Tày language

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Tày
Tho
Native toVietnam
Native speakers
1.63 million (2009)[1]
Latin (Vietnamese alphabet)
Chữ nôm
Language codes
ISO 639-3tyz
Glottologtayy1238[2]
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Tày or Tho (a name shared with Cuoi and with various Zhuang languages of China) is the major Tai language of Vietnam, in the northeast near the Chinese border.

Varieties[edit]

Tày linguistic varieties include:[3][4]

  • Tày Bảo Lạc is spoken in Bảo Lạc District, western Cao Bang province.
  • Tày Trùng Khánh is spoken in Trùng Khánh District, northeastern Cao Bang province.

The Dai Zhuang varieties should perhaps be considered the same language.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
plain pal.
Plosive voiceless p t c k
aspirated pʰʲ
voiced b d
implosive ɓ ɓʲ ɗ
Fricative voiceless f s x h
voiced v z ɣ
lateral ɬ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Trill r
Approximant w l j
  • The Cao Bẳng Tay dialect is the only variety to have the sounds /j w r ɣ b d bʲ/.

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
High i ɯ u
High-mid e o
Mid ə əː
Low-mid ɛ ɐ ɔ
Low a
Diphthongs
Front Back
Close ie ɯə uo
  • There are also three semivowels [u̯ i̯ ɯ̯] that mainly occur in syllable-coda position in combination with other vowel sounds. [u̯ i̯] are typically realized as consonant sounds [w j]. [u̯] follows front vowels /i e ɛ/ and central vowels /ə a ɐ/. [i̯] follows back vowels /u o ɔ/ as well as central vowels /ə a ɐ/. However, [ɯ̯] only follows /ə/.[5]

Tones[edit]

Six tones are present in Cao Bẳng Tay:

Tones
˥
a᷄ ˦˥
á ˦
ā ˧
à ˨
a᷆ ˨˩

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tày at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Edmondson, Jerold A., Solnit, David B. (eds). 1997. Comparative Kadai: the Tai branch. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics 124. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.
  4. ^ http://ling.uta.edu/~jerry/research/map.html
  5. ^ Văn Ma, Hoàng (1997). The sound system of the Tày language of Cao Bắng Province, Vietnam. Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: The Tai branch: Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. pp. 221–231.

See also[edit]