T. G. Masaryk square in Třinec
|• Mayor||Věra Palkovská|
|• Total||85.38 km2 (32.97 sq mi)|
|Elevation||306 m (1,004 ft)|
|Population (1 January 2015)|
|• Density||420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
|Postal code||738 01 to 739 94|
Třinec (Czech pronunciation: [ˈtr̝̊ɪnɛts] ( listen); Polish: Trzyniec, German: Trzynietz) is a town in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It lies on the Olza River, in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. The town has 37,405 inhabitants as of 2009[update], in 2001 17.7% of the population were Poles. The town is notable for its steel plant, the Třinec Iron and Steel Works, largest one in the Czech Republic, which still has a major impact on the town, on its character, demographics and air pollution.
Třinec is also an important cultural center of the Polish minority in Zaolzie.
The village of Třinec was founded in the 14th century. The village was first mentioned in 1461 when the person z [from] Trencze is attested. Politically the village belonged then to the Duchy of Teschen, a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy.
The majority of the population worked in agriculture. The area was, however, rich in limestone, iron ore and clay. The area also offered a large enough work force, so it was decided to build an iron works. In 1836 the construction of the first metallurgical furnace had begun. The iron mill began operation in 1839, becoming the largest one in the entire Cieszyn Silesia. First schools (Polish-German) in Třinec were created by the initiative of the iron works in 1851. After the construction of Košice-Bohumín Railway line in 1871, the rapid development of the town occurred.
After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia. The village as a municipality was subscribed to the political and legal district of Cieszyn. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality grew from 1,792 in 1880 to 3,849 in 1910 with a majority being native Polish-speakers (growing from 51.4% in 1880 to 96.6% in 1900 and 96% in 1910) accompanied by a German-speaking minority (at most 32.5% in 1880 than dropping to 12.2% in 1900 and up to 24.3% in 1910) and Czech-speaking (peaking in 1890 with 17.4% in 1890 then dropping 6.7% in 1910). In terms of religion in 1910 the majority were Roman Catholics (63.2%), followed by Protestants (34.5%), Jews (76 or 1.9%) and 13 people adhering to another faitsh. The village was also traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect.
After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia. Třinec gained town rights in 1931. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively adjoined to Cieszyn County of Silesian Voivodeship. It was then annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia.
In 1946 merged with the town was the village of Lyžbice where in the 1950s the ruling Communist Party of Czechoslovakia began a large scale development in the style of socialist realism. Afterwards Lyžbice became a new downtown, overtaking the role from Staré Město (lit. Old Town).
The town of Třinec is located in the Moravian-Silesian Region in the north-east of the Czech Republic, very close to the Polish border and also near the Slovak border with an elevation of approximately 300 m (984.25 ft) above sea level. It's situated approximately 45 km (28 mi) away from the city of Ostrava and about 400 km (249 mi) from the country's capital, Prague. The town is surrounded by the picturesque Beskydy mountain range, a popular place for cycling, skiing, cross-country skiing, hiking and paragliding. The town itself comprises the main town built around the steel works but also incorporates a number of surrounding villages.
Music and Culture
There are a number of musical concerts that take place in the town throughout the year. They are usually held at the local football stadium or the Třinecký Zimní Stadion sports arena, or alternatively at the Třinec-Borek football ground. The years biggest events are the 'Hutnický den' which takes place in May and 'Noc Plná Hvězd' (Star-Studded Night) in the summer, both of which feature numerous live performance from bands and artists from all over the country and abroad. This year's Hutnický den festival featured popular singer Lucie Bílá, previous years have included performances from local singing talent Ewa Farna among others, while Noc Plná Hvězd was headlined by American metal band Anthrax, and English bands Saxon and Blaze Bayley. Another yearly event is the 'Zlot' concert in the nearby town of Bystřice aimed at the local Polish population.
Ice hockey and football are by far the town's biggest sports. The ice hockey team, HC Oceláři Třinec, which currently plays in the Czech Extraliga, the top tier of Czech ice hockey, has a massive following and fan base in the town. The team holds a regional rivalry with Ostrava-based HC Vítkovice.
Oceláři (Steelers) play their home games at Werk Arena, which opened in 2014 and has a seating capacity of 5200, which is often filled for big hockey games. The arena also hosted the Czech Republic national men's tennis team at the 2016 Davis Cup World Group.
The town's football team, FK Fotbal Třinec, has seen a rise in popularity after its promotion to the Czech 2. Liga several years ago. The average attendance for league matches is now more than 1000. A rivalry with neighbouring sides FC Vítkovice and MFK Karviná has also been established.
Třinec also has a popular athletics team.
Although the majority of the town's population speak Czech, a large number speaks in a Cieszyn Silesian dialect, a mixture of Czech, Polish and German. The dialect is very specific to the whole region of Cieszyn Silesia.
- Lenka Cenková, tennis player
- Jana Cieslarová, orienteer
- Michaela Dolinová, Czech actress and TV presenter
- Ewa Farna, Polish singer
- Tomáš Klus, musician
- Tadeusz Kraus, Polish football player
- Vojtěch Kučera, poet
- Edvard Lasota, Czech football player
- Eduard Ovčáček, lettrist, graphic artist, painter and sculptor
- Soňa Pertlová, chess player
- Petr Pravec, astronomer
- Lukáš Rakowski, figure skater
- Roman Sikora, Czech playwright
- Martin Staszko, professional poker player
- Petr Šiška, TV presenter, musician and songwriter
- Robert Šulgan, professional boxer
- Václav Svěrkoš, Czech football player
- David Szurman, Czech ice dancer
- Czeslaw Walek, lawyer and LGBT activist
- Petr Wojnar, football player
Twin towns — Sister cities
Třinec is twinned with:
- "Latest census (31st December 2009)". Czech Statistical Office.[permanent dead link]
- "2001 census data". Czech Statistical Office.
- Mrózek, Robert (1984). Nazwy miejscowe dawnego Śląska Cieszyńskiego [Local names of former Cieszyn Silesia] (in Polish). Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach. p. 177. ISSN 0208-6336.
- Panic, Idzi (2010). Śląsk Cieszyński w średniowieczu (do 1528) [Cieszyn Silesia in Middle Ages (until 1528)] (in Polish). Cieszyn: Starostwo Powiatowe w Cieszynie. p. 313. ISBN 978-83-926929-3-5.
- Piątkowski, Kazimierz (1918). Stosunki narodowościowe w Księstwie Cieszyńskiem (in Polish). Cieszyn: Macierz Szkolna Księstwa Cieszyńskiego. pp. 265, 284.
- "Ustawa z dnia 27 października 1938 r. o podziale administracyjnym i tymczasowej organizacji administracji na obszarze Ziem Odzyskanych Śląska Cieszyńskiego". Dziennik Ustaw Śląskich (in Polish). Katowice. nr 18/1938, poz. 35. 31 October 1938. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- "Bielsko-Biała - Partner Cities". © 2008 Urzędu Miejskiego w Bielsku-Białej. Retrieved 2008-12-10.
- Cicha, Irena; Jaworski, Kazimierz; Ondraszek, Bronisław; Stalmach, Barbara; Stalmach, Jan (2000). Olza od pramene po ujście. Český Těšín: Region Silesia. ISBN 80-238-6081-X.
- Wawreczka, Henryk (2004). Třinec a okolí: včera a dnes. Třinec - Nebory: Wart. ISBN 80-239-3819-3.
- Eurotowns Trinec profile
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Třinec.|
- Official website (in Czech)