T. E. Lawrence

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"Lawrence of Arabia" redirects here. For the 1962 film, see Lawrence of Arabia (film). For the 1989 book, see Lawrence of Arabia: The Authorised Biography of T. E. Lawrence.
T. E. Lawrence
With Lawrence in Arabia.jpg
Lawrence in 1919
Birth name Thomas Edward Lawrence
Nickname(s) Lawrence of Arabia, El Aurens
Born 16 August 1888 (1888-08-16)
Tremadog, Caernarvonshire, Wales, United Kingdom
Died 19 May 1935 (1935-05-20) (aged 46)
Bovington Camp, Dorset, England, United Kingdom
Buried at St Nicholas, Moreton, Dorset
Allegiance
Service/branch
Years of service
  • 1914–18
  • 1923–35
Rank Colonel and Aircraftman
Battles/wars

First World War

Awards

Thomas Edward Lawrence CB DSO FAS (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British author, archaeologist, military officer, and diplomat. He was renowned for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as Lawrence of Arabia—a title used for the 1962 film based on his wartime activities.

Lawrence was born out of wedlock in Tremadog, Wales in August 1888 to Thomas Chapman (who became, in 1914, Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet), an Anglo-Irish nobleman from County Westmeath, and Sarah Junner, a Scottish governess who was herself illegitimate. Chapman had left his wife and first family in Ireland to live with Junner, and they called themselves Mr and Mrs Lawrence. In the summer of 1896, the Lawrences moved to Oxford, where Lawrence attended high school, then in 1907-1910 studied History at Jesus College. Between 1910 and 1914 he worked as an archaeologist, chiefly at Carchemish, in what is now Syria.

Soon after the outbreak of war he joined the British army and was stationed in Egypt. In 1916, he was sent to Arabia on an intelligence mission and quickly became involved with the Arab Revolt, serving, along with other British officers, as a liaison to the Arab forces. Working closely with Emir Faisal, a leader of the revolt, he participated in and sometimes led military activities against the Ottoman armed forces, culminating in the capture of Damascus in October 1918.

After the war, Lawrence served until 1922 as a diplomat, working both with the British government and with Faisal. In 1922, he retreated from public life and spent the years until 1935 serving as an enlisted man, mostly in the Royal Air Force, with a brief stint in the Army. During this time, he wrote and published his best-known work, Seven Pillars of Wisdom, an autobiographical account of his participation in the Arab Revolt. He also translated books into English and completed The Mint, which was published posthumously. He corresponded extensively and was friendly with well-known artists, writers, and politicians. For the RAF, he participated in the design of rescue motorboats.

Lawrence's public image resulted in part from the sensationalised reporting of the Arab revolt by American journalist Lowell Thomas, as well as from Seven Pillars of Wisdom. In 1935, Lawrence was fatally injured in a motorcycle accident in Dorset.

Early life[edit]

Lawrence's birthplace, Gorphwysfa, now known as Snowdon Lodge.[5]
Lawrence memorial plaque at Oxford Boys' High School

Lawrence was born on 16 August 1888 in Tremadog, Caernarvonshire (now Gwynedd),[6] Wales in a house named Gorphwysfa, now known as Snowdon Lodge.[7] His Anglo-Irish father Thomas Chapman had left his wife Edith after he fell in love and had a son with Sarah Junner, a young Scotswoman who had been engaged as governess to his daughters.[8] Sarah was the daughter of Elizabeth Junner and John Lawrence, who worked as a ship's carpenter and was a son of the household in which Elizabeth had been a servant. She was dismissed four months before Sarah was born. (Elizabeth identified Sarah's father as "John Junner - Shipwright journeyman".)[9]

Sarah and Thomas did not marry, but lived together under the name Lawrence. In 1914, Sir Thomas inherited the Chapman baronetcy based at Killua Castle, the ancestral family home in County Westmeath, Ireland; but he and Sarah continued to live in England.[10][11] They had five sons; Thomas Edward was the second eldest. From Wales the family moved to Kirkcudbright, Galloway in southwestern Scotland, then Dinard in Brittany, then to Jersey.[12] In 1894–96, the family lived at Langley Lodge (now demolished), set in private woods between the eastern borders of the New Forest and Southampton Water in Hampshire.[13] The residence was isolated, and young "Ned" Lawrence had many opportunities for outdoor activities and waterfront visits.[14]

In the summer of 1896, the Lawrences moved to 2 Polstead Road in Oxford,[15] where they lived under the names of Mr and Mrs Lawrence until 1921. Lawrence attended the City of Oxford High School for Boys from 1896 until 1907,[16] where one of the four houses was later named "Lawrence" in his honour; the school closed in 1966.[17] Lawrence and one of his brothers became commissioned officers in the Church Lads' Brigade at St Aldate's Church.[18]

Lawrence claimed that he ran away from home circa 1905 and served for a few weeks as a boy soldier with the Royal Garrison Artillery at St Mawes Castle in Cornwall, from which he was bought out. No evidence of this appears in army records.[19][20]

Antiquities and archaeology[edit]

Leonard Woolley (left) and Lawrence in their excavation house at Carchemish, c. 1912
Lawrence and Woolley (right) at Carchemish, spring 1913

At the age of 15, Lawrence and his schoolfriend Cyril Beeson cycled around Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, and Oxfordshire, visited almost every village's parish church, studied their monuments and antiquities, and made rubbings of their monumental brasses.[21] Lawrence and Beeson monitored building sites in Oxford and presented their finds to the Ashmolean Museum.[21] The Ashmolean's Annual Report for 1906 said that the two teenage boys "by incessant watchfulness secured everything of antiquarian value which has been found."[21] In the summers of 1906 and 1907, Lawrence and Beeson toured France by bicycle, collecting photographs, drawings, and measurements of medieval castles.[21]

From 1907 to 1910, Lawrence studied History at Jesus College, Oxford.[22] In the summer of 1909, he set out alone on a three-month walking tour of crusader castles in Ottoman Syria, during which he travelled 1,000 mi (1,600 km) on foot.[23] Lawrence graduated with First Class Honours[24] after submitting a thesis entitled The influence of the Crusades on European Military Architecture—to the end of the 12th century based on his field research with Beeson in France,[21] notably in Châlus, and his solo research in the Middle East.[25]

