TEAD1

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TEAD1
Protein TEAD1 PDB 2hzd.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases TEAD1, AA, NTEF-1, REF1, TCF-13, TCF13, TEAD-1, TEF-1, TEA domain transcription factor 1
External IDs MGI: 101876 HomoloGene: 2418 GeneCards: 7003
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_021961

NM_001166584
NM_001166585
NM_009346
NM_175559

RefSeq (protein)

NP_068780.2

NP_033372.1

Location (UCSC) Chr 11: 12.67 – 12.94 Mb Chr 7: 112.68 – 112.91 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Transcriptional enhancer factor TEF-1 also known as TEA domain family member 1 (TEAD1) and transcription factor 13 (TCF-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TEAD1 gene.[1][2][3][4] TEAD1 was the first member of the TEAD family of transcription factors to be identified.[1][5]

TEAD1Wiki figure.jpg

Structure[edit]

All members of the TEAD family share a highly conserved DNA binding domain called the TEA domain.[6] This DNA binding domain has a consensus DNA sequence 5’-CATTCCA/T-3’ that is called the MCAT element.[7] The three dimensional structure of the TEA domain has been identified [5]. Its conformation is close to that of the homeodomain and contains 3 α helixes (H1, H2 and H3). It is the H3 helix that enables TEAD proteins to bind DNA.[8]

Another conserved domain of TEAD1 is located at the C terminus of the protein. It allows the binding of cofactors and has been called the YAP1 binding domain, because it is its ability to bind this well-known TEAD proteins co-factor that led to its identification. Indeed, TEAD proteins cannot induce gene expression on their own. They have to associate with cofactors to be able to act[9]

Tissue distribution[edit]

TEAD1 is expressed in various tissues including skeletal muscle, pancreas, placenta, lung, and heart.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Orthologs[edit]

TEAD proteins are found in many organisms under different names, assuming different functions. For example in Saccharomyces cerevisiae TEC-1 regulates the transposable element TY1 and is involved in pseudohyphale growth (the elongated shape that yeasts take when grown in nutrient-poor conditions).[17] In Aspergillus nidulans, the TEA domain protein ABAA regulates the differentiation of conidiophores.[18] In drosophila the transcription factor Scalloped is involved in the development of the wing disc, survival and cell growth.[19] Finally in Xenopus it has been demonstrated that the ortholog of TEAD1 regulates muscle differentiation.[20]

Function[edit]

  • Heart development (myocardium differentiation,[21]
  • Skeletal muscle development (alpha-actin of skeletal muscles),[22][23][24])
  • Smooth muscle development (alpha-actin of smooth muscles),[22][25]
  • Regulation of myosin heavy chain genes,[26] cardiac muscular genes troponin T and I [5]
  • Regulation of proliferation,[27][28][29]
  • Regulation of apoptosis,[30][31]

Post-transcriptional modifications[edit]

Protein Kinase A (pKA) can phosphorylate TEAD1 at serine 102, after the TEA domain. This phosphorylation is needed for the transcriptional activation of the α MyHC gene.[32] Protein Kinase C (pKC) phosphorylates TEAD1 on serine and threonine next to the last alpha loop in the TEA domain. This phosphorylation decreases TEAD1 binding to the GTIIC enhancer.[33] TEAD1 can be palmitoylated on a conserved cysteine at the C-term of the protein. This post-translational modification is critical for proper folding of TEAD proteins and their stability.[34]

Cofactors[edit]

TEAD proteins require cofactors to induce the transcription of target genes.[10] TEAD1 interacts with all members of the SRC family of steroid receptor coactivators. In HeLa cells TEAD1 and SRC induce gene expression,[35] TEAD1 interacts with PARP (Poly-ADP ribose polymerase) to regulate smooth muscle α-actin expression. PARP can also ADP-ribosylate the TEAD proteins and make the chromatin context favorable to transcription through histone modification,[36] SRF (Serum response factor) and TEAD1 together regulate gene expression.[37]

TEAD proteins and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) interact physically. The binding of MEF2 on DNA induces and potentiates TEAD1 recruitment at MCAT sequences that are adjacent to MEF2 binding sites. This recruitment leads to the repression of the MLC2v (Myosin Light Chain 2 v) and βMHC ( β-myosin heavy chain ) promoter.[38] TEAD1 and the phosphoprotein MAX interact in vivo and in vitro. Once this complex is formed, these two proteins can regulate the alpha-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) gene expression.[39]

