T38 (classification)

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T38 and CP8 are disability sport classification for disability athletics intended for people with cerebral palsy. It includes people who have coordination impairments such as hypertonia, ataxia and athetosis. Runners in this class may appear to have a slight limp when they are running but otherwise have a stride similar to able-bodied runners. Events for this class include 100 meters, 400 meters, 1,500 meters, and the long jump.

Sport[edit]

T38 competitor Evan O'Hanlon
The spasticity athetosis level and location of a CP8 sportsperson.

This classification is for disability athletics.[1] This classification is one of seven classifications for athletes with cerebral palsy. Similar classifications are T32, T33, T34, T35, T36, T37 and T38.[2][1] The T35 to T38 classes are classes for ambulant sportspeople.[1][3] The Australian Paralympic Committee defines this classification as being for "Minimal hemiplegia, ataxia, diplegia or athetosis. May have minimal co-ordination problems, good balance. Runs and jumps freely." [4] The International Paralympic Committee defined this classification on their website in July 2016 as, "Coordination impairments (hypertonia, ataxia and athetosis)".[5] They then go into more detail saying, "Athletes have clear evidence of hypertonia, ataxia and/or athetosis on physical assessment that will affect running. Co-ordination impairment is mild to moderate and can be in one to four limbs. Co-ordination and balance are typically mildly affected, and overall these athletes are able to run and jump freely."[5]

Disability groups[edit]

Multiple types of disabilities are eligible to compete in this class. This class includes people who have cerebral palsy, or who have had a stroke or traumatic brain injury. [6][7]

Cerebral palsy[edit]

CP8[edit]

In athletic events, CP8 competitors participate T38/F38 classes.[7][8][9][10] In athletics, the form used in racing appears similar to able-bodied competitors, but should have some sort of visible limp.[8][7] The class participates in jumping events.[7]

Cerebral Palsy-International Sports and Recreation Association defined this class in January 2005 as, "Minimal involvement 27 This class is for the minimally affected diplegic Spasticity Grade 1; hemiplegic Spasticity Grade 1: monoplegic; minimal athetoid/ataxic athlete. According to point 1.2 the athlete must have an obvious impairment of function evident during classification. This athlete may appear to have near normal function when running but the athlete must demonstrate a limitation in function to classifiers based on evidence of spasticity (increased tone), ataxic, athetoid or dystonic movements while performing on the field of play or in training."[11] This is general manifested as spasticity in at least one limb.[12][13] They are able to freely engage in a number of sport related motions including jumping. They also tend to have good balance and have minimal issues with coordination.[12][7][14] People in this class tend to have energy expenditure similar to people without cerebral palsy.[6]

Les Autres[edit]

People with Les Autres related disabilities also compete in this class because of their hypertonia, ataxia and/or athetosis.[5][15]

Rules and performance[edit]

Athletes in this class are not required to use a starting block. It is up to the individual. They have the option to start from a crouch, from a standing position or 3 point stance.[16] In track events, officials are encouraged to avoid keeping these athletes in the starting block too long. Because of these issues, athletes may make movements that normally would disqualify them as a false start. If an official believes movement could be a result of this, they can restart the entire field without disqualifying and runners.[16]

History[edit]

The classification was created by the International Paralympic Committee and has roots in a 2003 attempt to address "the overall objective to support and co-ordinate the ongoing development of accurate, reliable, consistent and credible sport focused classification systems and their implementation."[17] For the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio, the International Paralympic Committee had a zero classification at the Games policy. This policy was put into place in 2014, with the goal of avoiding last minute changes in classes that would negatively impact athlete training preparations. All competitors needed to be internationally classified with their classification status confirmed prior to the Games, with exceptions to this policy being dealt with on a case by case basis.[18] In case there was a need for classification or reclassification at the Games despite best efforts otherwise, athletics classification was scheduled for September 4 and September 5 at Olympic Stadium. For sportspeople with physical or intellectual disabilities going through classification or reclassification in Rio, their in competition observation event is their first appearance in competition at the Games.[18]

Events[edit]

CP8 / T38 track and field athlete Tim Sullivan.

The class participates in 100 meters, 400 meters, 1,500 meters, and the long jump.[7][19] They may also participate in the 4 × 100 metres relay with other T35-38 class athletes, however no more than two T38-classified athletes are permitted per relay team.[20] Many events have their own qualifying standards for participation.

