabitan, nantradol) featured slight variations of the THC molecule, such as esterifying the phenolic hydroxy group, extending and branching of the pentyl side chain, or substituting nitrogen for oxygen in the benzopyran ring. These analogs can be grouped into classical (HU-210), bicyclic (CP-55,940), and tricyclic (CP-55,244). Tritium-labelled cannabinoids such as [³H]CP-55,940 were instrumental in discovering the cannabinoid receptors in the early 1990s.
|Agonist||Noladin ether||HU-308, JWH-133|
|Antagonist||SR-141716A, LY-320135,AM-251||SR-144528, AM-630|
HU-210 is apparently the most active cannabinoid used at present. It is up to 800 times more active than THC in mice. AM-404 (a paracetamol metabolite) is an inhibitor of endocannabinoid cellular uptake, prolonging their effects. Nabitan, O-1057 and TMA are water-soluble.
In January 2009, researchers at the University of Freiburg in Germany announced that an active substance in Spice was an undisclosed analogue of the synthetic cannabinoid CP 47,497. Later that month, CP 47,497 along with its dimethylhexyl, dimethyloctyl and dimethylnonyl homologues, were added to the German controlled drug schedules. In May, the analogue of CP 47,497 was named "cannabicyclohexanol".
In July 2010, it was announced that JWH-018 is one of the active components in at least three versions of Spice, which had been sold in a number of countries around the world since 2002, often marketed as incense. Another potent synthetic cannabinoid, HU-210, has been reported to have been found in Spice seized by U.S. Customs and Border Protection. An analysis of samples acquired four weeks after the German prohibition of JWH-018 took place found that the compound had been replaced with JWH-073.
Different ratios of JWH-018 and CP 47,497 and their analogues have been found in different brands of synthetic cannabis and manufacturers constantly change the composition of their products. The amount of JWH-018 in Spice has been found to vary from 0.2% to 3%.
Other non-cannabinoid ingredients have also been found in synthetic cannabis blends around the world, but they do not produce classical cannabis intoxication effects. This includes substituted cathinone derived stimulant drugs such as 4-methylbuphedrone and 4-methyl-alpha-PPP, and psychedelic tryptamine derivatives such as 4-HO-DET. In 2013, a designer opioid drug, AH-7921, was detected in smoking blends in Japan, along with several novel cannabinoids and a cathinone analogue.
According to the Psychonaut Web Mapping Research Project, synthetic cannabis products, sold under the brand name Spice, first appeared in Europe in 2004. The brand "Spice" was released in 2004 by the now-dormant company The Psyche Deli in London, UK. In 2006 the brand gained popularity. According to the Financial Times, the assets of The Psyche Deli rose from £65,000 in 2006 to £899,000 in 2007. The EMCDDA[clarification needed] reported in 2009 that Spice products were identified in 21 of the 30 participating countries. Because Spice was the dominant brand until 2009, the competing brands that started to appear from 2008 on were also dubbed Spice. Spice can, therefore, refer to both the brand Spice, as to all herbal blends with synthetic cannabinoids added.
Although most synthetic cannabinoids exhibit only the typical cannabinoid effects when used at appropriate doses, they are potent drugs capable of causing clinical intoxication and death (probably due to CNS depression and hypothermia) when used inappropriately. Many compounds have been banned in the U.S. and numerous other countries, although loopholes remain and new examples continue to be encountered on a regular basis.
No official studies have been conducted on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids on humans (as is often the case with illegal and potentially toxic compounds). However, reports describing effects seen in patients seeking medical care after taking synthetic cannabinoids have been published. Compared to cannabis and its active cannabinoid THC, the adverse effects are often much more severe and can include hypertension, tachycardia, myocardial infarction, agitation, vomiting, hallucinations, psychoses, seizures, convulsions and panic attacks. Among individuals who need emergency treatment after using synthetic cannabis, the most common symptoms are accelerated heartbeat, high blood pressure, nausea, blurred vision, hallucination and agitation. Other symptoms included epileptic seizures, acute psychosis, and heart attacks.
These more severe adverse effects in contrast to use of marijuana are believed to stem from the fact that many of the synthetic cannabinoids are full agonists to the cannabinoid receptors, CB1R and CB2R, compared to THC which is only a partial agonist and thus not able to saturate and activate all of the receptor population no matter of dose and resulting concentration. It has also been seen that phase 1 metabolism of JWH-018 results in at least nine monohydroxylated metabolites and with at least three of the metabolites shown to have full agonistic effect on CB1R, which, compared to metabolism of THC, only results in one psychoactive monohydroxylated metabolite. This may further explain the increased toxicity of synthetic cannabinoids compared to THC.
Professor John W. Huffman, who first synthesised many of the cannabinoids used in synthetic cannabis, is quoted as saying, "People who use it are idiots. You don't know what it's going to do to you." A user who consumed 3 g of Spice Gold every day for several months showed withdrawal symptoms, similar to those associated with withdrawing from the use of narcotics. Doctors treating the user also noted that his use of the product showed signs associated with addiction. One case has been reported wherein a user, who had previously suffered from cannabis-induced recurrent psychotic episodes, suffered reactivation of his symptoms after using Spice. Psychiatrists treating him have suggested that the lack of an antipsychotic chemical, similar to cannabidiol found in natural cannabis, may make synthetic cannabis more likely to induce psychosis than natural cannabis.