The four Vestigial-like (VGLL) proteins are able to interact with all TEADs.[40] The precise function of TEAD and VGLL interaction is still poorly understood. It has been shown that TEAD/VGLL1 complexes promote anchorage-independent cell proliferation in prostate cancer cell lines suggesting a role in cancer progression [41] Moreover VGLL2 interaction with TEAD1 activates muscle promoter upon C2C12 differentiation and enhances MyoD-mediated myogenic in 10T1/2.[42] Finally the complex TEAD/VGLL4 acts as a default transcriptional repressor.[43]

The interaction between YAP (Yes Associated Protein 65), TAZ, a transcriptional coactivator paralog to YAP, and all TEAD proteins was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. In both cases the interaction of the proteins leads to increased TEAD transcriptional activity.[43][44] YAP/TAZ are effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway that restricts organ growth by keeping in check cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in mammals and also in Drosophila.[27][45]

Role in cancer[edit]

Analysis of cancer transcriptome databases (www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) showed that TEAD1 is dysregulated in several types of cancers. First in Kaposi sarcoma there is a 300-fold increase in TEAD1 levels. Moreover the increase of TEAD expression can be detected in basal-like breast cancers,[46][47] fallopian tube carcinoma,[48] and germ cell tumors.[49] Otherwise, in other types of cancer TEAD expression is decreased, for example in other breast cancer types and in renal or bladder cancers. This dual role can be explained by the different targets and the differential regulation of target genes by TEAD transcription factors.[31][50] Finally recent studies showed that TEAD1 and YAP in ovarian cancer can induces cell stemness and chemoresistance.[51] and that genetic variant of TEAD protein and YAP are enriched in some cancers.[52]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Xiao JH, Davidson I, Matthes H, Garnier JM, Chambon P (May 1991). "Cloning, expression, and transcriptional properties of the human enhancer factor TEF-1". Cell 65 (4): 551–68. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90088-G. PMID 1851669. 
  2. ^ Jacquemin P, Depetris D, Mattei MG, Martial JA, Davidson I (Jan 1999). "Localization of human transcription factor TEF-4 and TEF-5 (TEAD2, TEAD3) genes to chromosomes 19q13.3 and 6p21.2 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid analysis". Genomics 55 (1): 127–9. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5628. PMID 9889009. 
  3. ^ Fossdal R, Jonasson F, Kristjansdottir GT, Kong A, Stefansson H, Gosh S, Gulcher JR, Stefansson K (May 2004). "A novel TEAD1 mutation is the causative allele in Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy (helicoid peripapillary chorioretinal degeneration)". Human Molecular Genetics 13 (9): 975–81. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddh106. PMID 15016762. 
  4. ^ "Entrez Gene: TEAD1 TEA domain family member 1 (SV40 transcriptional enhancer factor)". 
  5. ^ a b Mar JH, Ordahl CP (September 1988). "A conserved CATTCCT motif is required for skeletal muscle-specific activity of the cardiac troponin T gene promoter". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 85 (17): 6404–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.17.6404. PMID 3413104. 
  6. ^ Hwang JJ, Chambon P, Davidson I (June 1993). "Characterization of the transcription activation function and the DNA binding domain of transcriptional enhancer factor-1". The EMBO Journal 12 (6): 2337–48. PMID 8389695. 
  7. ^ Farrance IK, Mar JH, Ordahl CP (August 1992). "M-CAT binding factor is related to the SV40 enhancer binding factor, TEF-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 267 (24): 17234–40. PMID 1324927. 
  8. ^ Anbanandam A, Albarado DC, Nguyen CT, Halder G, Gao X, Veeraraghavan S (November 2006). "Insights into transcription enhancer factor 1 (TEF-1) activity from the solution structure of the TEA domain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (46): 17225–30. doi:10.1073/pnas.0607171103. PMID 17085591. 
  9. ^ Azakie A, Lamont L, Fineman JR, He Y (December 2005). "Divergent transcriptional enhancer factor-1 regulates the cardiac troponin T promoter". American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 289 (6): C1522–34. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00126.2005. PMID 16049055. 
