Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon
|Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon|
|Part of the Arab Winter, the Spillover of the Syrian Civil War and the Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict|
Former military situation in Lebanon on 19 February 2017.
Tahrir al-Sham and alliesControlled by Map of the Lebanese insurgency)
Pro-Syrian government militias:
Anti-Syrian government militias:
|Commanders and leaders|
Talal al-Ourdouni †
Abdullah Hussein al-Rifai †
Jamal Husayn Zayniyah (Al-Nusra Front operations commander in the Qalamoun)
|Ahmad Youssef Ammoun (POW)||
Michel Aoun (2016–present)
|Unknown||1,500–4,000+ fighters||7,000 fighters||12,000 soldiers mobilized|
|Casualties and losses|
In clashes with Lebanese Army:|
(Lebanese Army claim)
In clashes with Hezbollah:
|61 soldiers killed (See here.)|
|~350 civilians killed|
|a The al-Nusra Front closely cooperated with ISIL between 2013 and 2014, were considered "frenemies" in 2015, and became embroiled in open conflict with it in 2017.|
Between 2011 and 2017, fighting from the Syrian Civil War spilled over into Lebanon as opponents and supporters of the Syrian Arab Republic travelled to Lebanon to fight and attack each other on Lebanese soil. The Syrian conflict stoked a resurgence of sectarian violence in Lebanon, with many of Lebanon's Sunni Muslims supporting the rebels in Syria, while many of Lebanon's Shi'a Muslims supporting the Syrian regime which is led by Bashar Al-Assad, whose Alawite minority is usually described as an offshoot of Shi'a Islam. Killings, unrest, and kidnappings of foreign citizens across Lebanon resulted.
In mid-2011, seven people were killed and 59 wounded in a fight between gunmen in Tripoli. In May 2012, the conflict spread to Beirut, and later to south and east Lebanon, while the Lebanese Armed Forces deployed in north Lebanon and Beirut. As of January 2016 there have been more than 800 fatalities and almost 3,000 injuries. Among Lebanon's political blocs the anti-Syrian Saudi-backed March 14 Alliance supports the Syrian rebels, and the Iranian-backed pro-Syrian March 8 Alliance supports the Syrian government. On 28 August 2017, the last ISIL and Tahrir al-Sham remnants withdrew from Lebanon, ending the Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon.
Since the Cedar Revolution in 2005 and the withdrawal of the occupying Syrian forces from the country, the Lebanese political spectrum has been divided between the anti-Syrian government 14 March alliance and the pro-Syrian government 8 March alliance. The 14 March alliance, led by the mainly Sunni Muslim Future Movement, which is allied with the Maronite Christian Lebanese Forces Party, has called for Lebanese aid to the Free Syrian Army and taking a stronger stance against the Syrian government.
This has been rejected by the ruling 8 March alliance, which includes the Shia Hezbollah and allies such as the Maronite Free Patriotic Movement, among others. In August, The Jerusalem Post reported that protesters, enraged at Hezbollah's support for Syria's government, burned Hezbollah flags and images of its leader Hassan Nasrallah in several places in Syria. Pro-government protestors countered the actions by carrying posters of Nasrallah. Hezbollah states they support a process of reforms in Syria and that they are also against U.S. plots to destabilize and interfere in Syria, amid comments by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton that it should be "abundantly clear to those who support Assad [the] 'regime' [that] its days are numbered." It was reported that, "sales of black market weapons in Lebanon have skyrocketed in recent weeks due to demand in Syria." In June 2011, clashes in the Lebanese city of Tripoli between members of the Alawite minority, loyal to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, and members of the Sunni majority left seven people dead.
Future Movement MP Okab Sakr was long suspected to be involved in aiding the insurgents in the Syrian civil war. At first he denied his involvement, but admitted it when Al Akhbar published audio tapes of him making arms deals with Syrian insurgents. Sakr later claimed the tapes were edited, and that he only provided Syrians with milk and blankets.
Sunni extremists from Tripoli have been flocking to Syria to join the terrorist Al-Nusra Front. Hezbollah fighters have been deployed to protect border towns inhabited by Lebanese Shias from the rebels.