Studies are currently available which suggest an association between synthetic cannabinoids and psychosis. The use of synthetic cannabinoids can be associated with psychosis and physicians are beginning to investigate possible use of synthetic cannabinoids in patients with inexplicable psychotic symptoms. In contrast to most other recreational drugs, the dramatic psychotic state induced by use of synthetic cannabinoids has been reported, in multiple cases, to persist for several weeks, and in one case for seven months, after complete cessation of drug use. Individuals with risk factors for psychotic disorders are often counseled against using synthetic cannabinoids.
Detection in body fluids
Synthetic cannabis consumption does not cause a positive urine drug test for THC, its metabolites or other cannabinoids present in marijuana using standard immunological screening procedures, library search GC-MS-screening, or multi-target screening by LC-MS/MS. Serum concentrations of the chemicals present in synthetic cannabis are generally in the 1–10 μg/L range during the first few hours after recreational usage. The major urinary metabolites, in most cases formed by oxidation of the alkyl side-chain to an alcohol and carboxylic acid followed by glucuronide conjugation, but also by N-dealkylation and aromatic hydroxylation, are usually present in urine at similar concentrations. The presence of synthetic cannabinoids or their metabolites in biofluids may be determined using specifically-targeted commercially available immunoassay screening methods, while liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is most often used for confirmation and quantitation.
- 5F-AB-FUPPYCA, 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB, 5F-ADBICA, 5F-ADB-PINACA, 5F-AMB, 5F-AMB-PICA, 5F-APINACA, 5F-CUMYL-PINACA, 5F-EMB-PINACA, 5F-NNE1, 5F-PB-22, 5F-PCN, 5F-SDB-006
- AB-001, AB-005, AB-CHFUPYCA, AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBICA, AB-FUBINACA, AB-PICA, AB-PINACA
- ADB-CHMINACA, ADB-FUBICA, ADB-FUBINACA, ADB-PINACA, ADBICA
- AM251, AM-404, AM-630, AM-678 (= JWH-018), AM-679, AM-694, AM-1220, AM-1221, AM-1235, AM-1241, AM-1248, AM-2201, AM-2232, AM-2233, AM-2389
- AMB-CHMINACA, AMB-FUBINACA
- APICA, APINACA
- BAY 38-7271, BAY 59-3074
- CP-47497, CP-55940, CP-55244
- CUMYL-PICA, CUMYL-PINACA, CUMYL-THPINACA
- DMA (5'-dimethylammonium delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol), TMA (5'-trimethylammonium delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol) (water-soluble)
- FDU-NNE1, FDU-PB-22
- FUB-144, FUB-APINACA, FUB-JWH-018, FUB-PB-22, FUBIMINA
- HU-210, HU-211, HU-239, HU-243, HU-308
- JWH-007, JWH-015, JWH-018, JWH-019, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-098, JWH-116, JWH-122, JWH-133, JWH-149, JWH-167, JWH-182, JWH-193, JWH-198, JWH-200, JWH-203, JWH-210, JWH-249, JWH-250, JWH-251, JWH-302, JWH-398, JWH-424
- JTE-907, JTE 7-31
- L-759,633, L-759,656
- LY-2183240, LY-320135
- MDMB-CHMICA, MDMB-CHMINACA, MDMB-FUBICA, MDMB-FUBINACA
- MN-18, MN-25
- NESS-0327, NESS-040C5
- O-774, O-1057, O-1812, O-2050, O-2694, O-6629
- Org 28611
- PTI-1, PTI-2
- PX-1, PX-2, PX-3
- RCS-4, RCS-8
- SDB-005, SDB-006
- SR-141716A, SR-144528
- THJ-018, THJ-2201
- WIN-48098, WIN-54461, WIN-55212-2, WIN-55225, WIN-56098
Synthetic cannabis is claimed by the manufacturers to contain a mixture of traditionally used medicinal herbs, each of which producing mild effects, with the overall blend resulting in the cannabis-like intoxication produced by the product. Herbs listed on the packaging of Spice include Canavalia maritima (coastal jack-bean), Nymphaea caerulea (blue Egyptian water lily), Scutellaria nana (dwarf skullcap), Pedicularis densiflora (Indian warrior), Leonotis leonurus (lion's tail), Zornia latifolia (maconha brava), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus), and Leonurus sibiricus (honeyweed). However, when the product was analyzed by laboratories in Germany and elsewhere, it was found that many of the characteristic "fingerprint" molecules expected to be present from the claimed plant ingredients were not present. There were also large amounts of synthetic tocopherol present. This suggested that the actual ingredients might not have been the same as those listed on the packet, and a German government risk assessment of the product conducted in November 2008 concluded that it was unclear as to what the actual plant ingredients were, where the synthetic tocopherol had come from, and whether the subjective cannabis-like effects were actually produced by any of the claimed plant ingredients or instead caused by a synthetic cannabinoid drug.