  10. ^ a b Xiao JH, Davidson I, Matthes H, Garnier JM, Chambon P (May 1991). "Cloning, expression, and transcriptional properties of the human enhancer factor TEF-1". Cell 65 (4): 551–68. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90088-g. PMID 1851669. 
  11. ^ Jacquemin P, Hwang JJ, Martial JA, Dollé P, Davidson I (September 1996). "A novel family of developmentally regulated mammalian transcription factors containing the TEA/ATTS DNA binding domain". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 271 (36): 21775–85. PMID 8702974. 
  12. ^ Stewart AF, Richard CW, Suzow J, Stephan D, Weremowicz S, Morton CC, Adra CN (October 1996). "Cloning of human RTEF-1, a transcriptional enhancer factor-1-related gene preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle: evidence for an ancient multigene family". Genomics 37 (1): 68–76. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0522. PMID 8921372. 
  13. ^ Yasunami M, Suzuki K, Houtani T, Sugimoto T, Ohkubo H (August 1995). "Molecular characterization of cDNA encoding a novel protein related to transcriptional enhancer factor-1 from neural precursor cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 270 (31): 18649–54. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.31.18649. PMID 7629195. 
  14. ^ Yasunami M, Suzuki K, Ohkubo H (November 1996). "A novel family of TEA domain-containing transcription factors with distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 228 (2): 365–70. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.1667. PMID 8920920. 
  15. ^ Yockey CE, Smith G, Izumo S, Shimizu N (February 1996). "cDNA cloning and characterization of murine transcriptional enhancer factor-1-related protein 1, a transcription factor that binds to the M-CAT motif". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 271 (7): 3727–36. PMID 8631987. 
  16. ^ Azakie A, Lamont L, Fineman JR, He Y (December 2005). "Divergent transcriptional enhancer factor-1 regulates the cardiac troponin T promoter". American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 289 (6): C1522–34. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00126.2005. PMID 16049055. 
  17. ^ Laloux I, Dubois E, Dewerchin M, Jacobs E (July 1990). "TEC1, a gene involved in the activation of Ty1 and Ty1-mediated gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: cloning and molecular analysis". Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 (7): 3541–50. doi:10.1128/mcb.10.7.3541. PMID 2192259. 
  18. ^ Boylan MT, Mirabito PM, Willett CE, Zimmerman CR, Timberlake WE (September 1987). "Isolation and physical characterization of three essential conidiation genes from Aspergillus nidulans". Molecular and Cellular Biology 7 (9): 3113–8. doi:10.1128/mcb.7.9.3113. PMID 2823119. 
  19. ^ Goulev Y, Fauny JD, Gonzalez-Marti B, Flagiello D, Silber J, Zider A (March 2008). "SCALLOPED interacts with YORKIE, the nuclear effector of the hippo tumor-suppressor pathway in Drosophila". Current Biology 18 (6): 435–41. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.02.034. PMID 18313299. 
  20. ^ Naye F, Tréguer K, Soulet F, Faucheux C, Fédou S, Thézé N, Thiébaud P (2007). "Differential expression of two TEF-1 (TEAD) genes during Xenopus laevis development and in response to inducing factors". The International Journal of Developmental Biology 51 (8): 745–52. doi:10.1387/ijdb.072375fn. PMID 17939122. 
  21. ^ Chen Z, Friedrich GA, Soriano P (October 1994). "Transcriptional enhancer factor 1 disruption by a retroviral gene trap leads to heart defects and embryonic lethality in mice". Genes & Development 8 (19): 2293–301. doi:10.1101/gad.8.19.2293. PMID 7958896. 
  22. ^ a b Jiang SW, Trujillo MA, Sakagashira M, Wilke RA, Eberhardt NL (March 2000). "Novel human TEF-1 isoforms exhibit altered DNA binding and functional properties". Biochemistry 39 (12): 3505–13. doi:10.1021/bi991048w. PMID 10727247. 
  23. ^ Karns LR, Kariya K, Simpson PC (January 1995). "M-CAT, CArG, and Sp1 elements are required for alpha 1-adrenergic induction of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Transcriptional enhancer factor-1 and protein kinase C as conserved transducers of the fetal program in cardiac growth". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 270 (1): 410–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.1.410. PMID 7814403. 