In 1910 Lawrence was offered the opportunity to become a practising archaeologist in the Middle East, at Carchemish, in the expedition that D. G. Hogarth was setting up on behalf of the British Museum.[26] Hogarth arranged a "Senior Demyship", a form of scholarship, for Lawrence at Magdalen College, Oxford in order to fund Lawrence's work at £100/year.[27]

In December 1910, he sailed for Beirut and on his arrival went to Jbail (Byblos), where he studied Arabic.[28] He then went to work on the excavations at Carchemish, near Jerablus in northern Syria, where he worked under Hogarth, R. Campbell Thompson of the British Museum, and Leonard Woolley, until 1914.[29] He later stated that everything which he had accomplished he owed to Hogarth.[30] While excavating at Carchemish, Lawrence met Gertrude Bell.[31] In 1912 Lawrence worked briefly with Flinders Petrie at Kafr Ammar in Egypt.[32]

Military Intelligence[edit]

In January 1914, Woolley and Lawrence were co-opted by the British military[33] as an archaeological smokescreen for a British military survey of the Negev Desert. They were funded by the Palestine Exploration Fund to search for an area referred to in the Bible as the Wilderness of Zin. Along the way, they made an archaeological survey of the Negev Desert. The Negev was strategically important as, in the event of war, any Ottoman army attacking Egypt would have to cross it. Woolley and Lawrence subsequently published a report of the expedition's archaeological findings,[34] but a more important result was updated mapping of the area, with special attention to features of military relevance such as water sources. Lawrence also visited Aqaba and Petra.

Following the outbreak of hostilities in August 1914, Lawrence did not immediately enlist in the British Army. On the advice of S. F. Newcombe, he held back until October, when he was commissioned on the General List and posted to the intelligence staff in Cairo before the end of the year.[35] His extensive travel in the area and knowledge of Arabic made him an obvious choice.

Lawrence arrived in Cairo to take up service in the Arab Bureau on 15 December 1914.[36] The Bureau's chief was Gilbert Clayton who reported to Egyptian High Commissioner Henry McMahon.

The situation during 1915 was complex. Within the Arabic-speaking Ottoman territories, there was a growing Arab-nationalist movement, including many Arabs serving in the Ottoman armed forces.[37] They were in contact with Sharif Hussein, Emir of Mecca,[38] who was negotiating with the British, offering to lead an Arab uprising against the Ottomans. In exchange, he wanted a British guarantee of an independent Arab state including the Hejaz, Syria, and Mesopotamia.[39] Such an uprising would have been very helpful to Britain in its war against the Ottomans, in particular greatly lessening the threat against the Suez Canal.

However, there was resistance from French diplomats, who insisted that Syria's future was as a French colony not an independent Arab state.[40] There were also strong objections from the Government of India which, although nominally part of the British government, acted independently. Its vision was of Mesopotamia under British control serving as a granary for India; furthermore, it wanted to hold on to its Arabian outpost in Aden.[41]

At the Arab Bureau, Lawrence supervised the preparation of maps,[42] produced a daily bulletin for the British generals operating in the theatre,[43] and interviewed prisoners.[42] He was an advocate of a British landing at Alexandretta, which never came to pass.[44] He was also a consistent advocate of an independent Arab Syria.[45]

In October 1915, the situation came to a crisis, as Sharif Hussein demanded an immediate commitment from Britain, with the threat that if this were denied, he would throw his weight behind the Ottomans.[46] This would create a credible Pan-Islamic message that could have been very dangerous for Britain, which was under stress, at that moment in severe difficulties in the Gallipoli Campaign. The British replied with a letter from High Commissioner McMahon that was generally agreeable, while reserving commitments concerning the Mediterranean coastline and Holy Land.

In the spring of 1916, Lawrence was dispatched to Mesopotamia to assist in relieving the Siege of Kut by some combination of starting an Arab uprising and bribing Ottoman officials. This mission produced no useful result.[47] Meanwhile, unbeknown to the British officials in Cairo, the Sykes–Picot Agreement was being negotiated in London, which awarded a large proportion of Syria to France. Further, it implied that if the Arabs were to have any sort of state in Syria, they would have to conquer its four great cities: Damascus, Homs, Hama, and Aleppo. It is unclear at what point Lawrence became aware of the treaty's contents.[48]

Arab Revolt[edit]

Lawrence at Rabigh, north of Jeddah, 1917
Main article: Arab Revolt

The Revolt began in June 1916 and after a few initial successes bogged down, with a real risk the Ottoman forces would advance along the coast of the Red Sea and recapture Mecca.[49]

In October 1916 Lawrence was sent to the Hejaz on an intelligence-gathering mission led by Ronald Storrs.[50] He visited and interviewed three of Sharif Hussein's sons: Ali, Abdullah, and Faisal.[51] He concluded that Faisal was the best candidate to lead the Arab Revolt.[52]

In November, it was decided to assign S. F. Newcombe to lead a permanent British liaison to Faisal's staff.[53] As Newcombe had not yet arrived in the area and the matter was of some urgency, Lawrence was sent in his place.[54] In late December 1916, Faisal and Lawrence worked out a plan for repositioning the Arab forces in a way that prevented the Ottoman forces around Medina from threatening Arab positions and put the railway from Syria under threat.[55] When Newcombe arrived and Lawrence was preparing to leave Arabia, Faisal intervened urgently, asking that Lawrence's assignment become permanent.[56] Lawrence remained attached to Faisal's forces until the fall of Damascus in 1918.