- New Zealand
An analysis of 41 different synthetic cannabis blends sold commercially in New Zealand, conducted by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research and released in July 2011, found 11 different synthetic cannabinoid ingredients used, including JWH-018, JWH-073, AM-694, AM-2201, RCS-4, RCS-4 butyl homologue, JWH-210, JWH-081, JWH-250 (or possibly JWH-302, isomer not determined), JWH-203, and JWH-122—with between one and five different active ingredients, though JWH-018 was present in 37 of the 41 blends tested. In two brands, the benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug phenazepam was also found, which is classified as a prescription medicine in New Zealand, and these brands were ordered to be removed from the market by emergency recall. Since this time, a further 15 cannabinoid compounds have been detected as ingredients of synthetic cannabis blends in New Zealand and banned as temporary class drugs. In 2013 another hypnotic medication, zaleplon, was found to have been used as an active ingredient in a blend that had been sold in New Zealand during 2011 and 2012.
|Name||Structure||Binding affinity for the CB1 receptor||Binding affinity for the CB2 receptor|
|THC||Ki = 40.7±1.7 nM||Ki = 36.4±10 nM|
|HU-210||Ki = 234 pM (100–800 times more potent)|
|Cannabicyclohexanol||Ki = unknown. Reported to be five times more potent than THC, based on physiological responses in rats|
|JWH-073||Ki = 8.90±1.80 nM||Ki = 38.0±24.0 nM|
|JWH-018||Ki = 9.00±5.00 nM||Ki = 2.94±2.65 nM|
|AM-2201||Ki = 1.0 nM||Ki = 2.6 nM|
Unlike Herbal smoking blends synthetic cannabis may use chemicals on their herbs, but both use legal psychotropic herbs. Some herbs used may be salvia divinorum or other mildly psychoactive herbs that can be sold legally. In some cases the herbs have no effect on humans or are overpowered by the chemicals on them.
- the Austrian Ministry of Health announced on December 18, 2008 that Spice would be controlled under Paragraph 78 of their drug law on the grounds that it contains an active substance that affects the functions of the body, and the legality of JWH-018 is under review.
- JWH-018, CP 47,497 and the C6, C8 and C9 homologues of CP 47,497 have been illegal in Germany since January 22, 2009.
- Spice blends are classified as a medicine in Finland, and, therefore, it is illegal to order them without a prescription. In practice, it is not possible to get a prescription.
- JWH-018, CP 47,497 (and its homologues) and HU-210 were all made illegal in France on February 24, 2009.
- from June 2010, JWH-018, along with a variety of other designer drugs, has been illegal.
- JWH-018, JWH-073, CP 47,497 (and its homologues) and HU-210 as well as leonotis leonurus have been all banned in Latvia since 2005. After the first confirmed lethal case from the use of legal drugs in late 2013, parliament significantly increased the number of temporarily banned substances used in Spice and similar preparations. On April 3, 2014, parliament made selling of the temporarily banned substances a criminal offence.
- JWH-018 and many of the herbs mentioned on the ingredient lists of Spice and similar preparations were made illegal in May 2009. The bill was passed by Polish Sejm, Polish Senat and was signed by the President.
- Spice was made illegal in Romania on February 15, 2010.
- on April 9, 2009, the Chief Medical Officer of the Russian Federation issued a resolution on reinforcing control over the sales of smoking blends. These blends, marketed under the trade names AM-HI-CO, Dream, Spice (Gold, Diamond), Zoom, Ex-ses, Yucatán Fire and others, have been declared to contain Salvia divinorum, Hawaiian wood rose, and blue lotus, and are prohibited to be sold. These substances have been found to have "psychotropic, narcotic effects, contain poisonous components and represent potential threat for humans". The resolution does not mention JWH-018 or other synthetic cannabinoids. On January 14, 2010, the Russian government issued a statement including 23 synthetic cannabinoids found in smoking blends Hawaiian Rose and Blue Lotus on the list of prohibited narcotic and psychotropic substances.
- About 780 new psychoactive substances were added to the list from 2011 to 2014. The drugmakers avoided all the bans by making slight changes to the drugs. In the autumn of 2014, more than two-thousand Spice consumers in Russia sought medical attention, one-thousand were admitted to hospitals, and 40 people died On October 30, 2014, President Vladimir Putin brought in a bill that would ban the turnover of any type of smoking blends and introduce administrative sanctions and criminal responsibility for it.
- Spice is legal in Slovakia. The National Anti-Drug Unit is considering adding it to the list of controlled substances. The latest anti-drug law version (468/2009) valid since January 2010 does not mention active compounds of Spice.
- Spice is unregulated in Spain. For this reason, spice is available in grow shop stores or cannabis related stores, and it can be bought and shipped online without any legal impediment from those kind of stores. But only a few people know about the existence of spice and it's not widely consumed. This happens due to the lax laws of Spain against cannabis; because in Spain is not illegal to have up to 2 cannabis plants per house and it's completely legal the consumption and possession in a private propierty, and all related actions to cannabis unless the sell/trade are decriminalized.
- CP 47,497-C6, CP 47,497-C7, CP 47,497-C8, CP 47,497-C9, JWH-018, JWH-073 and HU-210 were all made illegal in Sweden on September 15, 2009. The bill was accepted on July 30, 2009 and was put in effect on September 15, 2009.
- Spice has been banned in Switzerland.
