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Protein TARDBP PDB 1wf0.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases TARDBP, ALS10, TDP-43, TAR DNA binding protein
External IDs MGI: 2387629 HomoloGene: 7221 GeneCards: TARDBP
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 1 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 1 (human)[1]
Chromosome 1 (human)
Genomic location for TARDBP
Genomic location for TARDBP
Band 1p36.22 Start 11,012,344 bp[1]
End 11,026,420 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TARDBP 221264 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)


RefSeq (protein)


Location (UCSC) Chr 1: 11.01 – 11.03 Mb Chr 1: 148.61 – 148.63 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TARDBP gene.[5]


TDP-43 is a transcriptional repressor that binds to chromosomally integrated TAR DNA and represses HIV-1 transcription. In addition, this protein regulates alternate splicing of the CFTR gene. In particular, TDP-43 is a splicing factor binding to the intron8/exon9 junction of the CFTR gene and to the intron2/exon3 region of the apoA-II gene.[6] A similar pseudogene is present on chromosome 20.[7]

TDP-43 has been shown to bind both DNA and RNA and have multiple functions in transcriptional repression, pre-mRNA splicing and translational regulation. Recent work has characterized the transcriptome-wide binding sites revealing that thousands of RNAs are bound by TDP-43 in neurons.[8]

TDP-43 was originally identified as a transcriptional repressor that binds to chromosomally integrated trans-activation response element (TAR) DNA and represses HIV-1 transcription.[5] It was also reported to regulate alternate splicing of the CFTR gene and the apoA-II gene.

In spinal motor neurons TDP-43 has also been shown in humans to be a low molecular weight microfilament (hNFL) mRNA-binding protein.[9] It has also shown to be a neuronal activity response factor in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons suggesting possible roles in regulating mRNA stability, transport and local translation in neurons.[10]

Recently, it has been demonstrated that zinc ions are able to induce aggregation of endogenous TDP-43 in cells.[11] Moreover, zinc could bind to RNA binding domain of TDP-43 and induce the formation of amyloid-like aggregates in vitro.[12]

Clinical significance[edit]

A hyper-phosphorylated, ubiquitinated and cleaved form of TDP-43—known as pathologic TDP43—is the major disease protein in ubiquitin-positive, tau-, and alpha-synuclein-negative frontotemporal dementia (FTLD-TDP, previously referred to as FTLD-U[13]) and in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).[14] Elevated levels of the TDP-43 protein have also been identified in individuals diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a condition that often mimics ALS and that has been associated with athletes who have experienced multiple concussions and other types of head injury.[15] Abnormalities of TDP-43 also occur in an important subset of Alzheimer's disease patients, correlating with clinical and neuropathologic features indexes.[16]

HIV-1, the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), contains an RNA genome that produces a chromosomally integrated DNA during the replicative cycle. Activation of HIV-1 gene expression by the transactivator "Tat" is dependent on an RNA regulatory element (TAR) located "downstream" (i.e. to-be transcribed at a later point in time) of the transcription initiation site.

