Syrian Air Force

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Syrian Arab Air Force
القوات الجوية العربية السورية
Emblem of the Syrian Arab Air Force.svg
Syrian Arab Air Force Emblem
Founded 1948
Country  Syria
Branch Air force
Type Military aviation
Role Aerial warfare
Size 60,000 (including 20,000 reserve) (2011)
Part of Syrian Armed Forces
Nickname(s) SyAAF[1]
March We are the Eagles
Equipment ~ 670 aircraft at 2011 [2] 461 in 2017 [3]
Engagements Six-Day War
Yom Kippur War
1982 Lebanon War
Syrian Civil War
2014 Northern Iraq offensive
Chief of Air Staff General Issam Hallaq[4]
Roundel Roundel of the Syrian Air Force.svg
Air Force Ensign Flag of the Syrian Arab Air Force.svg
Aircraft flown
Attack Su-22 Su-24 MiG-23
Fighter MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-29
Helicopter Mi-17, Mi-8
Attack helicopter Mi-25, Gazelle
Interceptor MiG-25, MiG-31[5]
Trainer L-39, MBB 223, MFI-17
Transport An-26, An-24, Il-76

The Syrian Air Force, officially the Syrian Arab Air Force (Arabic: القوات الجوية العربية السورية‎, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al Arabiya as-Souriya), is the air force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces. It is variously abbreviated in English to SAF, SAAF, or SyAAF. It was established in 1948. Land-based air defense systems are grouped under the Syrian Air Defense Force, which split from both the Air Force and the Army.


AT-6 Harvard of the Syrian Air Force

The end of World War II led to a withdrawal of the United Kingdom and France from the Middle East, and this included a withdrawal from Syria. In 1948, the Syrian Air Force was officially established after the first class of pilots graduated from flight schools in the United Kingdom. The embryonic force saw limited participation in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, conducting bombing raids against Israeli forces and settlements. One North American Harvard was lost to ground fire while attacking Ayelet Hashahar on 16 July, and another possibly shot down by Morris Mann (flying an Avia S-199) on 10 June. The Syrian Air Force claimed its sole kill of the war on 10 July when a Harvard supposedly shot down an Avia S-199 flown by Lionel Bloch.

Hafez al-Assad (above) standing on the wing of a Fiat G.46-4B with fellow cadets at the Syrian AF Academy outside Aleppo.

Military governments formed after the war sought to bolster the air force, which began equipping with Fiat G.59s, ex-Egyptian Macchi C.205s and Supermarine Spitfire Mk 22s. In September 1952 the SAF received its first jet aircraft, the Gloster Meteor F.8. Additional Meteors, including the NF.13 night fighting variant, were delivered by the mid-1950s.[6]

The 1950s also saw Syria and Egypt attempt to unify as the United Arab Republic, and this was reflected in the Syrian Air Force with growth in personnel and aircraft. The union did not last. With the ascent to power of the Baath Party and Hafez Al-Assad, himself a former SAF Commander-in-chief, Syria began looking to the members of the Warsaw Pact for help and built closer ties with the USSR. This in turn led to a huge influx of Eastern-made equipment to the Syrian Armed Forces, including the Air Force.

One of two MiG-17s of the Syrian Air Force that landed by error at Betzet airstrip, Israel on 12 August 1968.

In 1955 Syria placed an order for 25 MiG-15s, including several MiG-UTI conversion trainers. These were shipped to Alexandria and assembled at the Egyptian Almaza Air Base, where Syrian pilots and technicians were trained to operate the aircraft. The fighters were at Almaza when the Suez Crisis broke out and several were destroyed on the ground by British and French air strikes. On 6 November 1956, a Syrian Meteor shot down a Royal Air Force Canberra PR.7 monitoring activity at SAF bases.[6] One Meteor was lost after another attempted intercept, the pilot and future president of Syria, Hafez al-Assad, crashing his aircraft while attempting to land in the dark.[6][7]

Sixty MiG-17s were ordered at the end of 1956 and Syrian pilots were dispatched to the USSR and Poland for training. The first aircraft arrived in January 1957 and by the end of the year two MiG-17 squadrons were defending the capital from their base at Damasucus' Mezzeh Military Airport.[6]

In the Six-Day War, the Syrian Air Force lost two-thirds of its forces with the rest retreating to bases in remote parts of Syria. This in turn helped the IDF in defeating the Syrian Army on the ground and led to the occupation of the Golan Heights.

The Yom Kippur War provided initial success for both Syria and Egypt, though again Israel inflicted more casualties in the air than it endured.

