Tête nucléaire océanique
Tête nucléaire océanique (TNO or oceanic nuclear warhead) is a French thermonuclear warhead intended for use on the M51.2 submarine-launched ballistic missile, that is being developed and built by the Division of Military Applications (DAM) at France's Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (English: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission). It will be carried on Triomphant-class submarines. The TNO is intended to replace the currently deployed TN 75 warhead. Its commissioning was planned for 2015, when France's newest submarines, either Le Terrible or Le Vigilant, will be one of the first to carry the warhead.
The TNO has a yield that is estimated to be 100 kilotons of TNT (kt). The warhead's charge is called "robust": less optimized than the TN 75 but with an improved reliability and life-span. Development of the technology in the warhead has benefited from the final series of French nuclear tests conducted in 1995-1996 in Moruroa, French Polynesia. The warhead's design and functionality were ultimately validated through simulation, particularly with DAM's Tera 100 supercomputer, Megajoule laser, and radiographic equipment. Production of the TNO is estimated to be complete, although it is not yet in France's operational stockpile of nuclear weapons.
The information presented in this article can only be indicative because underlying data is classified by the French government.
- Boulaud, Didier (12 July 2012). "L'avenir des forces nucléaires françaises" (in French). Sénat de France. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Pillet, Nicolas (28 January 2010). "Le Terrible a tiré avec succès un M-51 !". Eurospace (in French). Retrieved 6 November 2011.
- Kristensen, Hans. "France" (PDF). Assuring Destruction Forever: Nuclear Weapon Modernization Around the World. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Reif, Kingston (8 December 2009). "Nuclear weapons: The modernization myth". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Deterrence: F. Hollande details his vision and the French arsenal". Mer et Marine (in French). www.meretmarine.com. 20 February 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
- Kearns, Ian (November 2011). Beyond the United Kingdom: Trends in the Other Nuclear Armed States (PDF). British American Security Information Council (BASIC). Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Pintat, Xavier; Daniel Reiner (18 November 2010). "Projet de loi de finances pour 2011 : Défense - Equipement des forces" (in French). Sénat de France. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Volant, Emmanuelle (July 2012). "Dossier de presse - Le Laser Mégajoule" (PDF) (in French). CEA/DAM. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Rapport d'information sur l'avenir des forces nucléaires françaises No. 668 du 12 juillet 2012 (Information Report on the future of French nuclear forces, No. 668 of 12 July 2012)‹See Tfd›(in French)