Lawrence's most important contributions to the Arab Revolt were in the area of strategy and liaison with British armed forces but he also participated personally in several military engagements:

  • 3 January 1917: Attack on an Ottoman outpost in the Hejaz.[57]
  • March 1917: Attack on the railway at Aba el Naam.[58][59]
  • 11 June 1917: Attack on a bridge at Ras Baalbek.[60]
  • 2 July 1917: Defeat of the Ottoman forces at Aba el Lissan, an outpost of Aqaba.[61]
  • 18 September 1917: Attack on the railway near Mudawara.[62]
  • 27 September 1917: Attack on the railway, destroyed an engine.[63]
  • 7 November 1917: Following a failed attack on the Yarmuk bridges, blew up a train on the railway between Deraa and Amman, suffering several wounds in the explosion and ensuing combat.[64]
  • 23 January 1918: The battle of Tafileh, a region southeast of the Dead Sea, with Arab regulars under the command of Jafar Pasha al-Askari.[65] The battle was a defensive engagement that turned into an offensive rout[66] and was described in the official history of the war as a "brilliant feat of arms".[65] Lawrence was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his leadership at Tafileh and was promoted to lieutenant colonel.[65] The battle took the lives of 400 Turks and captured more than 200 prisoners.
  • March 1918: Attack on the railway near Aqaba.[67]
  • 19 April 1918: Attack using British armoured cars on Tell Shahm.[68]
  • 16 September 1918: Destruction of railway bridge between Amman and Deraa.[69]
  • 26 September 1918: Attack on retreating Ottomans and Germans near the village of Tafas; the Ottoman forces massacred the villagers and then Arab forces in return massacred their prisoners with Lawrence's encouragement.[70]

In June 1917, on the way to Aqaba, Lawrence made a 300-mile personal journey northward, visiting Ras Baalbek, the outskirts of Damascus, and Azraq. He met Arab nationalists, counselling them to avoid revolt until the arrival of Faisal's forces, and attacked a bridge to create the impression of guerrilla activity. His findings were regarded by the British as extremely valuable and there was serious consideration of awarding him a Victoria Cross; in the end, he was made Companion of the Order of the Bath and promoted to Major.[71]

Lawrence travelled regularly between British HQ and Faisal, co-ordinating military action.[72] But by early 1918, Faisal's chief British liaison was Colonel Pierce Charles Joyce, and Lawrence's time was chiefly devoted to raiding and intelligence-gathering.[73]

By the summer of 1918, the Turks were offering a substantial reward for Lawrence's capture; initially £5,000[74] and eventually £20,000.[75] One officer wrote in his notes: "Though a price of £15,000 has been put on his head by the Turks, no Arab has, as yet, attempted to betray him. The Sharif of Mecca has given him the status of one of his sons, and he is just the finely tempered steel that supports the whole structure of our influence in Arabia. He is a very inspiring gentleman adventurer."[65]

Strategy[edit]

The chief elements of the Arab strategy, developed chiefly by Faisal and Lawrence, were first to avoid capturing Medina, and second to extend northward through Maan and Deraa to Damascus and beyond.

Medina was an attractive target for the revolt as Islam’s second-holiest site, and because its Ottoman garrison was weakened by disease and isolation.[76] It became clear that it was advantageous to leave it there rather than try to capture it, while continually attacking, but not permanently breaking, the Hejaz railway south from Damascus.[77] This had the effect that the Ottomans could never make effective use of their troops at Medina, and were forced to dedicate many resources to defending and repairing the railway line.[78][79]

The movement north to Damascus and eventually Aleppo is interesting in the context of the Sykes-Picot agreement. While it is not known when Lawrence learned the details of Sykes-Picot, nor if and when he briefed Faisal on what he knew,[80][81] there is good reason to think that both these things happened, and earlier rather than later. In particular, the Arab strategy of northward extension makes perfect sense given the Sykes-Picot language that spoke of an independent Arab entity in Syria, which would only be granted if the Arabs liberated the territory themselves. The French, and some of their British Liaison officers, were specifically uncomfortable about the northward movement, as it would weaken French colonial claims.[82][83]

Capture of Aqaba[edit]

Lawrence at Aqaba, 1917
Main article: Battle of Aqaba

In 1917, Lawrence successfully proposed a joint action with the Arab irregulars and forces including Auda Abu Tayi (until then in the employ of the Ottomans) against the strategically located but lightly defended[84][85][86] town of Aqaba on the Red Sea. While Aqaba could have been captured by an attack from the sea, the narrow defiles leading inland through the mountains were strongly defended and would have been very difficult to assault.[87] The expedition was led by the well-respected Sharif Nasir of Medina.[88]

Lawrence carefully avoided informing his British superiors about the details of the planned inland attack, due to concern that it would be blocked as contrary to French interests.[89] The expedition departed from Wejh on 9 May.[90] Aqaba fell to the Arab forces on 6 July, after a surprise overland attack, taking the Turkish defences from behind.

After Aqaba, General Sir Edmund Allenby, the new commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, agreed to his strategy for the revolt, stating after the war:

I gave him a free hand. His cooperation was marked by the utmost loyalty, and I never had anything but praise for his work, which, indeed, was invaluable throughout the campaign. He was the mainspring of the Arab movement and knew their language, their manners and their mentality.[91]

After the fall of Aqaba Lawrence held a powerful position as an adviser to Faisal and a person who had Allenby's confidence.

Lawrence in British Army uniform, 1918

Fall of Damascus[edit]

Lawrence was involved in the build-up to the capture of Damascus in the final weeks of the war. He was not present at the city's formal surrender, much to his disappointment and contrary to instructions which he had issued, having arrived several hours after the city had fallen. Lawrence entered Damascus around 9am on 1 October 1918 but was the third arrival of the day; the first was the 10th Australian Light Horse Brigade, led by Major A.C.N. 'Harry' Olden, who formally accepted the surrender of the city from acting Governor Emir Said.[92] Lawrence was instrumental in establishing a provisional Arab government under Faisal in newly liberated Damascus—which he had envisioned as the capital of an Arab state. Faisal's rule as king, however, came to an abrupt end in 1920, after the battle of Maysaloun, when the French Forces of General Gouraud entered Damascus under the command of General Mariano Goybet, destroying Lawrence's dream of an independent Arabia.

During the closing years of the war, Lawrence sought to convince his superiors in the British government that Arab independence was in their interests—with mixed success. The secret Sykes-Picot Agreement between France and Britain contradicted the promises of independence that he had made to the Arabs and frustrated his work.[93]

In 1918, he cooperated with war correspondent Lowell Thomas for a short period. During this time, Thomas and his cameraman Harry Chase shot a great deal of film and many photographs, which Thomas used in a highly lucrative film that toured the world after the war.