- Spice, which is colloquially called bonzai in Turkey, was added to the list of drugs and psychotropic substances in 07.01.2011 by the law which numbered as 2011/1310 B.K.K. (February 13, 2011 and the Official Gazette No. 27845) 
- United Kingdom
- Many cannabinoids were legal in the United Kingdom until December 2009, when they were classified as a Class B drugs. The UK has continued to ban new synthetic cannabinoids as they come to market but they are typically replaced instantly by novel alternatives.
- the Chilean Ministry of Health on April 24, 2009, declared the sale of synthetic cannabis to be illegal.
- South Korea
- South Korea officially added JWH-018, CP 47,497 and HU-210 to the controlled substance list on July 1, 2009, effectively making these chemicals illegal.
- Japan has banned JWH-018, CP 47, 497, and homologues, and HU-210 since October 2009
- United Arab Emirates
- the United Arab Emirates had stated that Spice is an illegal substance and possession or intent to sell is a jailable offense.
- on June 17, 2011, the Western Australian government banned all of the synthetic cannabinoids found in already existing products, including brands such as Kronic, Kalma, Voodoo, Kaos, and Mango Kush. Western Australia was the first state in Australia to prohibit the sale of certain synthetic cannabinoids. On June 18, 2013, an interim ban made a large list of product brands and synthetic substances illegal to sell anywhere in Australia. This ban lapsed on October 13, 2013, and a permanent ban has not been imposed. Synthetic cannabis remains illegal in NSW, where a bill was passed on September 18, 2013, that bans entire families of synthetic drugs instead of only banning existing compounds that have been identified. The introduction of this law makes NSW the first state in Australia to completely ban substances with psychoactive properties.
- New Zealand
- Spice is illegal in New Zealand, it is classified as a Class C controlled drug. The New Zealand Parliament passed a law in July 2013 banning the sale of legal highs in dairies and supermarkets, but allowing some "low risk" drugs to continue to be sold through speciality licensed shops. Synthetic cannabinoids, as well as all other legal highs were outlawed at midnight on 7 May 2014, after a law was passed a week prior by the New Zealand government.
The case of David Mitchell Rozga, an American teenager from Indianola, Iowa, brought international attention to K2. Rozga shot himself in the head with a family owned hunting rifle in an apparent suicide in June 6, 2010. After news of Rozga's death, it was reported by friends that they had smoked K2 with Rozga approximately one hour before his death. The nature of his death and reports from numerous family members, had led investigators to believe that it was likely Rozga was under the influence of a mind-altering substance, at the time of his death. The death of Rozga has been used as a face of political lobbying against the continuation of K2, and other legal synthetic drugs, such as bath salts.
Following the incident, an act to ban the use and distribution of the drug was proposed by US Senator Chuck Grassley of Iowa as the "David Mitchell Rozga Act". It was approved into legislation by the United States Congress in June 2011. On July 10, 2012, President Barack Obama signed the Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act of 2012 into law. It banned synthetic compounds commonly found in synthetic marijuana, placing them under Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.
Prior to that, some compounds within synthetic cannabis (HU-210) were scheduled in the US under federal law, while others (JWH-073) have been temporarily scheduled until final determination of their status can be made. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) considers it to be a "drug of concern", citing "...a surge in emergency-room visits and calls to poison-control centers. Adverse health effects associated with its use include seizures, hallucinations, paranoid behavior, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, racing heartbeat, and elevated blood pressure."
Several states independently passed acts making it illegal under state law, including Kansas in March 2010, Georgia and Alabama in May 2010, Tennessee and Missouri in July 2010, Louisiana in August 2010, Mississippi in September 2010, and Iowa. An emergency order was passed in Arkansas in July 2010 banning the sale of synthetic cannabis. In October 2010, the Oregon Board of Pharmacy listed synthetic cannabinoid chemicals on its Schedule 1 of controlled substance, which means that the sale and possession of these substances is illegal under the Oregon Uniform Controlled Substances Act. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, several other states are also considering legislation, including New Jersey, New York, Florida, and Ohio. Illinois passed a law on July 27, 2010 banning all synthetic cannabinoids that goes into effect January 1, 2011. Michigan banned synthetic cannabinoids in October 2010, and the South Dakota Legislature passed a ban on these products which was signed into law by Gov. Dennis Daugaard on February 23, 2012 (and which took immediate effect under an emergency clause of the state constitution). Indiana banned synthetic cannabinoids in a law which became effective in March 2012. North Carolina banned synthetic cannabis by a unanimous vote of the state senate, due to concerns that its contents and effects are reasonably similar to natural cannabis, and may cause equal effects in terms of psychological dependency.
Following cases in Japan involving the use of synthetic cannabis by navy, army and marine corps personnel resulted in the official banning of it, a punitive general order issued on January 4, 2010 by the Commander Marine Corps Forces, Pacific prohibits the actual or attempted possession, use, sale, distribution and manufacture of synthetic cannabis as well as any derivative, analogue or variant of it. On June 8, 2010, the US Air Force issued a memorandum that banned the possession and use of Spice, or any other mood-altering substance except alcohol or tobacco, among its service members.
On November 24, 2010, the DEA announced that it would make JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-200, CP-47,497, and cannabicyclohexanol, which are often found in synthetic cannabis, illegal using emergency powers. They will be placed in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act, within a month of the announcement, and the ban will last for at least a year. The temporary ban, for at least a year, came into effect on March 1, 2011.