Mutations in the TARDBP gene are associated with neurodegenerative disorders including frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).[17] In particular, the TDP-43 mutants M337V and Q331K are being studied for their roles in ALS.[18][19] Cytoplasmic TDP-43 pathology is the dominant histopathological feature of multisystem proteinopathy.[20] The N-terminal domain, which contributes importantely to the aggregation of the C-terminal region, has a novel structure with two negatively charged loops.[21]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000120948 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000041459 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ a b Ou SH, Wu F, Harrich D, García-Martínez LF, Gaynor RB (1995). "Cloning and characterization of a novel cellular protein, TDP-43, that binds to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 TAR DNA sequence motifs". Journal of Virology. 69 (6): 3584–96. PMC 189073Freely accessible. PMID 7745706. 
  6. ^ Kuo PH, Doudeva LG, Wang YT, Shen CK, Yuan HS (2009). "Structural insights into TDP-43 in nucleic-acid binding and domain interactions". Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (6): 1799–808. PMC 2665213Freely accessible. PMID 19174564. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp013. 
  7. ^ Gene Result
  8. ^ Sephton CF, Cenik C, Kucukural A, Dammer EB, Cenik B, Han Y, Dewey CM, Roth FP, Herz J, Peng J, Moore MJ, Yu G (2011). "Identification of neuronal RNA targets of TDP-43-containing ribonucleoprotein complexes.". J Biol Chem. 286 (2): 1204–15. PMC 3020728Freely accessible. PMID 21051541. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.190884. 
  9. ^ Strong MJ, Volkening K, Hammond R, Yang W, Strong W, Leystra-Lantz C, Shoesmith C (2007). "TDP43 is a human low molecular weight neurofilament (hNFL) mRNA-binding protein". Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience. 35 (2): 320–7. PMID 17481916. doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2007.03.007. 
  10. ^ Wang IF, Wu LS, Chang HY, Shen CK (2008). "TDP-43, the signature protein of FTLD-U, is a neuronal activity-responsive factor". Journal of Neurochemistry. 105 (3): 797–806. PMID 18088371. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.05190.x. 
  11. ^ Caragounis, Aphrodite; Price, Katherine Ann; Soon, Cynthia P.W.; Filiz, Gulay; Masters, Colin L.; Li, Qiao-Xin; Crouch, Peter J.; White, Anthony R. "Zinc induces depletion and aggregation of endogenous TDP-43". Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 48 (9): 1152–1161. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.01.035. 
  12. ^ Garnier, Cyrille; Devred, François; Byrne, Deborah; Puppo, Rémy; Roman, Andrei Yu.; Malesinski, Soazig; Golovin, Andrey V.; Lebrun, Régine; Ninkina, Natalia N. (2017-07-28). "Zinc binding to RNA recognition motif of TDP-43 induces the formation of amyloid-like aggregates". Scientific Reports. 7 (1). ISSN 2045-2322. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-07215-7. 
  13. ^ Mackenzie IR, Neumann M, Baborie A, Sampathu DM, Du Plessis D, Jaros E, Perry RH, Trojanowski JQ, Mann DM, Lee VM (July 2011). "A harmonized classification system for FTLD-TDP pathology". Acta Neuropathol. 122 (1): 111–3. PMC 3285143Freely accessible. PMID 21644037. doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0845-8. 
  14. ^ Neumann M, Sampathu DM, Kwong LK, Truax AC, Micsenyi MC, Chou TT, Bruce J, Schuck T, Grossman M, Clark CM, McCluskey LF, Miller BL, Masliah E, Mackenzie IR, Feldman H, Feiden W, Kretzschmar HA, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VM (2006). "Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". Science. 314 (5796): 130–3. PMID 17023659. doi:10.1126/science.1134108. 
  15. ^ Schwarz, Alan. "Study Says Brain Trauma Can Mimic A.L.S.", The New York Times, August 18, 2010. Accessed August 18, 2010.
  16. ^ Tremblay C, St-Amour I, Schneider J, Bennett DA, Calon F (2011). "Accumulation of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.". J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 70 (9): 788–98. PMC 3197017Freely accessible. PMID 21865887. doi:10.1097/nen.0b013e31822c62cf. 
  17. ^ Kwong LK, Neumann M, Sampathu DM, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ (2007). "TDP-43 proteinopathy: The neuropathology underlying major forms of sporadic and familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration and motor neuron disease". Acta Neuropathologica. 114 (1): 63–70. PMID 17492294. doi:10.1007/s00401-007-0226-5. 
  18. ^ Sreedharan J, Blair IP, Tripathi VB, Hu X, Vance C, Rogelj B, Ackerley S, Durnall JC, Williams KL, Buratti E, Baralle F, de Belleroche J, Mitchell JD, Leigh PN, Al-Chalabi A, Miller CC, Nicholson G, Shaw CE (2008). "TDP-43 Mutations in Familial and Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". Science. 319 (5870): 1668–72. PMID 18309045. doi:10.1126/science.1154584. 
  19. ^ Gendron TF, Rademakers R, Petrucelli L (2013). "TARDBP mutation analysis in TDP-43 proteinopathies and deciphering the toxicity of mutant TDP-43". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 33 (suppl 1): S35–S45. PMC 3532959Freely accessible. PMID 22751173. doi:10.3233/JAD-2012-129036. 
  20. ^ Kim HJ, Kim NC, Wang YD, Scarborough EA, Moore J, Diaz Z, MacLea KS, Freibaum B, Li S, Molliex A, Kanagaraj AP, Carter R, Boylan KB, Wojtas AM, Rademakers R, Pinkus JL, Greenberg SA, Trojanowski JQ, Traynor BJ, Smith BN, Topp S, Gkazi AS, Miller J, Shaw CE, Kottlors M, Kirschner J, Pestronk A, Li YR, Ford AF, Gitler AD, Benatar M, King OD, Kimonis VE, Ross ED, Weihl CC, Shorter J, Taylor JP (March 2013). "Mutations in prion-like domains in hnRNPA2B1 and hnRNPA1 cause multisystem proteinopathy and ALS". Nature. 495 (7442): 467–73. PMC 3756911Freely accessible. PMID 23455423. doi:10.1038/nature11922. 
  21. ^ .Mompean, Miguel; Romano, Valentina; Pantoja-Uceda, David; Stuani, Cristiana; Baralle, Francisco E.; Buratti, Emanuele; Laurents, Douglas V. (2016-01-01). "The TDP-43 N-Terminal Domain Structure at High Resolution". FEBS Journal. 283: 1242–1260. ISSN 1742-4658. doi:10.1111/febs.13651. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]