[Lowell Thomas] went to Jerusalem where he met Lawrence, whose enigmatic figure in Arab uniform fired his imagination. With Allenby's permission he linked up with Lawrence for a brief couple of weeks ... Returning to America, Thomas, early in 1919, started his lectures, supported by moving pictures of veiled women, Arabs in their picturesque robes, camels and dashing Bedouin cavalry, which took the nation by storm, after running at Madison Square Garden in New York. On being asked to come to England, he made the condition he would do so if asked by the King and given Drury Lane or Covent Garden ... He opened at Covent Garden on 14 August 1919 ... And so followed a series of some hundreds of lectures—film shows, attended by the highest in the land ...[94]

Post-war years[edit]

Map presented by Lawrence to the Eastern Committee of the War Cabinet in November 1918[95]
Emir Faisal's party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. Left to right: Rustum Haidar, Nuri as-Said, Prince Faisal (front), Captain Pisani (rear), Lawrence, Faisal's servant (name unknown), Captain Hassan Khadri

Lawrence returned to the United Kingdom a full colonel.[96] Immediately after the war, he worked for the Foreign Office, attending the Paris Peace Conference between January and May as a member of Faisal's delegation.

On 17 May 1919, the Handley Page Type O carrying Lawrence on a flight to Egypt crashed at the airport of Roma-Centocelle. The pilot and co-pilot were killed; Lawrence survived with a broken shoulder blade and two broken ribs.[97] During his brief hospitalisation, he was visited by the King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III.[98]

In August 1919, Lowell Thomas launched a colourful photo show in London entitled With Allenby in Palestine, which included a lecture, dancing, and music.[99] Initially, Lawrence played only a supporting role in the show, but then Thomas realised that it was the photos of Lawrence dressed as a Bedouin that had captured the public's imagination, so he photographed him again in London in Arab dress.[99] With the new photos, Thomas re-launched his show as With Allenby in Palestine and Lawrence in Arabia in early 1920; it was extremely popular.[99] Thomas' shows made the previously obscure Lawrence into a household name.[99]

He served for much of 1921 as an adviser to Winston Churchill at the Colonial Office.

Lawrence, Emir Abdullah, Air Marshal Sir Geoffrey Salmond, Sir Herbert Samuel H.B.M. high commissioner and Sir Wyndham Deedes and others in Jerusalem

In August 1922, Lawrence enlisted in the Royal Air Force as an aircraftman under the name John Hume Ross. At the RAF recruiting centre in Covent Garden, London, he was interviewed by a recruiting officer—Flying Officer W. E. Johns, later known as the author of the Biggles series of novels.[100] Johns rejected Lawrence's application as he correctly believed that "Ross" was a false name. Lawrence admitted that this was so and that the documents were false which he had provided. He left, but he returned some time later with an RAF Messenger carrying a written order for Johns to accept Lawrence.[101]

However, Lawrence was forced out of the RAF in February 1923 after his identity was exposed. He changed his name to T. E. Shaw and joined the Royal Tank Corps in 1923. He was unhappy there and repeatedly petitioned to rejoin the RAF, which finally readmitted him in August 1925.[102] A fresh burst of publicity after the publication of Revolt in the Desert resulted in his assignment to a remote base in British India in late 1926, where he remained until the end of 1928. At that time, he was forced to return to Britain after rumours began to circulate that he was involved in espionage activities.

He purchased several small plots of land in Chingford; he built a hut and swimming pool there, and visited frequently. The hut was removed in 1930 when the Chingford Urban District Council acquired the land and passed it to the City of London Corporation, which re-erected the hut in the grounds of The Warren, Loughton, where it remains (neglected) today. Lawrence's tenure of the Chingford land has now been commemorated by a plaque fixed on the sighting obelisk on Pole Hill.

He continued serving in the RAF based at Bridlington, East Riding of Yorkshire, specialising in high-speed boats and professing happiness, and it was with considerable regret that he left the service at the end of his enlistment in March 1935.

Lawrence was a keen motorcyclist and owned eight Brough Superior motorcycles at different times.[103][104] His last SS100 (Registration GW 2275) is privately owned but has been on loan to the National Motor Museum, Beaulieu[105] and the Imperial War Museum in London.[106] Among the books that Lawrence is known to have carried with him on his military campaigns is Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur. Accounts of the 1934 discovery of the Winchester Manuscript of the Morte include a report that Lawrence followed Eugene Vinaver—a Malory scholar—by motorcycle from Manchester to Winchester upon reading of the discovery in The Times.[107]

Death[edit]

Lawrence's last Brough Superior SS100 while on loan to the Imperial War Museum, London
The roadside memorial near Clouds Hill, Wareham, Dorset

At the age of 46, two months after leaving military service, Lawrence was fatally injured in an accident on his Brough Superior SS100 motorcycle in Dorset, close to his cottage, Clouds Hill, near Wareham. A dip in the road obstructed his view of two boys on their bicycles; he swerved to avoid them, lost control, and was thrown over the handlebars.[108] He died six days later on 19 May 1935.[108] The spot is marked by a small memorial at the side of the road.

Lawrence on the Brough Superior SS100 that he called George V

One of the doctors attending him was neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns, who consequently began a long study of the unnecessary loss of life by motorcycle dispatch riders through head injuries. His research led to the use of crash helmets by both military and civilian motorcyclists.[109]

The Moreton estate, which borders Bovington Camp, was owned by Lawrence's cousins, the Frampton family. Lawrence had rented and later bought Clouds Hill from the Framptons. He had been a frequent visitor to their home, Okers Wood House, and had for years corresponded with Louisa Frampton. With his body wrapped in the Union Flag, Lawrence's mother arranged with the Framptons to have him buried in their family plot in the separate burial ground of St Nicholas' Church, Moreton.[110][111] His coffin was transported on the Frampton estate's bier. Mourners included Winston and Clementine Churchill, E. M. Forster, and Lawrence's youngest brother Arnold.[112]

A bust of Lawrence was placed in the crypt at St Paul's Cathedral, London, and a stone effigy by Eric Kennington remains in the Anglo-Saxon church of St Martin, Wareham in Dorset.[113]

Writings[edit]

Lawrence was a prolific writer throughout his life. A large portion of his output was epistolary; he often sent several letters a day. Several collections of his letters have been published. He corresponded with many notable figures, including George Bernard Shaw, Edward Elgar, Winston Churchill, Robert Graves, Noël Coward, E. M. Forster, Siegfried Sassoon, John Buchan, Augustus John, and Henry Williamson. He met Joseph Conrad and commented perceptively on his works. The many letters that he sent to Shaw's wife Charlotte are revealing as to his character.[114]

Lawrence published three major texts in his lifetime. The most significant was his account of the Arab Revolt, Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Two were translations: Homer's Odyssey and The Forest Giant, the latter an otherwise forgotten work of French fiction. He received a flat fee for the second translation, and negotiated a generous fee plus royalties for the first.

