Large granular lymphocytic leukemia
|Large granular lymphocytic leukemia|
|Classification and external resources|
Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder that exhibits an unexplained, chronic (> 6 months) elevation in large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) in the peripheral blood.
It is divided in two main categories: T-cell LGL leukemia (T-LGLL) and natural-killer (NK)-cell LGL leukemia (NK-LGL)L. As the name suggests, T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia is characterized by involvement of cytotoxic-T cells).
It is also known by the following terms: proliferation of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs), LGL leukemia, Tγ-lymphoproliferative disorder, and, in common with other T cell leukemias such as T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Signs and symptoms
This disease is known for an indolent clinical course and incidental discovery. The most common physical finding is moderate splenomegaly. B symptoms are seen in a third of cases, and recurrent infections due to the associated neutropenia are seen in almost half of cases.
Rheumatoid arthritis is commonly observed in people with T-LGLL, leading to a clinical presentation similar to Felty's syndrome. Signs and symptoms of anemia are commonly found, due to the association between T-LGLL and erythroid hypoplasia.
Sites of involvement
The postulated cells of origin of T-LGLL leukemia are transformed CD8+ T-cell with clonal rearrangements of β chain T-cell receptor genes for the majority of cases and a CD8- T-cell with clonal rearrangements of γ chain T-cell receptor genes for a minority of cases.
The neoplastic cells of this disease display a mature T-cell immunophenotype, with the majority of cases showing a CD4-/CD8+ T-cell subset immunophenotype versus other permutations of those markers. Variable expression of CD11b, CD56, and CD57 are observed. Immunohistochemistry for perforin, TIA-1, and granzyme B are usually positive.
|Common type (80% of cases)||CD3+, TCRαβ+, CD4-, CD8+|
|Rare variants||CD3+, TCRαβ+, CD4+, CD8-|
|CD3+, TCRαβ+, CD4+, CD8+|
|CD3+, TCRγδ+, CD4 and CD8 variable|
Clonal rearrangements of the T-cell receptor (TCR) genes are a necessary condition for the diagnosis of this disease. The gene for the β chain of the TCR is found to be rearranged more often than the γ chain. of the TCR.
The 5 year survival has been noted as 89% in at least one study from France of 201 patients with T-LGL leukemia.
T-LGLL is a rare form of leukemia, comprising 2-3% of all cases of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.
LGLL was discovered in 1985 by Thomas P. Loughran Jr. while working at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Specimens from patients with LGLL are banked at the University of Virginia for research purposes, the only bank for such purposes.
- Elaine Sarkin Jaffe; Nancy Lee Harris; World Health Organization; International Agency for Research on Cancer; Harald Stein; J.W. Vardiman (2001). Pathology and genetics of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. 3. Lyon: IARC Press. ISBN 92-832-2411-6.
- Epling-Burnette PK, Sokol L, Chen X, et al. (December 2008). "Clinical improvement by farnesyltransferase inhibition in NK large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with imbalanced NK receptor signaling". Blood. 112 (12): 4694–8. PMC . PMID 18791165. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-02-136382.
- Lamy T, Loughran TP (January 1998). "Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia". Cancer Control. 5 (1): 25–33. PMID 10761014.
- Chan WC, Link S, Mawle A, Check I, Brynes RK, Winton EF (November 1986). "Heterogeneity of large granular lymphocyte proliferations: delineation of two major subtypes". Blood. 68 (5): 1142–53. PMID 3490288.
- Pandolfi F, Loughran TP, Starkebaum G, et al. (January 1990). "Clinical course and prognosis of the lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes. A multicenter study". Cancer. 65 (2): 341–8. PMID 2403836. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19900115)65:2<341::AID-CNCR2820650227>3.0.CO;2-2.
- Lamy T, Loughran TP (July 2003). "Clinical features of large granular lymphocyte leukemia". Semin. Hematol. 40 (3): 185–95. PMID 12876667. doi:10.1016/S0037-1963(03)00133-1.
- Loughran TP, Starkebaum G, Kidd P, Neiman P (January 1988). "Clonal proliferation of large granular lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis". Arthritis Rheum. 31 (1): 31–6. PMID 3345230. doi:10.1002/art.1780310105.
- Kwong YL, Wong KF (September 1998). "Association of pure red cell aplasia with T large granular lymphocyte leukaemia". J. Clin. Pathol. 51 (9): 672–5. PMC . PMID 9930071. doi:10.1136/jcp.51.9.672.
- Oshimi K, Yamada O, Kaneko T, et al. (June 1993). "Laboratory findings and clinical courses of 33 patients with granular lymphocyte-proliferative disorders". Leukemia. 7 (6): 782–8. PMID 8388971.
- Loughran TP, Starkebaum G, Aprile JA (March 1988). "Rearrangement and expression of T-cell receptor genes in large granular lymphocyte leukemia". Blood. 71 (3): 822–4. PMID 3345349.
- Loughran TP, Kadin ME, Starkebaum G, et al. (February 1985). "Leukemia of large granular lymphocytes: association with clonal chromosomal abnormalities and autoimmune neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia". Ann. Intern. Med. 102 (2): 169–75. PMID 3966754. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-102-2-169.
- Semenzato G, Zambello R, Starkebaum G, Oshimi K, Loughran TP (January 1997). "The lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes: updated criteria for diagnosis". Blood. 89 (1): 256–60. PMID 8978299.
- Vie H, Chevalier S, Garand R, et al. (July 1989). "Clonal expansion of lymphocytes bearing the gamma delta T-cell receptor in a patient with large granular lymphocyte disorder". Blood. 74 (1): 285–90. PMID 2546620.
- Rosenblum MD, LaBelle JL, Chang CC, Margolis DA, Schauer DW, Vesole DH (March 2004). "Efficacy of alemtuzumab treatment for refractory T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia". Blood. 103 (5): 1969–71. PMID 14976065. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-11-3951.
- Bareau, B; Rey, J; Hamidou, M; Donadieu, J; Morcet, J; Reman, O; Schleinitz, N; Tournilhac, O; et al. (2010). "Analysis of a French cohort of patients with large granular lymphocyte leukemia: A report on 229 cases". Haematologica. 95 (9): 1534–41. PMC . PMID 20378561. doi:10.3324/haematol.2009.018481.