Coordinates: 39°05′N 63°34′E / 39.083°N 63.567°E / 39.083; 63.567
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Leninsk 1924-1927
Çärjew 1940-1999
Ruhyýet Palace (above), Marble buildings along the street Bitarap Turkmenistan (left)
City’s East Side (right)
Turkmenabat is located in Turkmenistan
Location in Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 39°05′N 63°34′E / 39.083°N 63.567°E / 39.083; 63.567
Country Turkmenistan
ProvinceLebap Province
 • HäkimGuvanch Bazarov [1]
187 m (614 ft)
 (2009 census)[2][failed verification]
 • Total253,000
Time zoneUTC+5
Postal code
Area code+993 422
Vehicle registrationLB

Türkmenabat (Turkmen: Türkmenabat, Түркменабат), formerly Amul, Çärjew (until 1924 and from 1940-1999), and Novy Chardzhuy (from 1927-1940), is the second-largest city in Turkmenistan and the administrative centre of Lebap Province. As of 2009, it had a population of approximately 254,000 people (up from 161,000 in the 1989 census).[citation needed] From 1924 to 1927, it was also named Leninsk in honor of Vladimir Lenin.[4]


The former name of the city, Çärjew (also Chardzhou), is a Turkmen borrowing from the Persian čahârjuy, which consists of two parts: čahâr, meaning "four", and juy, meaning "brook". This type of naming is also common in Iran, such as the village Se Juy (literally 'three brooks'). The current name of the city is simply a combining of Türkmen and the Persian suffix ābād (آباد), meaning "cultivated place" (village, city, region).


Türkmenabat is located at an altitude of 187 m (614 ft) on the banks of the Amu Darya River, near the border with Uzbekistan. Türkmenabat is at the center of Lebap province, which has borders with three provinces in Turkmenistan: Mary, Ahal and Daşoguz. The province also borders Uzbekistan and Afghanistan.

Some 70 kilometres (43 miles) south of Türkmenabat in the East Karakum Desert is the Repetek Nature Reserve, famed for its zemzen, or desert crocodiles.


A modern industrial city, Türkmenabat's history spans 2,000 years. In ancient times, it was known as Āmul (to be distinguished from the Iranian city of Amol). The river Amu Darya is said to mean River of Āmul, named after this ancient city. Türkmenabat was the hub in an intersection of three routes of the Great Silk Road leading to Bukhara, Khiva and Merv. [citation needed]. For centuries, Āmul was an important town of the Uzbek feudal khanate (later emirate) of Bukhara.

When the Russian Empire began annexing Central Asian Turkestan, Āmul was surrendered to Russians by the Bukhara emirate, which subsequently became a vassal of Russia and pledged allegiance to the Russian emperor. The modern city was founded in 1886, when Russian Cossacks settled in Uralka in what is now the eastern part of Türkmenabat, naming their settlement New-Chardjuy.[citation needed] Settlement here was necessary to complete construction of the Trans-Caspian railway.

After the revolution of 1917, during which the Bolsheviks came into power in Russia, communists merged the former Central Asian oblasts of the Russian Empire along with the former Khanates of Khiva (Khorezm) and Bukhara into republics on the basis of nationality. Thus, Türkmenabat (known as Chardjuy at that time) was passed to the newly created Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic in order to reduce the territory and power of Uzbekistan, where anti-Soviet separatist movements were prevalent.

Photo taken at the entrance to the old Çärjew (Turkmenabat), by the French photographer Paul Nadar in 1890

Its role as a railway junction, and the high fertility of the Amu Darya region, made it the major trade center for agricultural products in the northeast region of the country. The city features food processing, textile (cotton processing and silk) factories. Çärjew was Turkmenistan's industrial and transport hub during the Soviet period, but most of these related jobs and transport opportunities have been relocated to Ashgabat or closed since Turkmenistan's independence.