From the inception of the violence that began in Syria as a result of the Arab Spring, the Syrian Civil War has produced and inspired a great deal of strife and unrest among armed factions. Prior to the Battle of Arsal in August 2014, the Lebanese Army has tried to keep out of it and the violence has been mostly between various factions within the country and overt Syrian involvement has been limited to airstrikes and occasional accidental incursions.
Major battles 2014–15
In June 2014, a joint brigade of Al-Nusra Front and ISIL militants invaded and briefly held the town of Arsal. On 2 August 2014, Al-Nusra militants raided Lebanese checkpoints and captured parts of northeastern Arsal, prompting the Lebanese Army to launch a counter-attack with Syrian air support. The Lebanese Army recaptured all of Arsal after five days of fighting with Al-Nusra and ISIL militants.
A year later, in June 2015, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah claimed that Al-Nusra and ISIL had seized territory within Lebanon and that major fighting was going on between them and Hezbollah, as well as with each other.
In September 2015, a senior commander of the Al-Nusra Front and eight other militants were killed in a joint-operation between the Lebanese Army and Hezbollah.
Recapture of Lebanese territory
By 22 June 2016, 95% of the territory once controlled by militants had been recaptured by the Lebanese Army and its allies, with only 50 km2 left under militant control. Daily clashes were ongoing mainly near the town of Arsal. On 22 September, ISIL emir Imad Yassin was arrested at the Ain al-Hilweh refugee camp. Clashes erupted between ISIL and Nusra Front in Arsal Barrens on 26 October after ISIL tried to infiltrate towards the Hamid valley. On 28 October, the Lebanese Army carried out a raid against ISIL in the Wadi Zarzour area of Jaroud 'Arsal, killing a number of militants and destroying a militant hideout. ISIL commander Ahmad Youssef Amoun was arrested along with 10 other militants on 24 November after a military operation by the Lebanese Army on a temporary headquarter of the group near Arsal.
In February 2017, negotiations between Hezbollah and Saraya Ahl al-Sham began in order to install a ceasefire in the Syria–Lebanon border and for residents to return to the contest towns and villages between Hezbollah and the rebels.
On 21 July 2017, a Syrian Army commander stated that his forces and Hezbollah had launched a joint campaign to recapture the remaining territory under militant control near the Lebanon-Syria border, attacking the outskirts of Arsal. The Lebanese Army meanwhile assumed a defensive position in Arsal.
On 27 July 2017, a three-day ceasefire agreement was reached by Hezbollah with Tahrir al-Sham and Saraya Ahl al-Sham in the Lebanese portion of the Qalamoun Mountains. The agreement called for Tahrir al-Sham forces to withdraw from Lebanon to Idlib, Saraya Ahl al-Sham forces to withdraw to the eastern Qalamoun Mountains, and exchanges of prisoners from both sides.
On 27 August 2017, the remaining ISIL holdouts in the western Qalamoun agreed to the ceasefire with the Lebanese Army in Lebanon and Hezbollah and the Syrian Army on the Syrian side of the border. The next day, ISIL fighters burned its headquarters in the area, and prepared to be transferred to Abu Kamal. With the ISIL withdrawal, the Lebanese government regained full control of Lebanese territory for the first time in six years.
Deaths and injuries
Between May 2012 and December 2015, violent political incidents had resulted in at least 789 fatalities and more than 2,700 injuries, mostly during the Bab al Tabbaneh-Jabal Mohsen clashes in Tripoli. In August 2014, starting with the battle of Arsal between the Lebanese Army and Sunni militants at the beginning of the month and intense fighting that included both the Syrian and Lebanese armies in and near Arsal and the Bekaa Valley at the end of the month, the fighting had reached a new and different phase. The August casualties nearly equaled half the number of the previous two years put together. 12 November 2015, bombings in Beirut killed 43 people in the deadliest event of 2015 for this conflict.
The Lebanese Army stated that by June 2016, about 500 ISIL and Nusra militants had been killed and 700 captured in the border area of Lebanon and Syria.
