T14 Heavy Tank
|Assault Tank T14|
Assault Tank T14
|Place of origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||American Locomotive Company|
|Length||6.19 m (20 ft 4 in)|
|Width||3.17 m (10 ft 5 in)|
|Height||2.99 m (9 ft 10 in)|
|Crew||5 (Commander, gunner, loader, driver, co-driver)|
|75 mm M3 Gun
|.50 M2 Browning machine gun (12.7 mm)
2x .30 M1919 Browning machine gun (7.62 mm)
|Engine||Ford GAZ V8
520 hp (390 kW)
|Suspension||Vertical Volute Spring Suspension (VVSS)|
|100 mi (161 km) radius of action|
|Speed||28 km/h (17 mph)|
A pilot model was not delivered to the UK by 1944 by which time the British Churchill tank had been in service for two years and greatly improved over its initial model. The T14 project never came to fruition due to this fact. US efforts working on a similarly well-armoured tank but with a higher speed for use other than in infantry support led to the T20 Medium Tank.
Design and development
In 1941, the head of the United States Ordnance Department travelled to Britain to learn of their experience, ideas and requirements for the future. Among the discussion was the possibility of designing a well-armed and armoured combat vehicle, one that was stronger than the British Churchill infantry tank then in production.
The tank design would have a British QF 6-pounder (57 mm) or a US 75 mm gun and share many parts with the M4 Sherman; they had the same armour thickness, but with armour sloping at extreme angles, effective armour on the T14 was greatly increased to 101 mm.
The British initially ordered 8,500 in 1942 following which detail design work started. Testing of the pilot model which was completed in 1944 showed the vehicle to be much too heavy for practical use. By this time, the British Army was satisfied with the Churchill and its cruiser tank designs and further production of the T14 was halted.
Only two were built; one tested in the US and the other sent to Britain. The example sent to Britain survives in The Tank Museum, Bovington. The British had developed the Heavy Assault Tank A33 "Excelsior" design to the same specification as the T14 but this did not go into service either.
Tanks of comparable role, performance and era
- British Excelsior - two prototypes built; did not enter service
- British Churchill - heavy tank, entered service 1941
- Soviet KV-1 - heavy tank, entered service in 1939
- American M6 - heavy tank, saw trials but never entered service
- David Fletcher The Universal Tank: British Armour in the Second World War
- The Tank Museum accession record
- Chamberlain, Peter; Ellis, Chris (1969), British and American Tanks of World War II, Arco Publishing