In Japan, a tōrō (灯籠 / 灯篭, 灯楼, light basket, light tower)[note 1] is a traditional lantern made of stone, wood, or metal. Like many other elements of Japanese traditional architecture, it originated in China where they can still be found in Buddhist temples and Chinese gardens. They are not as common in Korea and Vietnam as they are in China or Japan. In Japan, tōrō were originally used only in Buddhist temples, where they lined and illuminated paths. Lit lanterns were then considered an offering to Buddha. Their use in Shinto shrines and also private homes started during the Heian period (794–1185).
The oldest extant bronze and stone lanterns can be found in Nara. Taima-dera has a stone lantern built during the Nara period, while Kasuga-taisha has one of the following Heian period. During the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1568–1600) stone lanterns were popularized by tea masters, who used them as garden ornaments. Soon they started to develop new types according to the need. In modern gardens they have a purely ornamental function and are laid along paths, near water, or next to a building.
Tōrō can be classified in two main types, the tsuri-dōrō (釣灯籠・掻灯・吊り灯籠, lit. hanging lamp), which usually hang from the eaves of a roof, and the dai-dōrō (台灯籠, lit. platform lamp) used in gardens and along the approach (sandō) of a shrine or temple. The two most common types of dai-dōrō are the bronze lantern and the stone lantern, which look like hanging lanterns laid to rest on a pedestal.
In its complete, original form (some of its elements may be either missing or additions), like the gorintō and the pagoda, the dai-dōrō represents the five elements of Buddhist cosmology. The bottom-most piece, touching the ground, represents chi, the earth; the next section represents sui, or water; ka or fire, is represented by the section encasing the lantern's light or flame, while fū (air) and kū (void or spirit) are represented by the last two sections, top-most and pointing towards the sky. The segments express the idea that after death our physical bodies will go back to their original, elemental form.
Also called kaitomoshi (掻灯), tsuri-dōrō hanging lanterns are small, four- or six-sided and made in metal, copper or wood. They were introduced from China via Korea during the Nara period and were initially used in Imperial palaces.
Bronze lanterns, or kondō-dōrō (金銅燈籠, gilt bronze lantern) (see images in the gallery) have a long history in Japan, but are not as common or as diverse as the stone ones. In their classic form they are divided in sections that represent the five elements of Buddhist cosmology.
Many have been designated as Cultural Properties of Japan by the Japanese government. The one in front of Tōdai-ji's Daibutsuden for example has been declared a National Treasure. Kōfuku-ji has in its museum one built in 816 and which is also a National Treasure.
A dai-dōrō is most often made of stone, and in that case it is called ishi-dōrō (石灯籠, literally stone lantern).
The traditional components of a stone (or bronze) lantern are, from top to bottom:
- A. Hōju or hōshu (宝珠, literally jewel)
- The onion-shaped part at the very top of the finial.
- B. Ukebana (請花, literally receiving flower)
- The lotus-shaped support of the hōshu.
- C. Kasa (笠, literally umbrella)
- A conical or pyramidal umbrella covering the fire box. The corners may curl upwards to form the so-called warabide (蕨手).
- D. Hibukuro (火袋, literally fire sack)
- The fire box where the fire is lit.
- E. Chūdai (中台, literally central platform)
- The platform for the fire box.
- F. Sao (竿, literally post)
- The post, typically oriented vertically and either circular or square in cross-section, possibly with a corresponding "belt" near its middle; occasionally also formed as a sideways coin or disk, as a set of tall thin lotus petals, or as between one and four arched legs (in "snow-viewing" lanterns); absent in hanging lanterns.
- Kiso (基礎, literally foundation)
- The base, usually rounded or hexagonal, and absent in a buried lantern (see below).
- Kidan (基壇, literally base platform)
- A variously shaped slab of rock sometimes present under the base.
As already mentioned, the lantern's structure is meant to symbolize the five elements of Buddhist cosmology. With the sole exception of the fire box, any parts may be absent. For example, an oki-dōrō, or movable lantern (see below) lacks a post, and rests directly on the ground. It also may lack an umbrella.
Stone lanterns can be classified into five basic groups, each possessing numerous variants.
Tachidōrō (立ち灯籠), or pedestal lanterns, are the most common. The base is always present and the fire box is decorated with carvings of deer or peonies (see photo in the gallery). More than 20 subtypes exist. The following are among the most common.
- Kasuga-dōrō (春日灯籠)
Named after Kasuga-taisha, it is very common at both temples and shrines. The umbrella is small and has either six or eight sides with warabite at the corners. The fire box is either hexagonal or square with carvings representing deer, the sun or the moon. Tall and thin, it is often found near the second torii of a shrine.
- Yūnoki-dōrō (柚ノ木灯篭)
The second oldest stone lantern in Japan, found at Kasuga Shrine, is a yūnoki-dōrō or citron tree stone lantern. This style goes back to at least as the Heian period. The post has rings carved at the bottom, middle and top, and the hexagonal base and middle platform are carved with lotuses. The umbrella is simple and has neither warabite nor an ukebana. The yunoki seems to stem from a citron tree that used to stand near the lantern at Kasuga Shrine. This type of lantern became popular in tea house gardens during the Edo Period.
Ikekomi-dōrō (活け込み燈籠), or buried lanterns, are moderately sized lanterns whose post does not rest on a base, but goes directly into the ground. Because of their modest size, they are used along paths or at stone basins in gardens. The following are some examples:
- Oribe-dōrō (織部灯籠)
This common type is named after Furuta Shigenari, a nobleman popularly known as Oribe, who designed it to be used in gardens. The fire box is a cube with a window on each side: the front and rear are square, the right and left are shaped as a crescent moon and the full moon respectively. The umbrella is small and four-sided.
- Kirishitan-dōrō (キリシタン灯籠)
This is simply an oribe-dōrō with hidden Christian symbols. This style was born during the persecution of the Christian religion in Japan, when many continued to practice their faith in secret.[note 2]
- Mizubotaru-dōrō (水蛍燈籠)
A typical ikekomi-dōrō, its fire box has square openings on two facing sides and double-triangle openings on the other two. This type of lantern is used at the Katsura Villa in Kyoto. The roof is square and rounded.
Oki-dōrō (置き燈籠) or movable lanterns owe their name to the fact that they just rest on the ground, and are not fixed in any way. This type probably derived from hanging lanterns, which they often strongly resemble, left to rest on the ground. They are commonly used around house entrances and along paths. The following is one example.
- Sankō-dōrō (三光灯籠)
This lantern is just a small stone box with a low roof. Its name, "Three Lights Lantern" is due to its windows, shaped like the sun and the moon in the front and rear, and like a star at the ends. This type of lanterns is usually placed near water. It can be found in the garden of the Katsura Villa.
Yukimi-dōrō (雪見燈籠) or legged lanterns have as a base not a post but from one to six curved legs, and a wide umbrella with a finial either low or absent. Relatively low, they are used exclusively in gardens. The traditional placement is near the water, and a three-legged lantern will often have two legs in the water, and one on land. The umbrella can be round or have from three to eight sides, while the fire box is usually hexagonal.
Nozura dōrō (野面灯籠) are lanterns made with rough, unpolished stones (see photo in the gallery).
Bronze lantern at Hōryū-ji
8th century bronze lantern at Tōdai-ji (National Treasure)
Bronze lantern at Nikkō Tōshō-gū
Bronze lantern at Itsukushima Shrine
- "灯篭" is just a simplified form of "灯籠".
- For details, see the article Kakure Kirishitan.
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