Domestic political reactions
22 May 2012, Hezbollah deputy leader Sheikh Naim Qassem condoled Sunni Grand Mufti Mohammed Rashid Qabbani over the killings, and relayed the condolences of Hassan Nasrallah. The same day, Shadi Mawlawi, the Islamist whose arrest sparked the clashes in Tripoli, was released from custody, but Islamist protesters did not stop their sit-in protests, since they wanted 123 other Islamists freed as well. The Future Movement called for Mikati to immediately resign, claiming his cabinet had shown incapability to maintain the country's security. Lebanese Forces leader Samir Geagea accused Hezbollah of training and arming groups in Tripoli.
In August 2012, Prime Minister Najib Miqati, a native of Tripoli, issued a statement saying that "efforts to drag Lebanon more and more into the conflict in Syria when what is required is for leaders to cooperate...to protect Lebanon from the danger" and urged the international community to help prevent Lebanon from being another theater in the Syrian civil war. He added: "The cabinet work is not a priority compared to what the country is witnessing when it comes to exposure to the Syrian crisis and attempts to transfer it to Lebanon. The country is in great danger."
An Nahar cited unnamed "western diplomatic sources" as stating that these incidents were the beginning of a Salafist revolution aimed at arming the uprising in Syria. Salafists in Lebanon have often voiced their support for the uprising in Syria. The 14 March alliance also accused the Syrian government of trying to drag Lebanon into its crisis. The Future Movement's former MP Mustafa Alloush said after regular weekly meeting: "It is actually an attempt to make of Tripoli a zone of terrorism. It also aims at striking Lebanon's northern area which has welcomed and helped out the Syrian displaced." Calls by Rifaat Eid, the head of the Arab Democratic Party, for a return of the Syrian army to Tripoli to impose security in the city were rejected by Prime Minister Najib Mikati.
The Syrian Civil War and its domestic impact have furthered the polarisation of Lebanese politics. The March 14 Alliance, dominated by Christian- and Sunni-based parties, is broadly sympathetic to the Syrian opposition to Bashar Al-Assad. In August, youth members of 14 March parties including Kataeb, Lebanese Forces, National Liberal Party, Future Movement and Islamic Group held a rally to demand the expulsion of the Syrian Ambassador. 8 March parties generally supported the continuation of the Assad government, but analysts believe some groups within the coalition may seek new alliances if the Assad government falls. More moderate members of the coalition in government have begun distancing themselves from the Assad government.
As of 13 February 2013, more than 182,938 Syrian refugees are in Lebanon. As the number of Syrian refugees increases, the Lebanese Forces Party, the Kataeb Party, and the Free Patriotic Movement fear the country's sectarian based political system is being undermined. Other parties, such as the mostly Shia Lebanese Option Gathering and the mostly Sunni Najjadeh Party have also taken stances close to 14 March, including calling cancellation of agreements between the two countries.
- UN: On 21 May 2012, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed for calm after the clashes. On 22 August 2012, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman, in a meeting of the Security Council, described the situation as "precarious" and warned that a deteriorating situation in Syria could destabilise Lebanon.
- Russia: On 23 May 2012, Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said there was a real threat of conflict spilling over from Syria and that it could have a very bad ending.
- Saudi Arabia: On 23 May 2012, King Abdullah wrote to Lebanese President Michel Suleiman expressing concern over the recent violence in Tripoli, especially the sectarian nature of the violence.
- United States: On 25 May 2012, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called for restraint and said the U.S. was concerned the unrest in Syria would contribute instability in Lebanon. In May, Ambassador Maura Connelly met with Lebanese Prime Minister Najib Mikati to express her concern with the security situation in Tripoli and commended the government's efforts to defuse the situation.
Bilal Saab, a senior fellow at the Middle East Institute, argued that Lebanon's handling of the Syrian crisis was a good sign for the domestic stability of the country and U.S. policies. He noted that while the 2007 Lebanon conflict saw a mere 450 gunmen in one refugee camp kill or wound several hundred Lebanese security forces and force the government to reduce the camp to rubble to flush them out, the Syrian war spillover was dealt with much more cleanly and efficiently, with the Lebanese Army swiftly defeating and evicting a force of several thousand Islamic State militants. In addition to noting the large improvements in troop and equipment quality over the preceding decade (partly thanks to American funding), Saab also noted that the battles solidified the legitimacy of the Lebanese Army as a defender of the country, earning it positive publicity among the country's northern regions and detracting from the influence of Hezbollah.
