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Syzygium malaccense
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Subfamily: Myrtoideae
Tribe: Syzygieae
Genus: Syzygium
P. Browne ex Gaertn.[1]

About 1100; see List of Syzygium species

  • Acicalyptus A. Gray
  • Acmena DC.
  • Acmenosperma Kausel
  • Anetholea Peter G. Wilson
  • Aphanomyrtus Miq.
  • Bostrychode (Miq.) O. Berg in C. F. P. von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.)
  • Caryophyllus L.
  • Cerocarpus Colebr. ex Hassk.
  • Cetra Noronha
  • Clavimyrtus Blume
  • Cleistocalyx Blume
  • Cupheanthus Seem.
  • Gaslondia Vieill.
  • Gelpkea Blume
  • Jambolifera Houtt.
  • Jambos Adans.
  • Jambosa DC. nom. illeg.
  • Leptomyrtus (Miq.) O. Berg in C. F. P. von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.)
  • Lomastelma Raf.
  • Macromyrtus Miq.
  • Macropsidium Blume
  • Malidra Raf.
  • Microjambosa Blume
  • Myrthoides Wolf
  • Opa Lour.
  • Pareugenia Turrill
  • Piliocalyx Brongn. & Gris
  • Pseudoeugenia Scort.
  • Strongylocalyx Blume
  • Syllisium Endl.
  • Syllysium Meyen & Schauer
  • Tetraeugenia Merr.
  • Waterhousea B.Hyland
  • Xenodendron K.Schum. & Lauterb.
Syzygium paniculatum (magenta lilly pilly)
Syzygium samarangense, with a cross section of the fruit

Syzygium (/sɪˈzɪəm/)[3] is a genus of flowering plants that belongs to the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. The genus comprises about 1200 species,[4][5][6] and has a native range that extends from Africa and Madagascar through southern Asia east through the Pacific.[7] Its highest levels of diversity occur from Malaysia to northeastern Australia, where many species are very poorly known and many more have not been described taxonomically. One indication of this diversity is in leaf size, ranging from as little as a half inch (one cm) to as great as 4 ft 11 inches (1.5 meters) by sixteen inches (38 centimeters) in Syzygium acre of New Caledonia.[8]

Most species are evergreen trees and shrubs. Several species are grown as ornamental plants for their attractive glossy foliage, and a few produce edible fruits called roseapples that are eaten fresh or used in jams and jellies. The most economically important species, however, is the clove Syzygium aromaticum, of which the unopened flower buds are an important spice. Some of the edible species of Syzygium are planted throughout the tropics worldwide, and several have become invasive species in some island ecosystems. Fifty-two species are found in Australia and are generally known as lillipillies, brush cherries or satinash.[9]

At times Syzygium was confused taxonomically with the genus Eugenia (c. 1000 species), but the latter genus has its highest specific diversity in the neotropics. Many species formerly classed as Eugenia are now included in the genus Syzygium, although the former name may persist in horticulture.[9] The Syzygium Working Group, an international group of researchers, formed in April 2016 with the aim to produce a monograph of Syzygium.[6]

The term comes from the Greek word syzygia, meaning "joining together or conjunction".[10][11]


An Australian rainforest Syzygium exhibits cauliflory.
Syzygium cumini in Kohat Pakistan

Selected species include:[4]

Returned to this genus

  • Cleistocalyx operculatus has recently been returned to this genus, becoming a synonym for Syzygium nervosum[14]


  1. ^ "Genus: Syzygium P. Browne ex Gaertn". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2021-01-30. Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  2. ^ "WCSP". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  3. ^ "syzygium". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  4. ^ a b "Syzygium Gaertn". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  5. ^ Jie Chen and Lyn A. Craven, "Syzygium P. Browne ex Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 166. 1788", Flora of China Online, vol. 13, retrieved 3 May 2015
  6. ^ a b Ahmad, Berhaman; Baider, Cláudia; Bernardini, Benedetta; Biffin, Edward; Brambach, Fabian; Burslem, David; Byng, James W.; Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Florens, F.B. Vincent; Lucas, Eve J.; Ray, Avik; Ray, Rajasri; Smets, Erik; Snow, Neil W.; Strijk, Joeri S.; Wilson, Peter G. (2016). "Syzygium (Myrtaceae): Monographing a taxonomic giant via 22 coordinated regional revisions" (PDF). PeerJ Preprints. doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1930v1. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  7. ^ Tuiwawa, S.H.; Craven, L.A.; Sam, C.; Crisp, M.D. (23 August 2013). "The genus Syzygium (Myrtaceae) in Vanuatu". Blumea. 58: 53–67. doi:10.3767/000651913x672271.
  8. ^ Flore de la Novelle Caladonie, Volume 23 pages 44-45
  9. ^ a b Wrigley, John W.; Fagg, Murray A. (2003). Australian native plants: cultivation, use in landscaping and propagation (Fifth ed.). Australia: Reed New Holland. p. 696. ISBN 1876334908.
  10. ^ "Definition of SYZYGIUM". Retrieved 2023-03-24.
  11. ^ "ONLINE LATIN DICTIONARY - Latin - English". Retrieved 2023-03-24.
  12. ^ Whistler, W. Arthur (1978). "Vegetation of the Montane Region of Savai'i, Western Samoa" (PDF). Pacific Science. 32 (1). The University Press of Hawai'i: 90. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  13. ^ Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). "'Ōhi'a ha" (PDF). United States Forest Service. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. ^ "Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. & L.M.Perry". Plants of the World Online (POWO). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 18 February 2021.

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