Seven Pillars of Wisdom[edit]

14 Barton Street, London SW1, where Lawrence lived while writing Seven Pillars

Lawrence's major work is Seven Pillars of Wisdom, an account of his war experiences. In 1919, he had been elected to a seven-year research fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford, providing him with support while he worked on the book. In addition to being a memoir of his experiences during the war, certain parts also serve as essays on military strategy, Arabian culture and geography, and other topics. Lawrence re-wrote Seven Pillars of Wisdom three times, once "blind" after he lost the manuscript while changing trains at Reading railway station.

The list of his alleged "embellishments" in Seven Pillars is long, though many such allegations have been disproved with time, most definitively in Jeremy Wilson's authorised biography. However, Lawrence's own notebooks refute his claim to have crossed the Sinai Peninsula from Aqaba to the Suez Canal in just 49 hours without any sleep. In reality, this famous camel ride lasted for more than 70 hours and was interrupted by two long breaks for sleeping, which Lawrence omitted when he wrote his book.[115]

Lawrence acknowledged having been helped in the editing of the book by George Bernard Shaw. In the preface to Seven Pillars, Lawrence offered his "thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Shaw for countless suggestions of great value and diversity: and for all the present semicolons".

The first public edition was published in 1926 as a high-priced private subscription edition, printed in London by Herbert John Hodgson and Roy Manning Pike, with illustrations by Eric Kennington, Augustus John, Paul Nash, Blair Hughes-Stanton, and his wife Gertrude Hermes. Lawrence was afraid that the public would think that he would make a substantial income from the book, and he stated that it was written as a result of his war service. He vowed not to take any money from it, and indeed he did not, as the sale price was one third of the production costs.[116] This, along with his "saintlike" generosity, left Lawrence in substantial debt.[117]

Revolt in the Desert[edit]

Portrait by Augustus John, 1919

Revolt in the Desert was an abridged version of Seven Pillars that he began in 1926 and that was published in March 1927 in both limited and trade editions.[118] He undertook a needed but reluctant publicity exercise, which resulted in a best-seller. Again he vowed not to take any fees from the publication, partly to appease the subscribers to Seven Pillars who had paid dearly for their editions. By the fourth reprint in 1927, the debt from Seven Pillars was paid off. As Lawrence left for military service in India at the end of 1926, he set up the "Seven Pillars Trust" with his friend D. G. Hogarth as a trustee, in which he made over the copyright and any surplus income of Revolt in the Desert. He later told Hogarth that he had "made the Trust final, to save myself the temptation of reviewing it, if Revolt turned out a best seller."

The resultant trust paid off the debt, and Lawrence then invoked a clause in his publishing contract to halt publication of the abridgment in the United Kingdom. However, he allowed both American editions and translations, which resulted in a substantial flow of income. The trust paid income either into an educational fund for children of RAF officers who lost their lives or were invalided as a result of service, or more substantially into the RAF Benevolent Fund.

Posthumous[edit]

Lawrence left unpublished The Mint,[119] a memoir of his experiences as an enlisted man in the Royal Air Force (RAF). For this, he worked from a notebook that he kept while enlisted, writing of the daily lives of enlisted men and his desire to be a part of something larger than himself: the Royal Air Force. The book is stylistically very different from Seven Pillars of Wisdom, using sparse prose as opposed to the complicated syntax found in Seven Pillars. It was published posthumously, edited by his brother, Professor A. W. Lawrence.

After Lawrence's death, A. W. Lawrence inherited Lawrence's estate and his copyrights as the sole beneficiary. To pay the inheritance tax, he sold the U.S. copyright of Seven Pillars of Wisdom (subscribers' text) outright to Doubleday Doran in 1935. Doubleday still controls publication rights of this version of the text of Seven Pillars of Wisdom in the USA, and will continue to do until the copyright expires at the end of 2022 (publication plus 95 years). In 1936 Prof. Lawrence split the remaining assets of the estate, giving Clouds Hill and many copies of less substantial or historical letters to the nation via the National Trust, and then set up two trusts to control interests in T. E. Lawrence's residual copyrights. To the original Seven Pillars Trust, Prof. Lawrence assigned the copyright in Seven Pillars of Wisdom, as a result of which it was given its first general publication. To the Letters and Symposium Trust, he assigned the copyright in The Mint and all Lawrence's letters, which were subsequently edited and published in the book T. E. Lawrence by his Friends (edited by A. W. Lawrence, London, Jonathan Cape, 1937).

A substantial amount of income went directly to the RAF Benevolent Fund or for archaeological, environmental, or academic projects. The two trusts were amalgamated in 1986 and, on the death of Prof. A. W. Lawrence in 1991, the unified trust also acquired all the remaining rights to Lawrence's works that it had not owned, plus rights to all of Prof. Lawrence's works. The UK copyrights of Lawrence's works published in his lifetime and within 20 years of his death had expired by the end of 2005. Works published more than 20 years after his death were protected for 50 years from publication.

Writings[edit]

Sexuality[edit]

Lawrence's biographers have discussed his sexuality at considerable length, and this discussion has spilled into the popular press.[123]

There is no reliable evidence for consensual sexual intimacy between Lawrence and any person. His friends have expressed the opinion that he was asexual,[124][125] and Lawrence himself specifically denied, in multiple private letters, any personal experience of sex.[126] There were suggestions that Lawrence had been intimate with Dahoum, who worked with him at a pre-war archaeological dig in Carchemish,[127] and fellow-serviceman R.A.M. Guy,[128] but his biographers and contemporaries have found them unconvincing.[127][128][129]

The dedication to his book Seven Pillars is a poem titled "To S.A." which opens:

I loved you, so I drew these tides of men into my hands
                    and wrote my will across the sky in stars
To earn you Freedom, the seven-pillared worthy house,
                    that your eyes might be shining for me
                              When we came.