The Lebanese army in Tripoli after sectarian clashes, in 2012.
2012 VOA report on the US reaction to the conflict
- "Sectarian clash erupts south of Beirut". NOW News. 1 July 2015.
- "Report: Clashes between Palestinian Group, Nusra Front in Bekaa". Naharnet. 22 October 2014.
- "Reports of Amal Movement sending fighters to Syria". Syria Direct. 11 May 2015.
- "The SSNP 'Hurricane' in the Syrian Conflict: Syria and South Lebanon Are the Same Battlefield". Al Akhbar. 3 February 2014.
- "Double displacement: Palestinians flee violence in Syria, then Lebanon". The Electronic Intifada. 3 September 2015.
- "Gunfight in Sidon between Assir and local rivals wounds five". The Daily Star. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "7 Palestinians wounded in Lebanon camp clashes". Ma'an News Agency. 14 May 2014.
- "Palestinian commander shot dead in refugee camp". Al-Araby Al-Jadeed. 28 January 2016.
- Kullab, Samya. "Jabal Mohsen leaderless and exposed, locals say". The Daily Star.
- Engel, Andrew (21 May 2012). "Syria's crisis reaches Beirut". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy.
- "Syrian air strikes kill three near Lebanese border". Reuters. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Hezbollah says gets support, not orders, from Iran". Reuters. 7 February 2012.
- "Russia Is Arming Hezbollah, Say Two of the Group's Field Commanders". The Daily Beast. 11 January 2016.
- "Lebanese communist fighters gear up to battle ISIL". Al-Jazeera. 20 September 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- "Renewed fighting in Lebanon Palestinian refugee camp kills one". Reuters. 2 April 2016.
- "Fattah colonel killed in Lebanon's largest refugee camp". Al Arabiya. 25 July 2015.
- "FSA 'Arsal Commander' Shot Dead in Town's Square". Naharnet. 14 August 2015.
- "Last rebel faction leaves mountains on Syrian-Lebanese border alongside displaced". Syria Direct. 14 August 2017.
- "Jaish al-Islam confronts Islamic State in Arsal". Al-Monitor. 5 February 2015. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015.
- "Islamist Mergers in Syria: Ahrar al-Sham Swallows Suqour al-Sham". Carnegie Middle East Center. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Jesse Marks (10 August 2017). "Preventing Forced Return in Lebanon and the Greater Levant". The Stimson Center.
- "Syria Islamist factions, including former al Qaeda branch, join forces - statement". Thomson Reuters Foundation. 28 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Abu Amer, Adnan (4 September 2015). "Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon becomes battlefield for Fatah-Islamist conflict". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- Masi, Alessandria (12 April 2016). "Palestinian Fatah Leader Killed In Lebanon Refugee Camp Bomb". International Business Times.
- Wood, Josh (4 April 2012). "Syria War Triggers Rifts in Palestinian Camps in Lebanon". New York Times.
- "Lebanon arrests top al-Qaeda linked fighter". Al-Jazeera. 12 February 2014.
- Abu Amer, Adnan (15 June 2015). "Hamas working to lower tensions in Lebanese camps". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- ""Sunni Resistance Committees in Lebanon" Releases Video on Arsal Attack". SITE Intelligence Group. 16 October 2015.
- "Palestinians vow to disband Islamist group in volatile Lebanese camp". Reuters. 11 April 2017.
- "Islamic State prepares to evacuate Syria-Lebanon border zone". Reuters. 28 August 2017.
- "Free Sunnis of Baalbek Brigade pledges allegiance to IS caliphate". Ya Libnan. 30 June 2014.
- "Australia grants Lebanese Army helicopter parts". The Daily Star. 2 February 2016.
- "UK, Canada Sign Partnership Agreement to Help Lebanese Army". Naharnet. 2 March 2016.
- "Lebanese Army receives second weapons shipment from China". The Daily Star. 16 July 2015.
- Agency, National News. "Bassil thanks Cypriot counterpart for contribution to Lebanese Army".