Qualification standards for the 2016 Summer Paralympics[19]
Event Men Women
AQS BQS AQS BQS
100 metres 11.85 13.00 14.40 15.80
400 metres 56.55 1:00.00 1:10.00 1:17.00
1500 metres 5:00.00 5:10.00 N/A
Long jump 5.00 4.40 4.00 3.75
Discus throw N/A 26.50 22.00
Javelin throw 35.00 30.00 N/A
gender Event Class AQS/MQS BQS Event
men's 100m T38 15.5 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships[21]
women's 100m T38 17 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's 100m T38 00:12.8 2016 CAIXA Loteria Athletics Open Championship
women's 100m T38 00:18.0 2016 CAIXA Loteria Athletics Open Championship
men's 100m T38 12.5 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
women's 100m T38 15 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
men's 100m T38 13.1 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships[22]
women's 100m T38 15.8 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships[22]
men's 100m T38 13.25 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
women's 100m T38 15.8 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's 100m T38 16 13 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's 100m T38 13.5 2015 Parapan American Games[23]
women's 100m T38 16.5 2015 Parapan American Games
men's 1500m T37/38 05:20.0 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's 1500m T38 05:00.0 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
men's 1500m T37/38 05:10.0 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships[22]
men's 1500m T37/38 05:00.0 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's 1500m T37/38 05:20.0 04:55.0 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's 1500m T37/38 05:10.0 2015 Parapan American Games
men's 200m T38 31 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
women's 200m T38 37 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's 200m T38 25.2 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
women's 200m T38 32 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
men's 200m T38 27 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships[22]
women's 200m T38 33.6 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships[22]
men's 200m T38 27 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's 200m T38 31 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's 200m T38 27 2015 Parapan American Games
women's 200m T38 35 2015 Parapan American Games
men's 400m T38 01:10.0 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
women's 400m T38 01:25.0 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's 400m T38 01:00.0 2016 CAIXA Loteria Athletics Open Championship
women's 400m T38 01:25.0 2016 CAIXA Loteria Athletics Open Championship
men's 400m T38 58 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
women's 400m T38 01:10.0 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
men's 400m T38 01:05.0 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships[22]
women's 400m T38 01:19.0 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships[22]
men's 400m T38 01:05.0 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
women's 400m T38 01:20.0 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's 400m T38 01:10.0 01:00.0 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's 400m T38 1.07.00 2015 Parapan American Games
women's 400m T37/38 01:20.0 2015 Parapan American Games
women's 4x100m T35-38 ranking 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships
women's 4x100m T35-38 nil 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's 800m T37/38 2.30.00 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's 800m T37/38 02:18.0 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
men's 800m T37/38 02:30.0 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's 800m T37/38 02:30.0 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's 800m T37/38 02:30.0 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's discus F38 25.00m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
women's discus F38 16.00m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
women's discus F37/38 22.00m 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
women's discus F38 18.00m 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's discus F37/38 37.00m 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
women's discus F37/38 18.00m 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's discus F38 25.00m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
women's discus F38 25.00m 2015 Parapan American Games
men's javelin F38 26.00m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's javelin F38 35.00m 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
men's javelin F37/38 32.00m 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's javelin F37/38 32.00m 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's javelin F38 30.00m 30.00m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
women's javelin F38 20.00m 2015 Parapan American Games
men's long jump T38 4.00m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
women's long jump T38 3.60m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's long jump T38 4.7 2016 CAIXA Loteria Athletics Open Championship
men's long jump T38 5.00m 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
women's long jump T38 3.90m 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
men's long jump T38 4.20m 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships
women's long jump T38 3.60m 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's long jump T38 4.50m 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
women's long jump T38 3.50m 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's long jump T38 4.00m 4.40m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's long jump T38 4.40m 2015 Parapan American Games
women's long jump T38 3.50m 2015 Parapan American Games
men's shot put F38 9.00m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
women's shot put F38 5.40m 2016 IPC Athletics Asia-Oceania Championships
men's shot put F38 10.00m 2015 IPC Athletics World Championships
men's shot put F38 9.00m 2016 IPC Athletics European Championships
men's shot put F38 9.00m 2014 IPC Athletics European Championships
women's shot put F38 8.00m 2015 Parapan American Games

Governance[edit]