Lawrence was never specific about the identity of "S.A." Many theories argue in favour of individual men or women, and the Arab nation as a whole. The most popular theory is that S.A. represents (at least in part) his companion Selim Ahmed, "Dahoum"—who apparently died of typhus before 1918.[130]

Lawrence lived in a period of strong official opposition to homosexuality, but his writing on the subject was tolerant. He refers to "the openness and honesty of perfect love" on one occasion in Seven Pillars, when discussing relationships between young male fighters in the war.[131] On another occasion, he refers to "friends quivering together in the yielding sand with intimate hot limbs in supreme embrace".[132] In a letter to Charlotte Shaw, he wrote, "I've seen lots of man-and-man loves: very lovely and fortunate some of them were."[133]

In both Seven Pillars and a 1919 letter to a military colleague,[134] Lawrence describes an episode on 20 November 1917 while reconnoitring Dera'a in disguise when he was captured by the Ottoman military, heavily beaten, and sexually abused by the local Bey and his guardsmen. The precise nature of the sexual contact is not specified. There have been allegations that the episode was an invention of Lawrence's and (with some evidence) that he exaggerated the severity of the injuries he claimed to have suffered.[135] There is no independent testimony, but the multiple consistent reports and the absence of evidence for outright invention in Lawrence's works make the account believable to his biographers.[136] At least three of Lawrence's biographers (Malcolm Brown, John E. Mack, and Jeremy Wilson) have argued that this episode had strong psychological effects on Lawrence, which may explain some of his unconventional behaviour in later life.

There is considerable evidence that Lawrence was a masochist. In his description of the Dera'a beating, Lawrence wrote "a delicious warmth, probably sexual, was swelling through me," and also included a detailed description of the guards' whip in a style typical of masochists' writing.[137] In later life, Lawrence arranged to pay a military colleague to administer beatings to him,[138] and to be subjected to severe formal tests of fitness and stamina.[139] John Bruce first wrote on this topic, including some other claims that were not credible, but Lawrence's biographers regard the beatings as established fact.[140]

John E. Mack sees a possible connection between T. E.'s masochism and the childhood beatings that he had received from his mother[141] for routine misbehaviours.[142] His brother Arnold thought that the beatings had been given for the purpose of breaking T. E.'s will.[142] Writing in 1997, Angus Calder noted that it is "astonishing" that earlier commentators discussing Lawrence's apparent masochism and self-loathing failed to consider the impact on Lawrence of having lost his brothers Frank and Will on the Western Front, along with many other school friends.[143]

Awards and commemorations[edit]

Bust of Lawrence at St Paul's Cathedral

Lawrence was made a Companion of the Order of the Bath and awarded the Distinguished Service Order and the French Légion d'honneur—though in October 1918 he declined appointment as a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire. A bronze bust of Lawrence was placed in the crypt of St Paul's Cathedral on 29 January 1936, alongside the tombs of Britain's greatest military leaders.[144] An English Heritage blue plaque marks Lawrence's childhood home at 2 Polstead Road, Oxford, and another appears on his London home at 14 Barton Street, Westminster.[145][146] In 2002, Lawrence was named 53rd in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote.[147]

In popular culture[edit]

Film[edit]

Television[edit]

Theatre[edit]

  • Lawrence was the subject of Terence Rattigan's controversial play Ross, which explored Lawrence's alleged homosexuality. Ross ran in London in 1960–61, starring Alec Guinness, who was an admirer of Lawrence, and Gerald Harper as his blackmailer, Dickinson. The play had originally been written as a screenplay, but the planned film was never made. In January 1986 at the Theatre Royal, Plymouth, on the opening night of the revival of Ross, Marc Sinden, who was playing Dickinson (the man who recognised and blackmailed Lawrence, played by Simon Ward), was introduced to the man on whom the character of Dickinson was based. Sinden asked him why he had blackmailed Ross, and he replied, "Oh, for the money. I was financially embarrassed at the time and needed to get up to London to see a girlfriend. It was never meant to be a big thing, but a good friend of mine was very close to Terence Rattigan and years later, the silly devil told him the story."[150] Guinness would play Prince Faisal in Lawrence of Arabia a year later.
  • Alan Bennett's Forty Years On (1968) includes a satire on Lawrence; known as "Tee Hee Lawrence" because of his high-pitched, girlish giggle. "Clad in the magnificent white silk robes of an Arab prince ... he hoped to pass unnoticed through London. Alas he was mistaken." The section concludes with the headmaster confusing him with D. H. Lawrence.
  • The character of Private Napoleon Meek in George Bernard Shaw's 1931 play Too True to Be Good was inspired by Lawrence. Meek is depicted as thoroughly conversant with the language and lifestyle of the native tribes. He repeatedly enlists with the army, quitting whenever offered a promotion. Lawrence attended a performance of the play's original Worcestershire run, and reportedly signed autographs for patrons attending the show.[151]
  • Lawrence's first year back at Oxford after the War to write was portrayed by Tom Rooney in a play, The Oxford Roof Climbers Rebellion, written by Canadian playwright Stephen Massicotte (premiered Toronto 2006). The play explores Lawrence's reactions to war, and his friendship with Robert Graves. Urban Stages presented the American premiere in New York City in October 2007; Lawrence was portrayed by actor Dylan Chalfy.
  • Lawrence's final years are portrayed in a one-man show by Raymond Sargent, The Warrior and the Poet.
  • His 1922 retreat from public life forms the subject of Howard Brenton's play Lawrence After Arabia, commissioned for a 2016 premiere at the Hampstead Theatre to mark the centenary of the outbreak of the Arab Revolt.[152]

