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T790M, also known as Thr790Met, is a gatekeeper mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The mutation substitutes a threonine (T) with a methionine (M) at position 790 of exon 20,[1] affecting the ATP binding pocket of the EGFR kinase domain. Threonine is a small polar amino acid; methionine is a larger nonpolar amino acid.


Over 50% of acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is caused by a mutation in the ATP binding pocket of the EGFR kinase domain involving substitution of a small polar threonine residue with a large nonpolar methionine residue, T790M.[2][3]

In November 2015, the US FDA granted accelerated approval to osimertinib (Tagrisso) for the treatment of patients with metastatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as detected by an FDA-approved test, which progressed on or after EGFR TKI therapy.[4][5]


  1. ^ Tan CS, Gilligan D, Pacey S (2015). "Treatment approaches for EGFR-inhibitor-resistant patients with non-small-cell lung cancer". Lancet Oncol. 16 (9): e447–59. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00246-6. PMID 26370354.
  2. ^ Remon J, Planchard D (2015). "AZD9291 in EGFR-mutant advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients". Future Oncol. 11 (22): 3069–81. doi:10.2217/fon.15.250. PMID 26450446.
  3. ^ Balak MN, Gong Y, Riely GJ, Somwar R, Li AR, Zakowski MF, Chiang A, Yang G, Ouerfelli O, Kris MG, Ladanyi M, Miller VA, Pao W (2006). "Novel D761Y and common secondary T790M mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors". Clin Cancer Res. 12 (1): 6494–501. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1570. PMID 17085664.
  4. ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Hematology/Oncology (Cancer) Approvals & Safety Notifications. [1]
  5. ^ Inal C, Yilmaz E, Piperdi B, Perez-Soler R, Cheng H (2015). "Emerging treatment for advanced lung cancer with EGFR mutation". Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 20: 1–16. doi:10.1517/14728214.2015.1058778. PMID 26153235.