T series (Toronto subway)

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T series
TTC T1 at Kipling.jpg
A T1 subway car at Kipling Station headed to Kennedy Station
TTC subway Interior.jpg
The interior of a T1 subway car
In service1995–present
ManufacturerBombardier Transportation
Built atThunder Bay, Ontario
ReplacedM1, H1, H2
Number built372
Number in service370[2]
Number scrapped2
Formation2 car mated pairs, operated as 2 or 3 pair (4 or 6 car) trains
Fleet numbers5000–5371 (re-used from retired TTC vehicles, G-series, M1, H1 subway trains)[1]
Capacity66 seated (per car)[1]
Operator(s)Toronto Transit Commission
Depot(s)Greenwood Subway Yard
Line(s) servedTTC - Line 2 - Bloor-Danforth line.svg Bloor–Danforth
Car body constructionAluminum
Car length23 m (75 ft 5 12 in)
Width3.14 m (10 ft 3 58 in)
Height3.65 m (11 ft 11 34 in)
Floor height1.1 m (43.3 in)
Doors8 sets (4 sets per side) per car
Maximum speedTrain max: 88 km/h (55 mph)
Service revenue max: 75 km/h (47 mph)
Weight33,095 kg (72,962 lb)
Traction motorsADTranz 1507A AC
Power output104.2 kW (139.735 hp) per motor
2,500.8 kW (3,353.628 hp) per 6-car train
Acceleration0.85 m/s2 (2.8 ft/s2)
Deceleration1.30 m/s2 (4.3 ft/s2), 1.38 m/s2 (4.5 ft/s2) (Emergency)
Auxiliaries120/208 V AC Battery Auxiliary
Electric system(s)600 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
Braking system(s)Regenerative and Pneumatic
Track gauge4 ft 10 78 in (1,495 mm)

The T series, also known as the T1, is the fourth series of rapid transit rolling stock used in the subway system of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. They were ordered by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) in 1992 and built in one production set between 1995 and 2001 by Bombardier Transportation in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.

Currently based entirely out of Greenwood Subway Yard, the T1s are the older of the two currently active series of rolling stock on the heavy-rail lines in the Toronto subway network. Following the introduction of the newer Toronto Rocket train sets, all T1 trains now operate exclusively in six-car configurations on Line 2 Bloor–Danforth. They previously operated on Line 1 Yonge–University and in a four-car configuration on Line 4 Sheppard until the retirement of the last remaining H-series trains in 2014 and until the implementation of One Person Train Operation on the latter in 2016.[3]

Design advances[edit]

The T1 cars entered service between 1996 and 2001 and became the mainstay of the TTC subway fleet. By 1999, they had replaced the older M1s, H1s, H2s and prototype H3s, along with some H4s, many of which had been in revenue service since the 1960s.

The T1s had many of the same technical specifications of the H series, including the same married pair configuration, and incorporated many of the design elements that had been refined throughout the H-series program. Each model in the H-series production run improved on the last, adding features such as a single-handle controller for acceleration and braking, air conditioning, a change from camshaft to chopper control, and regenerative braking. The T1 built on those advances (such as changing from a rotary-type to a fore–aft, joystick-type controller) while integrating new computer technology (analogous to the New Technology Train of the New York City Subway), creating a more modern train. The T-series cars were the first TTC cars to use AC propulsion, rather than DC propulsion as used in all previous rolling stock, all of which are now retired.

Other improvements included wider entry and exit doorways, flip-up seats for the installation of wheelchair positions (which are now marked in blue velour to signify priority seating areas instead of the red velour used for other seats), and the removal of vertical stanchions along the car's centre line, making them the TTC's first subway cars to be wheelchair-accessible.[4] The interior colour scheme consists of grey floors and walls and dark red doors and panels, unlike the simulated woodgrain panels used on the predecessor H-series cars.

Lines services[edit]


The T1s have a life expectancy that allows them to remain in service until at least 2026,[5] and the TTC started implementing mid-life upgrades for the fleet including LED-type interior lighting, side LED destination signs, and electronic door-closing chimes identical to the Toronto Rocket sets. Additionally, cars #5162/5163 have been retrofitted with CCTV cameras (4 per car, 1 at each pair of doorways) and external route announcements.

The TTC also considered upgrading the fleet to run on an automatic train control (ATC) system, which it is in the process of installing to replace the current wayside signaling system on Lines 1 and 4 and is expected to install on Line 2 by 2020 in conjunction with the opening of the Scarborough subway extension.[6] However, due to prohibitively expensive costs of such a retrofit, it is unlikely that this will happen in the near future, and the TTC plans to replace all T1 trains with new ATC-compatible equipment instead.[7]



  1. ^ a b c Toronto Transit Commission (September 21, 2015). "TTC Service Summary" (PDF).
  2. ^ Toronto Transit Commission (September 21, 2015). "TTC Service Summary" (PDF).
  3. ^ "Procurement Authorization – Procurement Authorization Change Directive to the Toronto Rocket (TR) Supplier for the Design Provisions for Train Door Monitoring (TDM) System" (PDF). Toronto Transit Commission. 2015-03-26. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
  4. ^ "Accessible Vehicles". Archived from the original on 2010-08-14. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
  5. ^ https://ttc.ca/About_the_TTC/Commission_reports_and_information/Commission_meetings/2015/June_22/Reports/PAA_to_modify_4_Toronto_Rocket_Train_Sets.pdf
  6. ^ Munro, Steve (2010-05-18). "More Toronto Rockets for the TTC". Archived from the original on 2015-03-04. Retrieved 2015-03-03.
  7. ^ Munro, Steve (2016-10-04). "TTC Capital Program Review". Retrieved 2017-04-29.

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