SAF Gazelle captured by Israel in 1982. Behind stands a MiG-23 whose pilot defected in 1989

During the 1982 Lebanon War, the Syrian Air Force fought the Israeli Air Force in one of the largest air-to-air combats of the jet age, involving approximately 150 aircraft from both sides. In six days (6–11 June 1982) of intense aerial combat, Syrian and Russian sources admit the loss of 24 MiG-23s (6MF, 4MS and 14BN), while shooting down no Israeli aircraft. Russian and Syrian sources continue to claim a modicum of success against Israeli aircraft in this conflict, but have been unable to provide any justification for their claims. Israel claims the destruction of 85 Syrian MiGs (including Mig-21s as well as Mig-23s).[8] However, at low altitude the Syrian Air Force effectively used Aerospatiale Gazelle helicopters in anti-armour role against advancing Israeli ground forces. In one such engagement, an Israeli tank column was stopped for some hours by SAF Gazelle missile strikes while approaching Ein Zehalta.[9]

Since the Lebanon War, the Syrian Air Force has attempted to procure Russian-made aircraft, but the full extent of this refurbishment is not known, nor are the exact numbers of planes or what types of aircraft are being supplied to the Air Force. This uncertainty is due to the degree of secrecy maintained by the Syrian government with regard to its military. It is known, however, that the Syrians have procured MiG-29s and Su-24s, which should give its Air Force a major improvement, although a rumor regarding the purchase of Su-27s that circulated in the 2010s has proven to be unfounded. In 2008 the Syrian Air Force was reportedly taking deliveries of 8 examples of new MiG-31E from Russia, as well as the MiG-29SMT and Yak-130,[10] although delivery of the MiG-31s may have been cancelled by Russia due to pressure from Western governments.

In July 2012 at the Farnborough Air Show it was announced that Russia would not deliver any new aircraft including the MiG-29M/M2s and Yak-130s while there was still a crisis in Syria, but it would still respect any previous refurbishment and maintenance contracts such as the Mi-25s.[11]

Operations during the Syrian civil war[edit]

During the initial phase of the Syrian civil war, up to mid-2012, the Syrian Air Force was involved in secondary roles, with no firing from aircraft and helicopters.

The situation changed on 22 March 2012, with an escalation in the use of airpower by Government forces,[12] starting with armed Mi-8 and Mi-17 helicopter gunships firing rockets and machine guns.[13] The air war escalated further in mid June 2012, with the use of Mi-24/25 attack helicopters capable of dropping standard aviation bombs weighing up to 250 kg,[14][15] while the transport helicopters started dropping barrel bombs, aerial IEDs.[16]

On 24 July 2012, attack sorties by fixed-wing aircraft were reported by the rebels and recorded on video: initially L-39 COIN armed trainers began using rockets, bombs and guns[12][17] but they were quickly joined by MiG-21s and MiG-23s.[18][19] A few weeks later Su-22 ground attack aircraft were used and in November 2012, Su-24 medium bombers were filmed bombing rebels.[20] In December 2012, conventionally armed Scud missiles and other similar ballistic missiles were fired against rebel positions.[21]

Following a report on the appearance of newly delivered S-8 air-to-ground rocket pods previously not operated by the Syrian Air Force, being employed on different aircraft,[22] on 22 October 2013, a S-8 armed MiG-29 was spotted and recorded on video while flying over Damascus, suggesting that the type was pushed into action for ground attack, possibly after the pilots attended specific training on the type.[23] Subsequently MiG-29's were recorded performing rocket and gun attack runs on rebel positions.[24][25]

The first reported activity of Syrian MiG-25 aircraft in the civil war was recorded on 8 February 2014, when two Turkish Air Force F-16s were scrambled to intercept a Syrian MiG-25 which was approaching the Turkish border.[26] On 27 March 2014, a MiG-25 was clearly filmed while flying at medium altitude over Hama Eastern countryside, possibly delivering the bomb seen hitting the ground in the same video.[27] Until February 2014, Syrian MiG-25s were not seen, perhaps due to the type of war, different from the role of the MiG-25 and possibly due to initial technical difficulties in keeping the MiG-25 fleet operational. The use of the MiG-25 in the Syrian Civil War marks the starting point since when all the known types of Syrian combat aircraft and ballistic missiles came into use.