- "Lebanon is the only country that defeated Islamic State, declared Czech FM". Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Egypt ready to assist Lebanon against jihadis". The Daily Star. 5 December 2014.[dead link]
- "Saudis give $1bn to Lebanon amid fighting - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- Joseph A. Kechichian Senior Writer. "Aid packages reaffirm importance of Lebanese army". GulfNews. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- Naylor, Hugh (4 November 2014). "Rivals Tehran, Riyadh pledge billions to Lebanon's army". Washington Post.
- "Italy donates spare equipment, parts to Lebanese Army". Lebanese Examiner. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Jordan sends military aid to Lebanon: Army". Al-Ahram. 24 February 2015.
- "Dutch support for Lebanon in the fight against armed extremism". Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Machnouk discusses security cooperation in Russia". The Daily Star. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "China, S.Korea, Jordan offer to help equip Lebanese Army". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Spain pledges to help Lebanon over Syria crisis". Daily Star Lebanon. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Turkey Willing to Provide $1.1 Million Military Aid to Lebanon". Naharnet. 20 February 2016.
- "The British watchtowers beating back jihadists". The Telegraph. 30 November 2014.
- "Islamic State crisis: UK gives £20m to keep Lebanon safe". BBC. 1 December 2014.
- Isil fighters bussed from Lebanon-Syria border after first deal to surrender
- "Who is behind new round of violence in Lebanon refugee camp?". Al-Monitor. 13 April 2017.
- "U.S. Treasury sanctions four al Nusra Front leaders". Reuters. 10 November 2016.
- "Lebanese Army's Good Catch in Arsal: Senior ISIL Commander". Al-Manar. 23 February 2016.
- "ISIS Leader, Security Official, Killed In Lebanese Army Raid". International Business Times. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
- "Lebanese security forces arrest ISIS Emir in Lebanon". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- "Lebanese Army Arrests Senior ISIL Commander, other Terrorists in Arsal Barrens".
- "All-out battle in Qalamoun has not yet started". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- "Hizbullah Fighters Escort Journalists on Tour of Qalamoun Mountains". Naharnet. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Lebanese army slowly crushing extremists near Syria border
- "Syrian Islamist rebels 'withdraw from Lebanese town after truce'". BBC News. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- 300+ civilians killed in Lebanon (see here), 42 civilians killed within Syria (See here.)
- Sulome Anderson (21 June 2015). "ISIS Is Trying to Take Over Lebanon. This Christian Village Is on the Front Lines". New York.
- "Widening clashes between the front and the victory of the Lebanese organization Daesh Jarod Arsal". Al Mayadeen. 27 May 2017. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017.
- Holmes, Oliver (23 August 2013). "Bombs kill 42 outside mosques in Lebanon's Tripoli". Reuters. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Bassam, Laila (15 August 2013). "Car bomb kills 20 in Hezbollah's Beirut stronghold". Reuters. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "Jumblatt joins anti-Syrian regime protest in Beirut". NOW Lebanon. 22 February 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Syria conflict causing tension". The Daily Star. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "Violence: Who says America doesn't have castles?". The Economist. October 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- Navon, Emmanuel. "Syria uprising stirs old divisions in neighboring Lebanon". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Hezbollah has no role at Syria's crackdown on protesters". DP-News. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "WikiLeaks: U.S. secretly backed Syria opposition". CBS News.
- "Hillary Clinton warns Bashar al-Assad as US-Syrian tensions intensify". The Guardian. London. 9 July 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Nicholas Blanford. "Syrian refugees describe gangs fomenting sectarian strife". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Lebanon... Perils of the Syrian Quake Aftershocks" (PDF). 28 July 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
- "'Syrian Armed Opposition Leader' Asks Saqr for Arms in Leaked Audio Tape". Naharnet. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Saqr Confirms Leaked Audio Recording on Arms Deal, Says Ready to Lift Off his Immunity". Naharnet. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Saqr Challenges Foes to Prove Involvement in Arms Trade as he Broadcasts Original Tapes". Naharnet. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "closer-ties-emerge-between-sunni-militants-from-lebanon-and-syria-officials-say More Lebanese Sunnis are crossing into Syria to aid rebellion, officials say". The Washington Post.