Classification into this class is handled by the International Paralympic Committee.[5] For national events, classification is handled by the national athletics organization.[24]

Becoming classified[edit]

Athletes with cerebral palsy or similar impairments who wish to compete in para-athletics competition must first undergo a classification assessment. During this, they both undergo a bench test of muscle coordination and demonstrate their skills in athletics, such as running, jumping or throwing. A determination is then made as to what classification an athlete should compete in. Classifications may be Confirmed or Review status. For athletes who do not have access to a full classification panel, Provisional classification is available; this is a temporary Review classification, considered an indication of class only, and generally used only in lower levels of competition.[25]

Competitors[edit]

Notable competitors in this class include T38 Australian sprinter Tim Sullivan. At the home hosted 2000 Summer Paralympics, he won three gold medals.[10] Australian athletics competitors in this class include Evan O'Hanlon, Tim Sullivan and Katy Parrish.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Buckley, Jane (2011). "Understanding Classification: A Guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports". Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  2. ^ "Summer Sports » Athletics". Australia: Australian Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  3. ^ "Classifications | Wheelchair Racing Association (Singapore)". wcracing.org. Retrieved 2016-08-06. 
  4. ^ "Classification Information Sheet" (PDF). Sydney, Australia. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d "IPC Athletics Classification & Categories". www.paralympic.org. Retrieved 2016-07-22. 
  6. ^ a b Broad, Elizabeth (2014-02-06). Sports Nutrition for Paralympic Athletes. CRC Press. ISBN 9781466507562. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR STUDENTS WITH A DISABILITY". Queensland Sport. Queensland Sport. Retrieved July 23, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Classification Profiles" (PDF). Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association. Retrieved July 22, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Diocesan Athletics Championships - 2016 School Officials" (PDF). Wollongong Diocesan Sports Council. Wollongong Diocesan Sports Council. 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016. 
  10. ^ a b Cashman, Richmard; Darcy, Simon (2008-01-01). Benchmark Games. Benchmark Games. ISBN 9781876718053. 
  11. ^ "CLASSIFICATION AND SPORTS RULE MANUAL" (PDF). CPISRA. CPISRA. January 2005. Retrieved July 22, 2016. 
  12. ^ a b "Clasificaciones de Ciclismo" (PDF). Comisión Nacional de Cultura Física y Deporte (in Spanish). Mexico: Comisión Nacional de Cultura Física y Deporte. Retrieved July 23, 2016. 
  13. ^ "Kategorie postižení handicapovaných sportovců". Tyden (in Czech). September 12, 2008. Retrieved July 23, 2016. 
  14. ^ "Classification Made Easy" (PDF). Sportability British Columbia. Sportability British Columbia. July 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2016. 
  15. ^ Miller, Mark D.; Thompson, Stephen R. (2014-04-04). DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9781455742219. 
  16. ^ a b "PARALYMPIC TRACK & FIELD: Officials Training" (PDF). USOC. United States Olympic Committee. December 11, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2016. 
  17. ^ "Paralympic Classification Today". International Paralympic Committee. 22 April 2010. p. 3. 
  18. ^ a b "Rio 2016 Classification Guide" (PDF). International Paralympic Committee. International Paralympic Committee. March 2016. Retrieved July 22, 2016. 
  19. ^ a b "ATHLETICS: RIO QUALIFICATION" (PDF). International Paralympic Committee. International Paralympic Committee. 
  20. ^ IPC Athletics Rule 23.11
  21. ^ http://www.athletics.org.nz/Portals/24/High%20Performance/Policies/2016/2016%20IPC%20ATHLETICS%20Asia-Oceania%20Championships%20Selection%20Policy%20%20FINAL.pdf
  22. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.britishathletics.org.uk/EasysiteWeb/getresource.axd?AssetID=141874&type=full&servicetype=Attachment
  23. ^ http://cpisra.org/dir/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Qualification-Guide-Toronto-2015_v7-FT-versie-december-20141217.pdf
  24. ^ "Athletics Classification". Australian Paralympic Committee. Australian Paralympic Committee. Retrieved August 6, 2016. 
  25. ^ "CLASSIFICATION Information for Athletes" (PDF). Sydney Australia: Australian Paralympic Committee. 2 July 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  26. ^ "Australian Athletics Classification Masterlist" (PDF). Sydney, Australia: Australian Paralympic Committee. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011.