Video games[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30222. p. 8103. 7 August 1917. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
  2. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30681. p. 5694. 10 May 1918. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 29600. p. 5321. 30 May 1916.
  4. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30638. p. 4716. 16 April 1918. Retrieved 23 June 2010. - p4715 has "Decorations and Medals presented by THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC."
  5. ^ David Barnes. The Companion Guide to Wales. Companion Guides, 2005. p. 280. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  6. ^ Aldington, 1955, p. 25.
  7. ^ Alan Axelrod. Little-Known Wars of Great and Lasting Impact. Fair Winds, 2009. p. 237. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  8. ^ Mack, 1976, p. 5.
  9. ^ Aldington, 1955, p. 19.
  10. ^ Wilson, 1989, Appendix 1.
  11. ^ Mack, 1976, p. 9.
  12. ^ Mack, 1976, p. 6.
  13. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 22.
  14. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 24.
  15. ^ Wilson 1989, p. 24.
  16. ^ Mack, 1976, p. 22.
  17. ^ "Brief history of the City of Oxford High School for Boys, George Street", 'University of Oxford Faculty of History website Archived April 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ Aldington, 1955, p. 53.
  19. ^ "T. E. Lawrence Studies". Telawrence.info. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  20. ^ WIlson, 1989, p. 33, in note 34 Wilson discusses a painting in Lawrence’s possession at the time of his death which appears to show him as a boy in RGA uniform.
  21. ^ a b c d e Beeson, C.F.C.; Simcock, A.V. (1989) [1962]. Clockmaking in Oxfordshire 1400--1850 (3rd ed.). Oxford: Museum of the History of Science. p. 3. ISBN 0-903364-06-9. 
  22. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 42.
  23. ^ Wilson, 1989 p. 57-61.
  24. ^ WIlson, 1989, p. 67.
  25. ^ Allen, Malcolm Dennis. The Medievalism of Lawrence of Arabia. Penn State Press, 1991. p. 29. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  26. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 70.
  27. ^ Wilson, p.73.
  28. ^ Wilson, 1989, pp. 76-77.
  29. ^ Wilson, 1989, pp 76-134.
  30. ^ T. E. Lawrence letters, 1927 Archived February 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 88.
  32. ^ Wilson, 1989, pp. 99-100.
  33. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 136. Lawrence wrote to his parents "We are obviously only meant as red herrings to give an archaeological colour to a political job."
  34. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 18 October 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-10-18. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  35. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 152, 154.
  36. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 166.
  37. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 158.
  38. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 199.
  39. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 195.
  40. ^ Wilson, 1989, pp. 169-170.
  41. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 161.
  42. ^ a b Wilson, 1989, p. 189.
  43. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 188.
  44. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 181.
  45. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 186.
  46. ^ Wilson, 1989, pp. 211-212.
  47. ^ WIlson, 1989, pp. 256-276.
  48. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 313. In note 24 Wilson argues that, contrary to a later statement, Lawrence must have known about Sykes-Picot prior to his relationship with Faisal.
  49. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 300.
  50. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 302.
  51. ^ Wilson, pp. 307-311.
  52. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 312.
  53. ^ Wilson, p. 321.
  54. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 323.
  55. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 347. Also see note 43, where the origin of the repositioning idea is examined closely.
  56. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 358.
  57. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 348.
  58. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 388.
  59. ^ Alleyne, Richard. "Garland of Arabia: the forgotten story of TE Lawrence's brother-in-arms". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  60. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 412
  61. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 416.
  62. ^ Wilson, 1989, p 446.
  63. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 448.
  64. ^ Wilson, 1989, pp. 455-457.
  65. ^ a b c d Mack, 1976, p. 158, 161.
  66. ^ Lawrence, 7 Pillars (1922), pp. 537-546.
  67. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 495.
  68. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 498.
  69. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 546.
  70. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 556-557.
  71. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 424-425.
  72. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 491.
  73. ^ Wilson, 1918, p. 479.
  74. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 424,
  75. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 460.
  76. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 353.
  77. ^ Murphy, David (2008). "The Arab Revolt 1916-1918", London: Osprey, 2008 page 36.
  78. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 329 describes a very early argument for letting the Ottomans stay in Medina in a November 1916 letter from Clayton.
  79. ^ Wilson, 1989, pp. 383-384 describes Lawrence's arrival at this conclusion.
  80. ^ Wilson, 1989, pp. 361-362 argues that Lawrence knew the details and briefed Faisal in February 1917.
  81. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 444. shows Lawrence definitely knew of Sykes-Picot in September 1917.
  82. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 309.
  83. ^ Wilson, 1989, pp. 390-391.
  84. ^ "The bombardment of Akaba." The Naval Review. Volume IV. 1916. p.101-103
  85. ^ "Egyptian Expeditionary Force". Operations in the Gulf of Akaba, Red Sea HMS Raven II. July--August 1916. National Archives, Kew London. File: AIR 1 /2284/ 209/75/8.
  86. ^ "Naval Operation in the Red Sea 1916--1917". The Naval Review, Volume XIII, no.4 (1925). pp. 648-666.
  87. ^ Graves, 1934, p. 161. "Akaba was so strongly protected by the hills, elaborately fortified for miles back, that if a landing were attempted from the sea a small Turkish force could hold up a whole Allied division in the defiles."
  88. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 400.
  89. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 397.
  90. ^ Wilson, 1989, p. 406.
  91. ^ "Strategist of the Desert Dies in Military Hospital". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 August 2012
  92. ^ Barker, A (1998). "The Allies Enter Damascus". History Today. 48. 
  93. ^ Rory Stewart (presenter) (23 January 2010). The Legacy of Lawrence of Arabia. 2. BBC. 
  94. ^ Hall, Rex (1975). The Desert Hath Pearls. Melbourne: Hawthorn Press. pp. 120–121. 
  95. ^ "BBC NEWS - UK - Lawrence's Mid-East map on show". 
  96. ^ Asher, 1998, p. 343.
  97. ^ "Newsletter: Friends of the Protestant Cemetery" (PDF). protestantcemetery.it. Rome. 2008. 
  98. ^ RID Marzo 2012, Storia dell'Handley Page type 0
  99. ^ a b c d Murphy, David The Arab Revolt 1916-18, London: Osprey, 2008, page 86
  100. ^ Biography of Johns, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  101. ^ Orlans, 2002, p. 55.
  102. ^ "T.E. Lawrence". London Borough of Hillingdon. 23 October 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  103. ^ Erwin Tragatsch (ed.) (1979). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Motorcycles. New Burlington Books. p. 95. ISBN 0-906286-07-7. 
  104. ^ "Lawrence of Arabia". Retrieved 21 October 2013. 
  105. ^ Brough Superior Club accessed 2008-05-05
  106. ^ "BE ALLOCATED (MH 30602 - MH 30603)". Imperial War Museums. 
  107. ^ Walter F. Oakeshott, "The Finding of the Manuscript," Essays on Malory, J. A. W. Bennett, ed. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1963]: 1--6)
  108. ^ a b "T.E. Lawrence, To Arabia and back". BBC. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  109. ^ "Lawrence of Arabia, Sir Hugh Cairns, and the Origin of Motor... : Neurosurgery". LWW. 
  110. ^ Kerrigan, Michael (1998). Who Lies Where -- A guide to famous graves. London: Fourth Estate Limited. p. 51. ISBN 1-85702-258-0. 
  111. ^ Thomas Edward "Lawrence of Arabia" Lawrence at Find a Grave
  112. ^ Moffat,W. "A Great Unrecorded History: A New Life of E. M. Forster", p.240
  113. ^ "Dorset's oldest church". BBC. 5 August 2012. 
  114. ^ T. E. Lawrence (2000). Jeremy and Nicole Wilson, ed. Correspondence with Bernard and Charlotte Shaw, 1922--1926. 1. Castle Hill Press.  Foreword by Jeremy Wilson.
  115. ^ Asher, 1998, p. 259.
  116. ^ Graves, 1928, ch. 30.
  117. ^ Mack, 1976, p. 323.
  118. ^ Grand Strategies; Literature, Statecreft, and World Order, Yale University Press, 2010, p. 8.
  119. ^ Doubleday, Doran & Co, New York, 1936; rprnt Penguin, Harmondsworth,1984 ISBN 0-14-004505-8
  120. ^ "Castle Hill Press". 
  121. ^ Lawrence, T.E. "Guerilla Warfare". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  122. ^ "The Wilderness of Zin". 
  123. ^ The Sunday Times pieces appeared on 9, 16, 23 and 30 June 1968, and were based mostly on the narrative of John Bruce.
  124. ^ E.H.R. Altounyan in Lawrence, A.W., 1937.
  125. ^ Knightley and Simpson, 1970, p. 29
  126. ^ Brown, 1988, letters to E.M. Forter (21 Dec 1927), Robert Graves (6 Nov 1928), F.L. Lucas (26 March 1929).
  127. ^ a b C. Leonard Woolley in A.W. Lawrence, 1937, p. 89
  128. ^ a b Wilson, 1989, chapter 32.
  129. ^ Wilson, 1989 , chapter 27.
  130. ^ Yagitani, Ryoko. "An 'S.A.' Mystery". 
  131. ^ Lawrence, T.E. (1935). "Book VIII, Chapter XCII". Seven Pillars of Wisdom. pp. 508–509.  The passage in the front matter is referred to with the single-word tag "Sex".
  132. ^ Seven Pillars (1935), p.2
  133. ^ Letter to Charlotte Shaw in Mack, 1976, p. 425.
  134. ^ Letter to W.F. Stirling, Deputy Chief Political Officer, Cairo, June 28, 1919, in Brown, 1988.
  135. ^ Mack, 1976.
  136. ^ Wilson, 1989, note 49 to Chapter 21.
  137. ^ Knightley and Simpson, 1970, p. 221.
  138. ^ Simpson, Colin; Knightley, Phillip (June 1968). "John Bruce (the pieces appeared on the 9th, 16th, 23rd, and 30th of June, and were based mostly on the narrative of John Bruce)". Sunday Times. 
  139. ^ Knightley and Simpson, p. 29
  140. ^ Wilon, 1989, chapter 34.
  141. ^ Mack, 1976, p. 420.
  142. ^ a b Mack, 1976, p. 33.
  143. ^ Lawrence, T.E (1997). Seven Pillars of Wisdom (Wordsworth Classics of World Literature). Wordswroth. pp. vi, vii. ISBN 1853264695.  Introduction by Angus Calder – who says that after losing close friends and family, returning soldiers often feel intense guilt at having survived, even to the point of self-harm.
  144. ^ David Murphy (2008). "The Arab Revolt 1916-18: Lawrence sets Arabia ablaze". p. 86. Osprey Publishing, 2008
  145. ^ "This house was the home of T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) from 1896-1921". Open Plaques. Retrieved 5 August 2012
  146. ^ "T. E. Lawrence "Lawrence of Arabia" 1888-1935 lived here. Open Plaques. Retrieved 5 August 2012
  147. ^ "100 great Britons - A complete list". Daily Mail. 21 August 2002. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  148. ^ "PICTURES AND PERSONALITIES.". The Mercury. Hobart, Tas. 15 June 1935. p. 13. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  149. ^ "Istikana - Lawrence Alarab... Al-Khdi3a - Episode 1". Istikana. 
  150. ^ Western Morning News 1986
  151. ^ Korda, 2010, p. 670-671.
  152. ^ https://www.cft.org.uk/whats-on/event/ross