- "Report: Hizbullah Training Shiite Syrians to Defend Villages against Rebels". Naharnet. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Lebanese army deploys in tense Bekaa Valley - Middle East". Al Jazeera.
- "Lebanese Army chief says won't allow establishment of buffer zones | News, Lebanon News". The Daily Star.
- "Lebanon Defense Minister: The Army Fought Alone Against Assir". Al Akhbar English. 1 July 2013.
- "Hezbollah prepares for fierce clashes near Ras Baalbek". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "8 Lebanon soldiers killed in Syria border clashes". Channel NewsAsia. 3 August 2014. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Jihadists Extend Control Into Lebanese City". New York Times. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- Josh WoodForeign Correspondent. "Hizbollah declares war on ISIL". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- Masi, Alessandria (9 December 2015). "Lebanese Army, Hezbollah Shell Jabhat Al-Nusra Militants In North Lebanon". International Business Times.
- "In east Lebanon, quiet but steady progress in fight against Islamic militants".
- "ISIL, Nusra Front Clash in Lebanon's Arsal Barrens".
- Desk, News (28 October 2016). "Lebanese Army conducts military operations against ISIS near Syrian border".
- "ISIS In Lebanon: Army Arrests 11 Members, Including Local Commander". 25 November 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Hezbollah, rebel group discuss truce at the Lebanese border". Zaman al-Wasl. 11 February 2017.
- Bassam, Laila; Perry, Tom (21 July 2017). "Hezbollah, Syria army launch offensive at Syrian-Lebanese border". Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Hezbollah makes gains in Syria-Lebanon border assault". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "HTS to leave mountain region along Syria-Lebanon border as part of truce agreement". Syria Direct. 27 July 2017.
- "Several dead in clashes in Lebanon's Tripoli". Al Jazeera. 13 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Qassem Condoles Mufti Qabbani over Abdul Wahed Murder, Stresses Support for Army". Naharnet. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Mawlawi, newly freed: I confessed under duress". The Daily Star. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Future bloc calls on premier to immediately resign". NOW Lebanon. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Geagea: Hezbollah training, arming Tripoli groups". Ya Libnan. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Marquardt, Alexander (23 August 2012). "Syrian Spillover Violence in Lebanon Fuels Fears of Wider Conflict". ABC News. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- "What is driving Lebanon's sectarian clashes?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Diplomats Say 'Salafist Revolution' in Tripoli Aim at Arming Syrian Opposition". Naharnet. 19 May 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Lebanon's Salafists renew support for the uprising in Syria". The Daily Star. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Clashes resume in Tripoli, several wounded". Al Akhbar. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Lebanon boils after sheikh killing". The Daily Star. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "March 14 starts campaign to expel Syrian envoy". Naharnet. 30 August 2012.
- "The future of Syria's pawns in Lebanon". NOW Lebanon. 2 September 2012. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012.
- "Lebanon centrists distancing themselves from Syria". Ya Libnan. 4 September 2012.
- "PSP to Rally in Support of Syrian People, Expulsion of Syrian Ambassador". Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "PSP Demo Urges Syria Envoy Expulsion, Arrest of Syrians in Samaha Case". Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Demographic Data of Registered Population". UNHCR. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- Kverme, Kai (14 February 2013). "The Refugee Factor". SADA. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
- "النجادة: الاوضاع في لبنان تتجه نحو الاسوأ". Lebanon Files. 21 August 2012.
- "Ban Urges Lebanese to 'Make Every Effort to Restore Calm'". Naharnet. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Lebanon clashes: Fresh clashes breach truce in Tripoli". BBC News. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "U.N. official urges efforts to safeguard peace in Lebanon". CNN. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- "Syria conflict 'real threat' to Lebanon: Russia". The Daily Star. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Saudi king 'very worried' about Lebanon unrest". Arabian Business.
- "Clinton Concerned Syria Unrest Affecting Lebanon". Naharnet. 26 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "U.S. Embassy in Beirut wary of Syrian spillover". United Press International. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Saab, Bilal. "The United States Has Not Lost Lebanon." Foreign Policy. May, 2018.