On October 20, 2011, the Louisiana State University football program announced that it had suspended three players, including star cornerback Tyrann Mathieu, who tested positive for synthetic cannabis.
In addition to synthetic marijuana, K2 and Spice, other brand names include Black Mamba, Bombay Blue, Genie, and Zohai. According to Partnership at Drugfree.org, other names also include Bliss.
- List of designer drugs § Synthetic cannabimimetics
- Endocannabinoid enhancer
- Roland Macher; Burke, Tod W.; Owen, Stephen S. "Synthetic Marijuana". FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
- Mary Carmichael (March 4, 2010). "K2: Scary Drug or Another Drug Scare?". Newsweek. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- "What's the buzz?: Synthetic marijuana, K2, Spice, JWH-018 : Terra Sigillata". Scienceblogs.com. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- "New York Bans 'Synthetic Marijuana'". NPR.org. March 30, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- www.emed-journal.com Lapoint J, Nelson LS. Synthetic Cannabinoids: The Newest, Almost Illicit Drug of Abuse. Emergency Medicine 2011;43(2):26-28
- Cannabis, synthetic cannabinoids, and psychosis risk: What the evidence says
- "Medscape: Medscape Access". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Rao S. Rapaka; Alexandros Makriyannis, eds. (1987), Structure-Activity Relationships of the Cannabinoids (PDF), NIDA Research Monograph 79, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
- Roger Pertwee (2006), "Cannabinoid pharmacology: the first 66 years", British Journal of Pharmacology 147: 163–171, doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706406, PMC 1760722, PMID 16402100
- Stefania Crowther; Lois Reynolds; Tilli Tansey, eds. (2010), The Medicalization of Cannabis (PDF), Wellcome Witnesses to Twentieth Century Medicine 40, Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL
- Raphael Mechoulam; Lumir Hanuš (2004), "The cannabinoid system: from the point of view of a chemist", in David Castle; Robin Murray, Marijuana and Madness: Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–18
- 19, 2009.19/ Hauptwirkstoff von "Spice Girl" identifiziert. W was here. January 19, 2009 (German)
- "Modedroge "Spice" ist verboten!" (in German). Bmg.bund.de. March 10, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- "BGBl I Nr. 3 vom January 21, 2009, 22. BtMÄndV vom 19. Jan 2009, S. 49–50" (PDF) (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-05.
- Uchiyama N, Kikura-Hanajiri R, Ogata J, Goda Y (May 2010). "Chemical analysis of synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs in herbal products". Forensic Science International 198 (1–3): 31–8. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.01.004. PMID 20117892.
- "Gefährlicher Kick mit Spice (German)". Fr-online.de. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- "Erstmals Bestandteile der Modedroge "Spice" nachgewiesen (German)". Haz.de. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- "Spice enthält chemischen Wirkstoff (German)". Badische-zeitung.de. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- Schifano, F.; Corazza, O.; Deluca, P.; Davey, Z.; Di Furia, L.; Farre', M.; Flesland, L.; Mannonen, M.; Pagani, S.; Peltoniemi, T.; Pezzolesi, C.; Scherbaum, N.; Siemann, H.; Skutle, A.; Torrens, M.; Van Der Kreeft, P. (2009). "Psychoactive drug or mystical incense? Overview of the online available information on Spice products". International Journal of Culture and Mental Health 2 (2): 137–144. doi:10.1080/17542860903350888.
- "Spice" – Plant material(s) laced with synthetic cannabinoids or cannabinoid mimicking compounds (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration)
- Lindigkeit, Rainer; Boehme, A; Eiserloh, I; Luebbecke, M; Wiggermann, M; Ernst, L; Beuerle, T (October 30, 2009). "Spice: A never-ending story?". Forensic Science International 191 (1): 58–63. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.06.008. PMID 19589652.
- Auwärter, V.; et al. (2009). "'Spice' and other herbal blends: harmless incense or cannabinoid designer drugs?". Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS 44 (5): 832–837. doi:10.1002/jms.1558. PMID 19189348. Free version
- Emanuel, C. E. J.; Ellison, B.; Banks, C. E. (2010). "Spice up your life: screening the illegal components of ‘Spice’ herbal products". Analytical Methods 2 (6): 614. doi:10.1039/c0ay00200c.
- Stafford, Ned. Synthetic Cannabis Mimic Found in Herbal Incense. Royal Society of Chemistry: Chemistry World. January 15, 2009. Accessed: June 17, 2010
- Kikura-Hanajiri, R.; Uchiyama, N.; Goda, Y. (2011). "Survey of current trends in the abuse of psychotropic substances and plants in Japan". Legal Medicine 13 (3): 109–115. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2011.02.003. PMID 21377397.
- Uchiyama, N.; Kawamura, M.; Kikura-Hanajiri, R.; Goda, Y. (2012). "URB-754: A new class of designer drug and 12 synthetic cannabinoids detected in illegal products". Forensic Science International 227 (1–3): 21–32. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.08.047. PMID 23063179.