Sources[edit]

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  • Anderson, Scott (2013). Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-53292-1. 
  • Armitage, Flora (1955). The Desert and the Stars: a Biography of Lawrence of Arabia. illustrated with photographs, New York, Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 9780000005779. 
  • Asher, Michael (1998). Lawrence. The Uncrowned King of Arabia. Viking. 
  • Brown, Malcolm; Cave, Julia (1988). A Touch of Genius: The Life of T. E. Lawrence. London, J. M. Brent. 
  • Brown, Malcolm (2005). Lawrence of Arabia: the Life, the Legend. London, Thames & Hudson: [In association with] Imperial War Museum. ISBN 0-500-51238-8. 
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  • Brown, ed.,, Malcolm (2005). Lawrence of Arabia: The Selected Letters. London. 
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  • Ciampaglia, Giuseppe (2010). Quando Lawrence d'Arabia passò per Roma rompendosi l'osso del collo. Roma: Strenna dei Romanisti, Roma Amor edit. 
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  • Lawrence, T.E. (2003). Seven Pillars of Wisdom: The Complete 1922 Text). ISBN 1-873141-39-4. 
  • Leclerc, C (1998). Avec T E Lawrence en Arabie, La Mission militaire francaise au Hedjaz 1916-1920. Paris. 
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External links[edit]