Tövkhön Monastery, Mongolia
|Location||Orkhon Valley, Mongolia|
|Style||Chinese, Mongol and Tibetan influences|
Tövkhön Monastery (Mongolian: Төвхөн хийд, Töwhön híd), one of Mongolia’s oldest Buddhist monasteries, is located on the border of Övörkhangai Province and Arkhangai Province in central Mongolia, approximately 47 kilometers southwest of Kharkhorin.
Tövkhön Monastery was first established in 1648 by the 14-year-old Zanabazar, the first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu and spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism for the Khalkha in Outer Mongolia. He determined that the location on the Shireet Ulaan Uul mountain overlooking a hill at 2,600 meters above sea-level was an auspicious location. The first physical structures were built upon his return from studying in Tibet in 1653. Zanabazar, who was a gifted sculptor, painter, and musician, used the monastery, originally called Bayasgalant Aglag Oron (Happy Secluded Place), as his personal retreat over the course of 30 years. While there created many of his most famous works. It was also where he developed the soyombo script.
The monastery was destroyed in 1688 by Oirat Mongols during their military campaign against Eastern Khalkha Mongols. Restored in 1773, the monastery suffered severe damage during the Stalinist purges of the late 1930s as Mongolia’s communist regime sought to destroy the Buddhist Church in the country.
Religious activities at the monastery restarted in 1992 and restoration of the monastery's grounds was completed in 1997. Two original temples and two stupas from the 17th century still stand, along with additional temples built in the 18th century. Ceremonies were staged to re-consecrate the monastery and a new statue of Gombo Makhagal (Mahakala). The monastery was registered as a UNESCO world cultural heritage site in 1996. Several monks now reside and practice at the monastery full-time.
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