- Uchiyama, N.; Matsuda, S.; Kawamura, M.; Kikura-Hanajiri, R.; Goda, Y. (2013). "Two new-type cannabimimetic quinolinyl carboxylates, QUPIC and QUCHIC, two new cannabimimetic carboxamide derivatives, ADB-FUBINACA and ADBICA, and five synthetic cannabinoids detected with a thiophene derivative α-PVT and an opioid receptor agonist AH-7921 identified in illegal products". Forensic Toxicology 31: 223–240. doi:10.1007/s11419-013-0182-9.
- Spice Report Psychonaut Web Mapping Research Project
- "The story of Spice". Financial Times. February 13, 2009. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- Winstock, A.; Mitcheson, L.; Deluca, P.; Davey, Z.; Corazza, O.; Schifano, F. (2010). "Mephedrone, new kid for the chop?". Addiction (Abingdon, England) 106 (1): 154–161. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03130.x. PMID 20735367.
- Trecki J, Gerona RR, Schwartz MD. Synthetic cannabinoid-related illnesses and deaths. N. Engl. J. Med. 373: 103-107, 2015.
- Mills B, Yepes A, Nugent K. Synthetic cannabinoids. Am. J. Med. Sci. 350: 59-62, 2015.
- "Fake pot that acts real stymies law enforcement". Associated Press. February 17, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Mir, A; Obafemi, A; Young, A; Kane, C (December 2011). "Myocardial infarction associated with use of the synthetic cannabinoid k2.". Pediatrics 128 (6): e1622–7. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3823. PMID 22065271.
- Schneir, AB; Baumbacher, T (December 13, 2011). "Convulsions Associated with the Use of a Synthetic Cannabinoid Product.". Journal of Medical Toxicology 8 (1): 62–4. doi:10.1007/s13181-011-0182-2. PMID 22160733.
- Jeanna Bryner (March 3, 2010). "Fake Weed, Real Drug: K2 Causing hallucinations in Teens". LiveScience. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Vardakou, I; Pistos, C; Spiliopoulou, Ch (2010). "Spice drugs as a new trend: Mode of action, identification and legislation". Toxicology Letters 197 (3): 157–62. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.06.002. PMID 20566335.
- Auwärter, V.; et al. (2009). "'Spice' and other herbal blends: harmless incense or cannabinoid designer drugs?". Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS 44 (5): 832–837. doi:10.1002/jms.1558. PMID 19189348.
- Every-Palmer, S (2010). "Warning: Legal synthetic cannabinoid-receptor agonists such as JWH-018 may precipitate psychosis in vulnerable individuals". Addiction 105 (10): 1859–60. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03119.x. PMID 20840203.
- Müller, H.; Sperling, W.; Köhrmann, M.; Huttner, H.; Kornhuber, J.; Maler, J. (2010). "The synthetic cannabinoid Spice as a trigger for an acute exacerbation of cannabis induced recurrent psychotic episodes". Schizophrenia Research 118 (1–3): 309–310. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2009.12.001. PMID 20056392.
- "Legal highs linked to psychosis". New Zealand Herald. Apr 5, 2014.
- Brents, L. K.; Reichard, E. E.; Zimmerman, S. M.; Moran, J. H.; Fantegrossi, W. E.; Prather, P. L. (2011). "Phase I hydroxylated metabolites of the K2 synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 retain in vitro and in vivo cannabinoid 1 receptor affinity and activity". PLoS ONE 6 (7): e21917. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021917. PMC 3130777. PMID 21755008.
- Coffman, K. (6 September 2013). "Colorado probes three deaths possibly linked to synthetic marijuana". Reuters (Denver). Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Fantegrossi, W. E.; Moran, J. H.; Radominska-Pandya, A; Prather, P. L. (2014). "Distinct pharmacology and metabolism of K2 synthetic cannabinoids compared to Δ9-THC: Mechanism underlying greater toxicity?". Life Sciences 97 (1): 45–54. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2013.09.017. PMID 24084047.
- "Fake Weed, Real Drug: K2 Causing Hallucinations in Teens". LiveScience. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Zimmermann, U.; et al. (2009). "Withdrawal phenomena and dependence syndrome after the consumption of "spice gold"". Deutsches Arzteblatt international 106 (27): 464–467. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2009.0464. PMC 2719097. PMID 19652769.
- Müller, H.; Sperling, W.; Köhrmann, M.; Huttner, H.; Kornhuber, J.; Maler, J. (2010). "The synthetic cannabinoid Spice as a trigger for an acute exacerbation of cannabis induced recurrent psychotic episodes". Schizophrenia Research 118 (1–3): 309–310. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2009.12.001. PMID 20056392.
- Hurst, D; Loeffler, G; McLay, R (October 2011). "Psychosis associated with synthetic cannabinoid agonists: a case series.". The American Journal of Psychiatry 168 (10): 1119. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11010176. PMID 21969050.
- Every-Palmer, S (September 1, 2011). "Synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and psychosis: an explorative study.". Drug and Alcohol Dependence 117 (2-3): 152–7. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.01.012. PMID 21316162.
- Sobolevsky, T.; Prasolov, I.; Rodchenkov, G. (2010). "Detection of JWH-018 metabolites in smoking mixture post-administration urine". Forensic Science International 200 (1–3): 141–147. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.04.003. PMID 20430547.