  24. ^ Benhaddou A, Keime C, Ye T, Morlon A, Michel I, Jost B, Mengus G, Davidson I (February 2012). "Transcription factor TEAD4 regulates expression of myogenin and the unfolded protein response genes during C2C12 cell differentiation". Cell Death and Differentiation 19 (2): 220–31. doi:10.1038/cdd.2011.87. PMID 21701496. 
  25. ^ Swartz EA, Johnson AD, Owens GK (August 1998). "Two MCAT elements of the SM alpha-actin promoter function differentially in SM vs. non-SM cells". The American Journal of Physiology 275 (2 Pt 1): C608–18. PMID 9688616. 
  26. ^ Rindt H, Gulick J, Knotts S, Neumann J, Robbins J (March 1993). "In vivo analysis of the murine beta-myosin heavy chain gene promoter". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 268 (7): 5332–8. PMID 8444907. 
  27. ^ a b Yu FX, Zhao B, Guan KL (November 2015). "Hippo Pathway in Organ Size Control, Tissue Homeostasis, and Cancer". Cell 163 (4): 811–28. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.044. PMID 26544935. 
  28. ^ Landin Malt A, Cagliero J, Legent K, Silber J, Zider A, Flagiello D (2012). "Alteration of TEAD1 expression levels confers apoptotic resistance through the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin". PloS One 7 (9): e45498. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045498. PMID 23029054. 
  29. ^ Zhao B, Li L, Lei Q, Guan KL (May 2010). "The Hippo-YAP pathway in organ size control and tumorigenesis: an updated version". Genes & Development 24 (9): 862–74. doi:10.1101/gad.1909210. PMID 20439427. 
  30. ^ Landin Malt A, Cagliero J, Legent K, Silber J, Zider A, Flagiello D (2012). "Alteration of TEAD1 expression levels confers apoptotic resistance through the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin". PloS One 7 (9): e45498. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045498. PMID 23029054. 
  31. ^ a b Landin Malt A, Georges A, Silber J, Zider A, Flagiello D (October 2013). "Interaction with the Yes-associated protein (YAP) allows TEAD1 to positively regulate NAIP expression". FEBS Letters 587 (19): 3216–23. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2013.08.013. PMID 23994529. 
  32. ^ Gupta MP, Gupta M, Dizon E, Zak R (1996). "Sympathetic control of cardiac myosin heavy chain gene expression". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 157 (1–2): 117–24. doi:10.1007/bf00227889. PMID 8739237. 
  33. ^ Jiang SW, Dong M, Trujillo MA, Miller LJ, Eberhardt NL (June 2001). "DNA binding of TEA/ATTS domain factors is regulated by protein kinase C phosphorylation in human choriocarcinoma cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (26): 23464–70. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010934200. PMID 11313339. 
  34. ^ Noland CL, Gierke S, Schnier PD, Murray J, Sandoval WN, Sagolla M, Dey A, Hannoush RN, Fairbrother WJ, Cunningham CN (January 2016). "Palmitoylation of TEAD Transcription Factors Is Required for Their Stability and Function in Hippo Pathway Signaling". Structure 24 (1): 179–86. doi:10.1016/j.str.2015.11.005. PMID 26724994. 
  35. ^ Belandia B, Parker MG (October 2000). "Functional interaction between the p160 coactivator proteins and the transcriptional enhancer factor family of transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 275 (40): 30801–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.C000484200. PMID 10934189. 
  36. ^ Butler AJ, Ordahl CP (January 1999). "Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase binds with transcription enhancer factor 1 to MCAT1 elements to regulate muscle-specific transcription". Molecular and Cellular Biology 19 (1): 296–306. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.1.296. PMID 9858553. 
  37. ^ MacLellan WR, Lee TC, Schwartz RJ, Schneider MD (June 1994). "Transforming growth factor-beta response elements of the skeletal alpha-actin gene. Combinatorial action of serum response factor, YY1, and the SV40 enhancer-binding protein, TEF-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269 (24): 16754–60. PMID 8206998. 