From the article about Chardjuy in the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (beginning of the 20th century):

Chardjuy is an urban settlement formed near the Amu-Darya station (1070 c. from Krasnovodsk) of the Central Asian Railway, on the left bank of the Amu-Darya River, on land ceded by the emir of Bukhara to the Russian government. There are 4 068 inhabitants (2 651 men, 1 417 women), including 3 501 Russians. There are wide straight streets, enough greenery, many shops, and a rather lively bazaar. Chardjuy is an important trade center, where goods going to Bukhara, Khiva, and partly to Afghanistan, are loaded onto river vessels. The steamboat of the Amu Darya fleet maintains communication between Patta Gissar (Termez) in the south and Petro-Aleksandrovsky (Khiva)... At 16 verst from Chardjuy lies the rather large Bukharan city of Chardjuy (native Chardjuy), the center of Chardjuy province (bekstvo), with the remains of walls and a fortress; 15 thousand inhabitants. Old Chardjuy (Amu-Darya) is characterized by a lively trade exchange. In 1900, 1820244 pd arrived at the station. (military supplies, sugar, timber, building material, iron, flour, tea, rice, etc.); Sent from the Chardjuy station in the same year: 963382 (leather, carpets, sheepskin, cotton seed, cotton - 516641 pd, wool, etc.).

The third edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia wrote of the city:

Chardzhou, city, center of Chardzhou oblast of Turkmen SSR, pier on the left bank of the Amu Darya (where the Krasnovodsk-Tashkent railroad line crosses). From Chardzhou the Kungrad-Makat rail line begins. 113,000 residents in 1977 (51,000 in 1939). It arose in the 1880s as a Russian fortification on the territory of the Khanate of Bukhara. From 1886 the city, named New Chardzou, was a commercial and transportation hub of Central Asia (in 1888 the Central Asian Railway came through Chardzhou). From 1918-24 it was part of the Turkestan ASSR; from 1924, the Turkmen SSR. From 1937, it was named Chardzhou. From 1939-63 and since 1970, it was an oblast center.[4]


Türkmenabat has a cool desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk), with cool winters and very hot summers. Rainfall is generally light and erratic, and occurs mainly in the winter and spring months.

Climate data for Türkmenabat (1991-2020, extremes 1894-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 7.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.6
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −1.7
Record low °C (°F) −25.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 16
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.3 5.8 5.6 4.7 2.0 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.2 1.5 5.2 6.3 38.6
Average relative humidity (%) 76.9 69.6 59.4 51.4 43.1 36.0 37.4 38.1 43.3 54.4 69.3 77.2 54.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 131.8 153.2 197.6 242.1 330.3 384.5 395.3 379.1 322.7 267.7 193.7 132.0 3,130
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[5]
Source 2: NOAA (1961-1990)[6]


Türkmenabat is noted for possessing its own dialect of the Turkmen language. This regional dialect is a hybrid of the Turkmen and Uzbek languages, which have heavily influenced the area's culture and customs. This dialect is primarily spoken in Türkmenabat and the northern districts of Lebap province.


Urban transport[edit]

Turkmen Railways employees pose in front of the newly commissioned rail bridge across the Amu Darya at Turkmenabat, 7 March 2017

Türkmenabat is connected with the Turkmen capital Ashgabat and Turkmen port city Türkmenbaşy by M37 highway. In March 2017, two new bridges, one for rail and one for motor vehicles, were opened for crossing the Amu Darya at Türkmenabat. The rail bridge replaced one built in the early 1900s, and the automobile bridge replaced a pontoon bridge.[7][8]

Turkmenabat bus terminal provides regional bus connections and intercity bus connections.[9] The bus station is designed to serve 700 passengers per day.[10]

The city is a short distance from the international border crossing with Uzbekistan at Farap.


A new terminal of Turkmenabat International Airport opened in 2018, located in a newly annexed part of the city at its southern edge. The capacity of the airport complex is 500 passengers per hour.[11] Türkmenabat offers scheduled air service to and from Ashgabat[12]


Türkmenabat Railway Station in 1992

Türkmenabat is connected with Ashgabat, Mary, Kerki, Gazojak[13] and another cities in Turkmenistan by train. The Turkmenabat-Kerki line was opened On in 29 September 1999, with a length of 203 kilometers.

The main railway station is located in the Türkmenabat city centre and includes a main two-story building, a ticket office building and some other technical buildings.


Türkmenabat is linked[14] to Aşgabat,[15][16] Mary, Tejen[17] and neighbouring countries[18] by the country's 600 km autobahn network.[19][20]


2G, 3G and LTE networks from Altyn Asyr are available in the city. The most popular forms of Internet access are cable networks and ADSL by Turkmentelecom. Previously popular Dial-up has almost lost its position, at the same time actively developing wireless technology Wi-Fi.