With the start of aerial operations by the Syrian Air Force, in August 2012, online publications[28] probably overestimating rebels' claims on the number of destroyed aircraft, assumed that the Syrian Air Force was suffering significant technical difficulties, resulting in less than half of the best SAAF ground attack aircraft such as the Mi-25 Hind-D being serviceable. The publications reported that an increased number of conflict fronts and severe maintenance burdens dramatically worsened the situation, which was reportedly difficult before the war. These problems were thought to account for the use of L-39ZA (attack variant) jets,[29][30] before further escalations. Operational limitations were overcome during 2013 as Syrian pilots and technicians with the assistance of foreign advisers and technicians began to improve their operational skills. In December 2013 Jane's reported that the Syrian Air Force had dramatically improved its operational capabilities during 2013, and was now frequently conducting up to 100 sorties per day with half of these constituting combat sorties.[31]

Insurgents counter the Syrian Air Force with truck mounted, medium and heavy machine guns, anti-aircraft guns, small arms fire and starting in late 2012, MANPADS up to modern Russian and Chinese designs.[32]

As the Syrian Air Force became more involved, the insurgents obtained more anti-aircraft equipment, captured air defense sites and warehouses while receiving shipments of Chinese and Russian material from external sponsors.[33] An improvement in accuracy was achieved and several Syrian Air Force jets and helicopters were shot down from August 2012.[34] Since insurgents besieged many airports, many of the aircraft were shot down taking off or landing. The raiding and shelling of airbases led to aircraft and helicopters being damaged or destroyed on the ground.[35]

In spite of occasional losses the Syrian Air Force remained largely unchallenged, efficient and feared by the rebels.[36] Compared to Western air forces fighting against similarly armed enemies in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan, the main disadvantage of the Syrian Air Force is the lack of precision guided weapons which allow the aircraft to stay out of range of small arms fire, AAA and MANPADS, while bombing accurately. The same weakness prevents them from hitting targets of opportunity in the same mission. In 2014, Jane´s Defence and Combat Aircraft Monthly report some MiG-29s[37] and possibly some Su-24s capable of launching precision guided ammunitions.[38]

Syrian pilots spend most of their flying time at low to medium altitude where battlefield threats are more potent. Based on the aircraft type, Syrian pilots use different attack techniques for unguided munitions. L-39s attack in a dive, fast jets usually attacked in a low to medium altitude bombing run at high speed, firing thermal decoy flares against IR homing missiles and zooming after the attack.[39] Later, fast jets added rocket and gun diving attacks.[40][41][42][43] Helicopters were seen flying at unusually high altitudes which minimized their accuracy and increased collateral damage, but reduced losses since they did not have the high speed and acceleration of jet fighters; the altitude putting them out of range of most of the ground threats. Mi-24/25 gunships were observed delivering decoy flares as well.[44]

The Syrian Air Force frequently attacks insurgent forces with helicopter gunships in populated areas with unguided weaponry and the bombings often cause collateral damage to the civilian population and infrastructure.[45][46] and warplanes[47][48][49][50][51] From the end of 2012 until December 2014, Syrian Air Force L-39 were seldom seen, one of the two airbases for L-39 was captured and the other was besieged. In December 2014, videos surfaced showing the aircraft coming back to operational status after a factory overhaul inside Syria.[52]

At the beginning of August 2015, a summary of the recent Syrian Air Force activity reported that during July 2015, the Syrian Air Force performed 6,673 air attacks, the highest number since the beginning of the war. It was reported that between October 2014 and July 2015, at least 26,517 attacks were made.[53] This showed that aircraft losses had been overestimated, while the airframe overhauling and rotation increased the overall combat readiness of the Syrian Air Force since Syria could not count on replacements, apart from some refurbished ex-Iraqi Su-22s, delivered from Iran in the Spring of 2015, which had been flown there during the Gulf War in 1991.[54] In early 2015, it was rumored that Russian pilots were flying operations for the Syrian Air Force.[55] No independent source confirmed the claim and no Russian pilots were reported among shot-down crews in the following months.

On 18 June 2017, US military officials confirmed that a U.S. F/A-18E Super Hornet shot down a Syrian Sukhoi SU-22 after the warplane dropped bombs near SDF fighters south of Tabqa.[56][57]


The Air Force command consists of:[58]

  • 7 Attack squadrons
  • 20 Interceptor/FGA/Reconnaissance squadrons
  • 4 Transport squadrons
  • 1 Electronic Warfare squadron
  • 7 Transport/Attack Helicopter squadrons
  • 5 Attack Helicopter squadrons
  • 1 VIP Helicopter squadron
  • 1 Training Group.

Air bases[edit]

Led by jihadist fighters from the Al-Nusra Front and an Ahrar al-Sham battalion, Syrian rebels overran Taftanaz Air Base during the second week in January, 2013.[59][60] Forces of The Islamic State captured Tabqa Air Base on 24 August 2014.[61]


Roundel of the Syrian Air Force.svg

The roundel used by the Syrian Arab Air Force has the same basic design as that used by the Egyptian Air Force. It consists of three concentric circles, with a red outer part, white middle and black inner part. The unique part of the Syrian roundel is the presence of two green stars in the white circle, which is reflective of the two stars on the national flag. The fin flash is also an image of the flag.

