T. S. Wiley
Teresa S. Wiley is the author of Lights Out: Sleep, Sugar and Survival, and Sex, Lies and Menopause. She writes about women's health, particularly sleep and hormonal issues, hormone replacement therapy and bioidentical hormone replacement therapy. Wiley has developed her own version of BHRT known as the Wiley Protocol, though she has been strongly criticized for lacking the relevant credentials and potentially putting women at risk with an unproven, untested intervention that uses possibly dangerously high doses of hormones.
Writings and beliefs
Wiley's main thesis in Lights Out is that light is a physiological trigger that controls dopamine and hormones like cortisol. Wiley posits that with the extension of the natural day through artificial lighting, rest at the hormonal level is rarely adequate for optimum biological needs of the body. In her view, this results in both fatigue and unnatural appetite, which leads to weight gain, exhaustion and disease. Wiley theorizes that the body's responses are cyclical, reflecting the seasons of the year, and that the body's needs vary seasonally. According to Wiley, during the winter months the body needs more sleep, and carbohydrates should be restricted as they would have been naturally during hunter-gatherer times.
The Wiley Protocol
Wiley wrote a second book, Sex, Lies and Menopause, in which she claims that hormone imbalances cause many age-related diseases, and these imbalances are caused by humans straying from "natural" rhythms of light, seasonal eating and child birth. Wiley claims that mimicking the levels and cycles of estrogen and progesterone found in a 20-year-old woman will prevent or treat age-related diseases. Subsequent to the book's publication, this hormone regimen became known as the "Wiley protocol" and Wiley created a pharmaceutical compounding program that pharmacists could contract into, stipulating compounding methods, materials, testing, packaging and recommended pricing in exchange for Wiley's company providing the packaging materials bearing the Wiley protocol's trademark.
Wiley has been criticized for promoting her version of BHRT without proper qualifications or scientific evidence. On October 11, 2006, Erika Schwartz, Diana Schwarzbein, and five other MDs who have worked with BHRT during their careers issued a public letter to Suzanne Somers and her publisher, Crown, criticizing Somers' endorsement of Wiley's protocol. In the letter they alleged that the Wiley Protocol is "scientifically unproven and dangerous" and that Wiley has no medical or clinical qualifications; other criticisms of the protocol itself have stated that the levels of hormone are dangerously high. Wiley has claimed on her website and in speaking engagements that she earned a B.A. in anthropology from Webster University in 1975. On November 27, 2006, Newsweek reported that Webster has no record of this degree. Wiley's bio page was then changed to "Pending B.A. in Anthropology, Webster University, 1975" and then again to "Attended the B.A. Program in Anthropology, Webster University, 1970-1975". ABC News reported on February 16, 2007, that, according to Webster, she received only a blank diploma.
On April 19, 2007, Wiley appeared as a witness before the Senate Special Committee on Aging to give testimony at a hearing in which the safety and oversight of BHRT and compounding pharmacy were discussed.
- Wiley, TS; Bent Formby (February 27, 2001). Lights Out: Sleep, Sugar, and Survival. Atria. ISBN 0-671-03868-0.
- Wiley, TS; Julie Taguchi; Bent Formby (September 14, 2004). Sex, Lies, and Menopause: The Shocking Truth About Synthetic Hormones and the Benefits of Natural Alternatives. Harper Paperback imprint of HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-054234-9.
- Formby, Bent; T.S. Wiley (1998). "Progesterone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells: inverse effects on Bcl-2 and p53". Ann Clin Lab Sci. 28 (6): 360–9. PMID 9846203.
- Formby, Bent; T.S. Wiley (1999). "Bcl-2, survivin and variant CD44 v7-v10 are downregulated and p53 is upregulated in breast cancer cells by progesterone: inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis". Mol Cell Biochem. 202 (1–2): 53–61. doi:10.1023/A:1007081021483. PMID 10705995. S2CID 25532485.
- R Stern; S Shuster; TS Wiley; B Formby (2001). "Hyaluronidase can modulate expression of CD44". Exp Cell Res. 266 (1): 167–76. doi:10.1006/excr.2001.5206. PMID 11339835.
- Somers, Suzanne (2006). Ageless: The Naked Truth About Bioidentical Hormones. Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 0-307-23724-9.
- Schwartz, Erika; Schwarzbein, D.; et al. (October 11, 2006). "Letter to Suzanne Somers".
- Johnson, Richard; Froelich, P.; Hoffmann, B. (2006-10-13). "Book's a 'danger to women'". New York Post. Archived from the original on 2007-03-06. Retrieved 2007-05-06.
- Feig SA, Hynote E, Speight N, Magaziner A, Miranda RA, Schachter MA (September 2005). "Summary of the American College for Advancement in Medicine May 2005 Conference: Menopause, Andropause: Power in Transition". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2 (3): 416. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh113. PMC 1193553.
- Rosenthal MS (2008). "The Wiley Protocol: an analysis of ethical issues". Menopause. 15 (5): 1014–22. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e318178862e. PMID 18551081.
- "A Real Somers Storm: At war over Suzanne Somers's book on 'bioidenticals'". Newsweek. November 13, 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
- Sherr, Lynn; Glenn Ruppel (2007-02-16). "Suzanne Somers: Super Saleswoman: Has Somers Found the Fountain of Youth?". ABC News, 20/20. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
- Ellin, Abby (October 15, 2006). "A Battle Over 'Juice of Youth'". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- "Hearings: Bioidentical Hormones: Sound Science or Bad Medicine?". United States Senate Special Committee on Aging. April 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-01.