  38. ^ Maeda T, Chapman DL, Stewart AF (December 2002). "Mammalian vestigial-like 2, a cofactor of TEF-1 and MEF2 transcription factors that promotes skeletal muscle differentiation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (50): 48889–98. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206858200. PMID 12376544. 
  39. ^ Gupta MP, Amin CS, Gupta M, Hay N, Zak R (July 1997). "Transcription enhancer factor 1 interacts with a basic helix-loop-helix zipper protein, Max, for positive regulation of cardiac alpha-myosin heavy-chain gene expression". Molecular and Cellular Biology 17 (7): 3924–36. doi:10.1128/mcb.17.7.3924. PMID 9199327. 
  40. ^ Chen L, Chan SW, Zhang X, Walsh M, Lim CJ, Hong W, Song H (February 2010). "Structural basis of YAP recognition by TEAD4 in the hippo pathway". Genes & Development 24 (3): 290–300. doi:10.1101/gad.1865310. PMID 20123908. 
  41. ^ Pobbati AV, Chan SW, Lee I, Song H, Hong W (July 2012). "Structural and functional similarity between the Vgll1-TEAD and the YAP-TEAD complexes". Structure 20 (7): 1135–40. doi:10.1016/j.str.2012.04.004. PMID 22632831. 
  42. ^ Günther S, Mielcarek M, Krüger M, Braun T (2004). "VITO-1 is an essential cofactor of TEF1-dependent muscle-specific gene regulation". Nucleic Acids Research 32 (2): 791–802. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh248. PMID 14762206. 
  43. ^ a b Koontz LM, Liu-Chittenden Y, Yin F, Zheng Y, Yu J, Huang B, Chen Q, Wu S, Pan D (May 2013). "The Hippo effector Yorkie controls normal tissue growth by antagonizing scalloped-mediated default repression". Developmental Cell 25 (4): 388–401. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.04.021. PMID 23725764. 
  44. ^ Vassilev A, Kaneko KJ, Shu H, Zhao Y, DePamphilis ML (May 2001). "TEAD/TEF transcription factors utilize the activation domain of YAP65, a Src/Yes-associated protein localized in the cytoplasm". Genes & Development 15 (10): 1229–41. doi:10.1101/gad.888601. PMID 11358867. 
  45. ^ Zhao B, Li L, Lei Q, Guan KL (May 2010). "The Hippo-YAP pathway in organ size control and tumorigenesis: an updated version". Genes & Development 24 (9): 862–74. doi:10.1101/gad.1909210. PMID 20439427. 
  46. ^ Han W, Jung EM, Cho J, Lee JW, Hwang KT, Yang SJ, Kang JJ, Bae JY, Jeon YK, Park IA, Nicolau M, Jeffrey SS, Noh DY (June 2008). "DNA copy number alterations and expression of relevant genes in triple-negative breast cancer". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer 47 (6): 490–9. doi:10.1002/gcc.20550. PMID 18314908. 
  47. ^ Richardson AL, Wang ZC, De Nicolo A, Lu X, Brown M, Miron A, Liao X, Iglehart JD, Livingston DM, Ganesan S (February 2006). "X chromosomal abnormalities in basal-like human breast cancer". Cancer Cell 9 (2): 121–32. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2006.01.013. PMID 16473279. 
  48. ^ Nowee ME, Snijders AM, Rockx DA, de Wit RM, Kosma VM, Hämäläinen K, Schouten JP, Verheijen RH, van Diest PJ, Albertson DG, Dorsman JC (September 2007). "DNA profiling of primary serous ovarian and fallopian tube carcinomas with array comparative genomic hybridization and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification". The Journal of Pathology 213 (1): 46–55. doi:10.1002/path.2217. PMID 17668415. 
  49. ^ Skotheim RI, Autio R, Lind GE, Kraggerud SM, Andrews PW, Monni O, Kallioniemi O, Lothe RA (2006). "Novel genomic aberrations in testicular germ cell tumors by array-CGH, and associated gene expression changes". Cellular Oncology 28 (5-6): 315–26. PMID 17167184. 
  50. ^ Landin Malt A, Cagliero J, Legent K, Silber J, Zider A, Flagiello D (2012). "Alteration of TEAD1 expression levels confers apoptotic resistance through the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin". PloS One 7 (9): e45498. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045498. PMID 23029054. 
  51. ^ Xia Y, Zhang YL, Yu C, Chang T, Fan HY (2014). "YAP/TEAD co-activator regulated pluripotency and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer initiated cells". PloS One 9 (11): e109575. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109575. PMID 25369529. 
  52. ^ Yuan H, Liu H, Liu Z, Zhu D, Amos CI, Fang S, Lee JE, Wei Q (August 2015). "Genetic variants in Hippo pathway genes YAP1, TEAD1 and TEAD4 are associated with melanoma-specific survival". International Journal of Cancer 137 (3): 638–45. doi:10.1002/ijc.29429. PMID 25628125. 

Further reading[edit]