Pre Syrian civil war aircraft inventory[edit]

Due to the high security level on everything military related, the past and present of the Syrian Arab Air Force is still largely unknown. This makes it hard to judge the real strength of the air force today.[62] Additionally, considerable losses to the opposition forces in the country's ongoing civil war are not accounted for here. The following information is compiled from multiple, pre 2012 Syrian civil war sources.

According to the Center for Strategic and International Studies in 2011 the aircraft inventory from Syrian Arab Air Force estimations, was:[63][64]

  • 575 fixed-wing aircraft:
    • Combat/reconnaissance/OCU aircraft: 461
    • Training aircraft: 76
    • Transport aircraft: 26
  • 191 rotary-wing aircraft:
    • Attack helicopters: 71
    • Armed transport/utility helicopters: 120


Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
MiG-21 Soviet Union fighter 53[65]
MiG-23 Soviet Union fighter-bomber 89[65]
MiG-25 Soviet Union interceptor 2[65]
MiG-29 Russia multirole 20 12 on order[65]
Sukhoi Su-22 Soviet Union fighter / bomber 42[65]
Sukhoi Su-24 Soviet Union fighter / bomber 20[65]
Antonov An-26 Ukraine transport 2[65]
Ilyushin Il-76 Russia heavy transport 1[65]
Mil Mi-2 Russia utility 13[65]
Mil Mi-17 Russia utility Mi-8/17 34[66]
Mil Mi-14 Russia ASW / SAR 11[65]
Mil Mi-24 Russia attack Mi-25 28[65]
Kamov Ka-27 Russia utility Ka-28 2[65]
Aérospatiale Gazelle France utility / scout SA342 62[65]
Trainer Aircraft
Aero L-39 Czech Republic jet trainer 65[65]
Yakovlev Yak-130 Russia advanced trainer 36 on order[65]

Retired aircraft[edit]


The following have served as Commander of the Air Force:


Senior Officers

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "bellingcat - The Syrian Arab Air Force, Beware of its Wings". Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  2. ^ Pre Syrian civil war aircraft inventory
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Council Implementing Decision 2012/424/CFSP of 23 July 2012 implementing Decision 2011/782/CFSP concerning restrictive measures against Syria". Official Journal of the European Union. 24 July 2012. 
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b c d Nordeen, Lon; Nicolle, David (1996). Phoenix Over The Nile. Smithonian Instituition Press. pp. 345–347. ISBN 978-1-56098-626-3. 
  7. ^ Nicolle, David (24 September 2003). "Canberra Down!". Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  8. ^ Krauthammer, Charles (4 August 2006). "Israel's Lost Moment". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  9. ^ Schif, Ze'ev & Ya'ari, Ehud Israel's Lebanon War London Counterpoint 1986 pp160-1 ISBN 0-04-327091-3
  10. ^ "Russia defends arms sales to Syria". UPI. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  11. ^ "Russia Blocks MiG-31 Deal With Syria". Middle East Newsline. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  12. ^ a b
  13. ^ "First video of a Syrian helicopter gunship attacking rebels near Azaz, northwest of Aleppo". The Aviationist. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  14. ^ "Syrian air war escalates: the Mil Mi-24 Hind gunship makes its debut against rebel forces". The Aviationist. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  15. ^ "New videos show Syrian gunship helicopters dropping bombs on Homs and Damascus". The Aviationist. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  16. ^ "Syria's deadly barrel bombs". 2 September 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  17. ^ "Syrian Arab Air Force trainer jets turned into attack planes to strike rebel positions". The Aviationist. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Which figher jets did the Syrian government use to bomb its largest city, Aleppo? — Air Cache". 24 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  19. ^ Babak Dehghanpisheh (29 July 2013). "Syrian aircraft bomb Aleppo as rebels fight for city". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  20. ^ "Assad deploys Syrian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 Fencer attack planes to hit rebels hard". The Aviationist. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  21. ^ Gordon, Michael R.; Schmitt, Eric (12 December 2012). "Assad Fires Scuds at Rebels, U.S. Says, Escalating War in Syria". The New York Times. 
  22. ^ Oryx. "Oryx Blog". Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  23. ^ "The Aviationist » Syrian Mig-29 Fulcrum jets appear in the skies over Damascus during ground attack missions". The Aviationist. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  24. ^ "Syria Civil War- Fierce Clearly Visible Low Flight MIG 29 Airstrike On Syrian Rebels". YouTube. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  25. ^ "لحظة إطلاق طائرة الميغ صاروخا باتجاه المصور - YouTube". YouTube. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  26. ^ "Turkish F-16 jets scramble to intercept 2 Syrian Su-24s". Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  27. ^ R.S. "Luftwaffe A.S". Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  28. ^ "Attrition: The Destruction Of The Syrian Air Force". Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  29. ^ Chivers, C.J. (2 August 2012). "Syrian Leader's Weapons Under Strain". New York Times. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  30. ^ "Syrian government using L-39 trainer jets to attack rebels — Air Cache". 9 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  31. ^
  32. ^ Location Settings (2 December 2012). "Syrian rebels down aircraft". News24. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  33. ^ "Sudan becomes the newest player in Syria's protracted conflict: NYT - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  34. ^ Kaphle, Anup (13 August 2012). "Syrian fighter jet crashes; rebels claim they shot it down - WorldViews". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  35. ^ Tom A. Peter. "Syrian rebels struggle to keep regime Air Force on the ground (+video)". Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  36. ^ Martin Chulov in Aleppo. "Syrian rebel raids expose secrets of once-feared military | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  37. ^ "Russia helps keep Syria's MiG-29s flying". Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  38. ^ Cooper, Tom (October 2014). "A NEW AIR WAR OVER SYRIA". Combat Aircraft magazine. Ian Allan Publishing (10/2014). 
  39. ^ "Video of Su-22 releasing flares during attack shows Syrian pilots are becoming concerned of surface to air missiles". The Aviationist. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  40. ^ "\\خطير\\جبل الزاوية: لحظة انقضاض الطائرة الحربية \الرويحة\ - YouTube". YouTube. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  41. ^ "Syria - Su-22 rocket attack from low altitude - amazing". YouTube. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  42. ^ "The Aviationist » Syrian Air Force Su-22 leaking fuel after being hit by rebel fire". The Aviationist. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  43. ^ "YouTube". Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  44. ^ "Video shows Syrian Mil Mi-25 gunship releasing flares. A sign that rebels got their hands on MANPADS?". The Aviationist. 17 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  45. ^ Bloomfield, Adrian; Willis, Amy (12 July 2012). "Syria: helicopter gunships fire on villagers in fresh massacre". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. 
  46. ^ [1][dead link]
  47. ^ Linux Beach (30 June 2012). "BREAKING: Syrian Air Force attacks Douma, 10m from Damascus, thousands flee". Daily Kos. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  48. ^ "Syrian forces push into Douma, residents flee". Reuters. 30 June 2012. 
  49. ^ "Syria\ Shelling Douma by Al-Assad Military Planes". YouTube. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  50. ^ "Syrian regime attacks hospital". CNN. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  51. ^ "Syrian warplanes hammer rebel border town". Al Jazeera. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  52. ^ Oryx. "Oryx Blog". Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^ "Assad on the back foot". The Economist. 4 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. A well-connected man in Damascus says many are flown by Russians, whose government backs Mr Assad 
  56. ^
  57. ^
  58. ^ "Syrian Arab Air Force". Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  59. ^ "Rebels 'take control of key north Syria airbase'". BBC. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  60. ^ Anne Barnard (11 January 2013). "Syrian Rebels Say They Seized Helicopter Base in the North". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  61. ^ "BBC News - Syria conflict: Islamic State seizes Tabqa airbase". BBC News. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  62. ^ "Syrian Air Force - Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya al Arabiya as-Souriya". Scramble, Dutch Aviation Society. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  63. ^ "THE ARAB ISRAELI MILITARY BALANCE" (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. 29 June 2010. 
  64. ^ "INSTABILITY IN SYRIA: Assessing the Risks of Military Intervention" (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. 13 December 2011. 
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "World Air Forces 2017". Flightglobal Insight. 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  66. ^ Cite error: The named reference was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  67. ^ "اغتيال العقيد محمد ناصر..تفاصيل – خفايا – آراء(2-4)". Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  68. ^ Commander of the Syrian Air Force, General Wadih al Muqabari in the 1950s. Syrian History. Retrieved on 1 June 2012.
  69. ^ Al Moqatel - الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية
  70. ^ a b Batatu, 1999, p. 226.
  71. ^ Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading[edit]

  • Dijkshoorn, Marco (September 2010). "Syria's Secret Air Arm". Combat Aircraft magazine. Ian Allan Publishing. 11 (9). 
  • Cooper, Tom (October 2014). "A NEW AIR WAR OVER SYRIA". Combat Aircraft magazine. Ian Allan Publishing (10). 

External links[edit]