There are 9 [21]Turkmenpochta postal operator branches in the city.


Tasinlikler meýdançasy is a park where people celebrate national holidays.

Türkmenabat is known for its bazaars.[22] The largest bazaar is "World Bazaar" (Turkmen: Dünýa bazar). Other well-known bazaars are Gök bazar (Green Bazaar) and Merkezi bazar (Central Bazaar). People throughout the country come to Türkmenabat to purchase local, Chinese, Turkish, Uzbek and Russian goods. Dünýa bazar has many sections, including those for jewelry, home appliances, clothes, dairy products, and automobiles.

Zaton, an artificial beach located about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the center of the city, is a major recreational area. During the summer, youth gather at Zaton to relax.[citation needed]


Türkmenabat has one state-owned pedagogical university, Seýitnazar Seýdi adyndaky Türkmen Döwlet Mugallymçylyk Instituty; a medical college, public schools, and specialised art and sports schools.

International relations[edit]


  1. ^ "Космонавт Олег Кононенко побывал на малой родине » Новости Центральной Азии". Новости Центральной Азии.
  2. ^ Population census 1989 Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine, Demoscope Weekly, No. 359-360, 1–18 January 2009 (search for Туркменская ССР) (in Russian)
  3. ^ "ПОЧТОВЫЕ ИНДЕКСЫ ТУРКМЕНИСТАНА | Postal Codes of Turkmenistan".
  4. ^ a b "ЧАРДЖОУ". Большая советская энциклопедия (in Russian) (3 ed.). (online version)
  5. ^ КЛИМАТ УЛАН-БАТОРА (in Russian). Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  6. ^ "Climate Normals for Charjew". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  7. ^ ""Альтком" построил два моста в Туркменистане" (in Russian). Obozrevatel. 13 March 2017.
  8. ^ "Лидеры Туркменистана и Узбекистана приняли участие в открытии мостов через реку Амударья". SNG Today. 7 March 2017.
  9. ^ "В городе Туркменабад открыли новый автовокзал". 24 September 2022.
  10. ^ "Новый автовокзал в Туркменабате приступил к обслуживанию пассажиров | Авто".
  11. ^ "В Туркменабаде построили международный аэропорт" (in Russian). Авиатранспортное обозрение. 14 February 2018.
  12. ^ "Uçuşlaryň ugry we rejesi - Hyzmatlar - Turkmenistan Airlines". turkmenistanairlines.tm.
  13. ^ ""Demirýollary" AGPJ". railway.gov.tm.
  14. ^ "Новая трасса: президент Туркменистана проехал по участку автобана Ашхабад – Туркменабат на КамАЗе".
  15. ^ Скоростная трасса Ашхабад-Теджен открывается 29 октября Orient Link: https://orient.tm/ru/post/35050/skorostnaya-trassa-ashhabad-tedzhen-otkryvaetsya-29-oktyabrya
  16. ^ "Новая дорога соединит Теджен и Туркменабат | Общество".
  17. ^ "Строительство третьего этапа автобана Ашхабад – Туркменабат начал Туркменистан".
  18. ^ "Туркменистан: Автомагистраль Ашхабад–Туркменабат поспособствует развитию транспортного сообщения с Узбекистаном | Региональный". Информационный центр. 28 September 2023.
  19. ^ "Президент Гурбангулы Бердымухамедов принял участие в открытии участка Ашхабад–Теджен автобана Ашхабад–Туркменабат". turkmenistan.gov.tm. 29 October 2021.
  20. ^ "В Туркменистане приступили к заключительному третьему этапу строительства высокоскоростной автомобильной дороги Ашхабад-Туркменабат]". SalamNews. 17 January 2024.
  21. ^ "'Türkmenpoçta' - Poçta aragatnaşyk kompaniýasy. Türkmenistanyň ähli ýerine, şeýle-de daşary ýurtlara hatlary, ýollamalary ugratmak, Online tölegler we biletler". Türkmenpoçta.
  22. ^ Vadim Ismakaev. "Türkmenabat". Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  23. ^ "Столичный муниципалитет Измира".
  24. ^ "Города побратимы для Туркменистана | Общество | Гундогар". gundogar-news.com. Retrieved 13 November 2023.

External links[edit]

39°05′N 63°34′E / 39.083°N 63.567°E / 39.083; 63.567