- Spinelli E, Barnes AJ, Young S et al. Performance characteristics of an ELISA screening assay for urinary synthetic cannabinoids. Drug Test. Anal. 7: 467-474, 2015.
- Huppertz LM, Kneisel S, Auwärter V, Kempf J. A comprehensive library-based, automated screening procedure for 46 synthetic cannabinoids in serum employing liquid chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry with high-temperature electrospray ionization. J. Mass Spectrom. 49: 117-127, 2014.
- Scheidweiler KB, Jarvis MJ, Huestis MA. Nontargeted SWATH acquisition for identifying 47 synthetic cannabinoid metabolites in human urine by liquid chromatography-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407: 883-897, 2015.
- R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 10th edition, Biomedical Publications, Seal Beach, CA, 2014, p. 1863.
- Whitworth, Chris (July 7, 2011). "Kronic ingredients secret to stop industry 'cowboys'". 3 News. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- 'Herbal High' synthetic Cannabinoid composition, released by ESR July 2011. (PDF) . Retrieved on August 7, 2011.
- "Temporary Class Drug Notices". Ministry of Health NZ. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- "Conviction for sale of herbal smoking material containing a prescription medicine". Ministry of Health NZ. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Aung, M. M.; Griffin, G.; Huffman, J. W.; Wu, M. J.; Keel, C.; Yang, B.; Showalter, V. M.; Abood, M. E.; Martin, B. R. (2000). "Influence of the N-1 alkyl chain length of cannabimimetic indoles upon CB1 and CB2 receptor binding". Drug and Alcohol Dependence 60 (2): 133–140. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(99)00152-0. PMID 10940540.
- Devane, W. A.; et al. (1992). "A novel probe for the cannabinoid receptor". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 35 (11): 2065–2069. doi:10.1021/jm00089a018. PMID 1317925.
- Compton, D.; Johnson, M.; Melvin, L.; Martin, B. (1992). "Pharmacological profile of a series of bicyclic cannabinoid analogs: classification as cannabimimetic agents". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 260 (1): 201–209. PMID 1309872.
- WO patent 200128557, Makriyannis A, Deng H, "Cannabimimetic indole derivatives", granted June 7, 2001
- "What is Spice". SpiceAddictionSupport.org. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- "Kräutermischung "Spice": Gesundheitsministerium stoppt Handel, December 18, 2008". Derstandard.at. December 19, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- (AFP) (December 18, 2008). "Austria bans herbal incense 'Spice'". Google. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Gesundheitsministerium setzt Maßnahme zum Verbot von "Spice"". Bmgfj.gv.at. December 18, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Betäubungsmittelrecht: Modedroge Spice wird per Eilverordnung verboten". Der Spiegel. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Arrêté du 24 février 2009 modifiant l’arrêté du 22 février 1990 fixant la liste des substances classées comme stupéfiants". Journal Officiel De La République Française. February 27, 2009. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Move on head shops 'not enough' – The Irish Times — Wed, Mar 3, 2010". The Irish Times. March 3, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- "Noteikumi par Latvijā kontrolējamajām narkotiskajām vielām, psihotropajām vielām un prekursoriem" (in Latvian). likumi.lv. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Saeima steidzami nosaka kriminālatbildību par spaisa paveidu tirgošanas aizlieguma pārkāpumu" (in Latvian). Diena.lv. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- mm, PAP (February 12, 2009). "Sejm za delegalizacją 'dopalaczy'". Wiadomosci.gazeta.pl. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Senat poparł ustawę zakazującą handlu "dopalaczami" – Wiadomości — WP.PL". Wiadomosci.wp.pl. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Oficjalna strona Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- "OUG 6/2010 pentru modificarea si completarea Legii nr. 143/2000 privind prevenirea si combaterea traficului si consumului ilicit de droguri si pentru completarea Legii nr. 339/2005 privind regimul juridic al plantelor, substantelor si preparatelor stupefiante si psihotrope. Ordonanta de urgenta nr. 6/2010". Dreptonline.ro. August 3, 2000. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "О запрещении реализации продукции с содержанием шалфея предсказателей, гавайской розы и голубого лотоса". Rospotrebnadzor.ru. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Постановление от 31 декабря 2009 г. № 1186 О внесении изменений в некоторые постановления Правительства Российской Федерации по вопросам, связанным с оборотом наркотических средств". Government.ru. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "ФСКН: от отравления спайсами в российских регионах погибли более 40 человек". TASS. 29 October 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- Кира Латухина (30 October 2014). "Президент предложил запретить "спайсы"". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- "Po ketamíne by sa mala zakázať bylinná zmes Spice". SME.sk. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- [dead link]
- "Regeringen förbjuder nätdrogen "Spice" from the website of the Government Offices of Sweden". Regeringen.se. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- Adams, Stephen (February 13, 2009). "Teens in Britain getting legally high on synthetic cannabis banned across Europe". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Sentetik Cannabinoid (Bonzai)". www.uyusturucumaddeler.com. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- Portal, Gaetan (December 23, 2009). "'Legal high' drugs banned in UK". BBC News. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- "Chile prohibe uso de spice, La Nacion 24 de Abril 2009". Lanacion.cl. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- 최연희 (July 2, 2009). 1일부터 '5-메오-밉트’ 등 향정신성의약품 지정 (in Korean). 헬스코리아뉴스. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- "Dubai Customs foil 126 attempts to smuggle narcotic". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Jerga, Josh (June 13, 2011). "Fake cannabis to be outlawed in WA". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- O'Brien, Amanda (April 11, 2011). "Miners working high on synthetic grass". The Australian. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
