T-series (Toronto subway car)

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For topics with similar names, see T series.
TTC T1 at Kipling.jpg
A T1 subway car at Kipling Station headed to Kennedy Station
In service 1995–present
Manufacturer Bombardier Transportation
Built at Thunder Bay, Ontario
Replaced M1, H1, H2
Constructed 1995–2001[1]
Number built 372
Number in service 370[2]
Number scrapped


*Cars 5185 and 5326 Damaged in Wilson yard accident on April 19 2008, Deemed to be beyond repair.
Formation 2 car mated pairs (operated as 2 or 3 pair (4 or 6 car) trains)
Fleet numbers 5000–5371 (re-used from retired TTC vehicles, G-series, M1, H1 subway trains)[1]
Capacity 66 seated (per car)[1]
Operator(s) Toronto Transit Commission
Depot(s) Greenwood Subway Yard
Davisville Subway Yard
Line(s) served TTC - Line 2 - Bloor-Danforth line.svg Bloor-Danforth
TTC - Line 4 - Sheppard line.svg Sheppard
Car body construction Aluminum
Car length 23 m (75 ft 6 in)
Width 3.14 m (10.3 ft)
Height 3.65 m (12.0 ft)
Floor height 1.1 m (43.3 in)
Doors 8 sets (4 sets per side) per car
Maximum speed 88 km/h (55 mph)
Weight 33,095 kg (72,962 lb)
Traction system ADTranz 1507A
Acceleration 0.85 m/s2 (2.8 ft/s2)
Deceleration 1.30 m/s2 (4.3 ft/s2), 1.38 m/s2 (4.5 ft/s2) (Emergency)
Auxiliaries 120/208 V AC Battery Auxiliary
Electric system(s) 600 V DC Third rail
Current collection method Contact shoe
Braking system(s) Regenerative and Pneumatic
Track gauge 4 ft 10 78 in (1,495 mm) Toronto gauge

The T-series rapid transit cars (widely known as the T1 as only one production run was made) are a Toronto subway car model, ordered in 1992 and built in 1995–2001. The cars were built by Bombardier Transportation's Thunder Bay Works for the Toronto Transit Commission. Before the T-series, the TTC had been buying the H-series cars manufactured by Hawker Siddeley Canada and later Urban Transportation Development Corporation (UTDC).

Design advances[edit]

The interior of a T1 subway car

The T1 cars entered service between 1996 and 2001 and became the mainstay of the TTC subway fleet. They replaced the older M1s, H1s, H2s, and some H4s, many of which had been in revenue service since the 1960s.

The T1s incorporated many of the design elements that had been refined throughout the H-series program. Each model in the H-series production run improved on the last, adding features such as single use controls for acceleration and braking, air conditioning and regenerative braking. The T1 built on those advances and integrated new computer technology, creating a more modern train. The T-series were the first TTC cars to use AC propulsion, rather than the DC chopper control system used in the older H5 and H6 subway cars (both of which have since been retired).

Other improvements included wider doors, flip-up seats at wheelchair positions (which are now marked in blue velour to signify priority seating areas instead of the red velour used for other seats), and the removal of vertical stanchions along the car's centre line. The interior colour scheme consists of grey floors and walls, and dark red doors and panels, unlike the simulated woodgrain panels used on the predecessor H-series cars.[3]

Fleet assignment[edit]

The T1s operate primarily on Line 2 Bloor-Danforth (using "six-car" trainsets) and Line 4 Sheppard (using "four-car" trainsets). They are stored at Davisville and Greenwood subway yards.

Life expectancy[edit]

The T1s are expected to remain in service until at least 2025,[4] and the TTC considered mid-life technological upgrades for the fleet including the installation of an automatic train control (ATC) system. However, it is unlikely that these improvements will be implemented in the near future.[5] In March 2015 the TTC reported that the T1 trains running on Line 4 Sheppard would have to be replaced with Toronto Rocket (TR) trains before the conversion of Line 1 Yonge-University to ATC in 2020, and that TTC would report soon on the option of converting an existing six-car TR train to a four-car train to test One Person Train Operation (OPTO) on Line 4 Sheppard.[6]



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