Systematic element name
A systematic element name is the temporary name assigned to a newly synthesized or not yet synthesized chemical element. A systematic symbol is also derived from this name. In chemistry, a transuranic element receives a permanent name and symbol only after its synthesis has been confirmed. In some cases, this has been a protracted and highly political process (see element naming controversy and Transfermium Wars). In order to discuss such elements without ambiguity, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) uses a set of rules to assign a temporary systematic name and symbol to each such element. This approach to naming originated in the successful development of regular rules for the naming of organic compounds.
The IUPAC rules
The temporary names are derived systematically from the element's atomic number. Each digit is translated to a 'numerical root', according to the table to the right. The roots are concatenated, and the name is completed with the ending suffix -ium. Some of the roots are Latin and others are Greek to avoid two digits starting with the same letter (for example, the Greek-derived pent is used instead of the Latin derived quint to avoid confusion with quad for 4). There are two elision rules designed to prevent odd-looking names.
- If bi or tri is followed by the ending ium (i.e. the last digit is 2 or 3), the result is '-bium' or -'trium', not '-biium' or '-triium'.
- If enn is followed by nil (i.e. the sequence -90- occurs), the result is '-ennil-', not '-ennnil-'.
The systematic symbol is formed by taking the first letter of each root, converting the first to a capital. This results in three-letter symbols instead of the one- or two-letter symbols used for named elements.
As of 2015[update], all elements up to atomic number 112, as well as elements 114 and 116, have received individual permanent names and symbols. Systematic names and symbols are only used for unnamed elements 113, 115, 117, 118, and higher.
- The IUPAC recommendation. Untitled draft, March 2004. (PDF, 143 kB).
|Periodic table (Large cells)|