- Bradbury, David (June 18, 2013). "Competition and Consumer Act 2010 - Consumer Protection Notice No. 3 of 2013 - Imposition of Interim Ban on Certain Consumer Goods Containing Synthetic Drug Substances". Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "Synthetic drug substances - national interim ban". ACCC. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "NSW law to ban synthetic drugs passed". September 18, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Coultan, Mark (September 10, 2013). "NSW law to ban synthetic drugs to stop 'legal highs'". The Australian. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "Cannabis substitute "Spice" now illegal". TVNZ. April 1, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
- Heather, Ben (October 6, 2013). "Kronic king gets the green light". Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "Legal highs banned from midnight". May 7, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- "Controlled Drugs and Substances Act". Laws.justice.gc.ca. November 15, 2010. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- "Consolidated Index of Drugs and Substances". Isomerdesign.com. April 24, 2010. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Ian Bussières : Le spice: la capitale craque pour les "herbes magiques" | Société". Cyberpresse.ca. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Une pilule une petite granule : Le Spice, un substitut au cannabis ?". Pilule.telequebec.tv. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "K2 Drug Facts". K2drugfacts.com. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "The David Mitchell Rozga Act (S.605 - Dangerous Synthetic Drug Control Act of 2011)". Opencongress.org. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Vashi, Sonam (September 26, 2012). "K2 Trend Not Slowing Down".
- "HU-210". USDOJ.gov. Retrieved September 16, 2010.
- Cook, Morgan (February 28, 2011). "Synthetic marijuana illegal as of Tuesday". North County Times (San Diego). Retrieved February 28, 2011.
- "Federal Register - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of Five Synthetic Cannabinoids Into Schedule I". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- "Drug Scheduling from the US Drug Enforcement Administration website". Justice.gov. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- Donna Leinwand (May 24, 2010). 24, 2010-k2_N.htm "Places race to outlaw K2 'Spice' drug" Check
|url=value (help). USA Today. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
- Meserve, Jeanne (February 28, 2011). "DEA imposes "emergency" ban to control synthetic marijuana". CNN. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- "The big business of synthetic highs". TODAY.com. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- The Associated Press. How major issues fared in Kansas Legislature. CNBC. May 23, 2010. Accessed: May 23, 2010
- Simmons, Andria (May 24, 2010). "Governor signs bill to outlaw synthetic marijuana". ajc.com. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Alabama Coalition Gets Salvia and K2 Banned in Their State". CADCA. May 20, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- Haas, Brian. 'K2', 'K3' synthetic drugs are illegal in TN starting July 1. The Tennessean. May 30, 2010. Accessed: June 17, 2010
- Gay, Malcolm. (2010-07-10) Synthetic Marijuana Spurs State Bans. New York Times. Retrieved on August 7, 2011.
- Iowa Code § 124.204(4)(u) (PDF) (defining a Schedule I controlled substance to include "synthetic equivalents of the substances contained in the cannabis plant, or in the resinous extractives of such plant, and synthetic substances, derivatives, and their isomers with similar chemical structure and pharmacological activity to those substances contained in the plant....")
- Gavin Lesnick (July 2, 2010). "Beebe signs emergency ban on K2". Arkansas Online (Arkansas Democrat Gazette). Retrieved July 26, 2010.
- "Synthetic Cannabis — Controlled Substance Information". Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- Daniel Martynowicz. "Illinois Bans Synthetic Cannabinoids". Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "LARA - Snyder signs bill to classify K2, Spice as Schedule 1 drugs". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Argus Leader, "New law bans synthetic drugs," by John Hult (February 23rd 2012 - retrieved on May 14th, 2012).
- "Attorney General: Synthetic Drug Enforcement". Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- "NC Senate OKs synthetic pot ban". WRAL-TV. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- "Make Synthetic Cannabinoids Illegal" (PDF). General Assembly of North Carolina. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- Allan, David; Fisher, Cindy. Ruling Clarifies 'Legal' Drug Policy. Stars and Stripes via Military.com. May 23, 2010. Accessed: May 23, 2010
- Marines Ban Spice Drug. Military.com. May 23, 2010. Accessed: May 23, 2010
- "Air Force officials ban use and possession of spice, mood-altering substances. Air Force News. June 17, 2010. Accessed: June 18, 2010". Af.mil. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "DEA Moves to Emergency Control Synthetic Marijuana". DEA Public Affairs. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. November 24, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
- Grim, Ryan (November 24, 2010). "K2 Crackdown: DEA Using Emergency Powers To Ban Fake Pot". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- the CNN Wire Staff (November 24, 2010). "Feds move to ban 'fake pot'". CNN. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Meserve, Jeanne (February 28, 2011). "DEA imposes "emergency" ban to control synthetic marijuana". CNN. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- Schlabach, Mark (October 20, 2011). "Sources: LSU players had positive tests". ESPN.com. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- K2 – Spice via Partnership at Drugfree.org