T91 assault rifle
The T91CQC carbine. Note the forend with integrated rails and the shorter barrel compared to the standard variant.
|Place of origin||Taiwan (Republic of China)|
|Used by||See Users|
|Length||880 mm (stock extended)
800 mm (stock retracted)
|Barrel length||406 mm|
|Action||Gas-operated, rotating bolt|
|Rate of fire||800-850 rpm|
|Muzzle velocity||975 m/s|
|Effective firing range||
400m600m (with optics)
|Feed system||Various STANAG Magazines.|
|Sights||M16A2-style sights with windage and elevation adjustments
Picatinny railing can be used for mounting various optical sights
The T91 assault rifle (Chinese: 聯勤5.56公厘T91戰鬥步槍) is produced by the 205th Armory, Ministry of Defense, Republic of China (Taiwan). It is based on the proven T86 assault rifle incorporating features from the M16 and AR-18 rifles with more modern features. The T91 is lighter and shorter than the T65 it replaces and has a 3-position telescopic stock to allow adjustment based on individual requirements.
There are rumors that arms dealers had secretly inquired about the possibility of sales to certain militant groups in Southeast Asia, but were reportedly rejected by MND. MND did not confirm nor deny such rumors.
T91 was a further development of the T86 assault rifle which had been intended to replace the T65 assault rifle series in ROC military service. Experience on the previous design and feedback from various users were incorporated into the T91. Development was completed in 2002, and volume production commenced in 2003.
T91 is a gas-operated short-stroke, air-cooled, rotating bolt, magazine- or drum-fed, select-fire, modularized military rifle compatible with various tactical accessories. Similar to its predecessor, T91 is a shorter version of the T65K2 assault rifle, giving the operator higher mobility and ease of aiming in confined space.
T91 has a 4-position selector switch: S – safe, 1 – semi-automatic, 3 – three-round burst, and A – automatic. Like the T65K2, T91 utilizes an M16A2-style front post, rear peephole sight. The rear sight, mounted on the detachable handle, is adjustable for windage and elevation. Operation of the charging handle, magazine release, and bolt release are the same as the M16. One notable difference is that the T91 does not have a forward assist, and the brass deflector is not as pronounced.
The action of the T91 is based on the T65 series. However, parts are not interchangeable because the bolt lug on the T91 is shorter by 1 mm. T91 also inherits the modularized gas piston system from the T86, allowing easy removal for maintenance without the risk of losing small parts.
The telescopic stock on the T91 was designed based on the experience of military and police personnel with the M4 Carbine. The resulting product has improved recoil transfer and handling qualities. A rubber recoil pad is also added for comfort. The handguards are triangular in shape
T91 has a 407 mm (16.0 in) barrel with flash suppressor. Rate of rifling twist is 178 mm (7.0 in). Due to the use of a shorter barrel, the T91 has 20% more recoil than the T65K2. Average group size at 175 m (191.4 yd) also increased by 10 mm (0.39 in). The chamber and bore are chrome-lined and can fire 5.56×45mm NATO ammunition. Standard-issue 30-round magazines for the T91 feature indicator holes for the top 2-15 rounds as well as two protrusions on each side to avoid over-insertion. However, standard STANAG magazines may also be used.
T91 has a MIL-STD-1913 rail on the top of the receiver, handguard, and the front-sight block. The standard-issue detachable handle may be removed to accommodate a variety of optical sights and scopes. T91 can also be equipped with the T85 40mm grenade launcher to serve as squad-level fire support.
The Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology developed a T91 indoor shooting simulator for infantry marksmanship training. This equipment is capable of simulating various weather, shooting distance, and wind conditions.
Paint ball conversion kit also provided for training purpose.
Production and Usage
In 2003, the ROC Army ordered 101,162 T91 combat rifles as force-wide replacements of all service rifles, with a delivery schedule from 2004 to 2008. The total budget amount was NT$1,803 million (US$54.6 million), placing the unit price at about NT$17,800 (US$539). As of April 2006, nine ROCA armored, mechanized infantry, and infantry brigades have fully converted to the T91.
In 2005, ROC Military Police ordered 12,069 T91 combat rifles to equip garrison units in the Taipei capital region. Delivery would span over the next three years.
Export sales of the T91 to Jordan and Kuwait have been officially confirmed. The Jordanian Defense Forces had reportedly conducted comparison tests between several service rifles in a desert environment. The T91 is found to have reliability comparable to the AK-47, while scoring better than M16, and it is very dependable in desert conditions.
Indonesia procured as many as 10,000 T91 combat rifles from Taiwan to equip police and border patrol units.
The UAE acquired T91 rifles after Sheikh Hamid bin Zayed Al Nahyan made a visit to Taiwan, and soon quantities of T91 were supplied to the UAE.
- Taiwan - 240,000 rifles
- Bosnia and Herzegovina - 5,000 rifles
- Indonesia - 10,000 rifles
- Jordan - 20,000 rifles
- Kuwait - 18,000 rifles
- United Arab Emirates - 30,000 rifles
- India 1,000s 
- 東南亞某國叛軍欲買T91戰鬥步槍被拒絕(A rebel army in Southeast Asia desired to buy T91 but rejected by ROC army) (Taiwanese Mandarin)
- 波士尼亞特種部隊採購T91戰鬥步槍(Bosnia special forces purchases T91 assault rifle) (Taiwanese Mandarin)
- 中華民國軍方證實國造T86步槍及T91步槍銷往約旦(T86 & T91 sold to Jordan confirmed by ROC army) (Taiwanese Mandarin)