TET1 was first discovered in a 61-year-old patient with a rare variation of t(10;11)(q22;q23) acute myeloid leukemia(AML) as a zinc-finger binding protein (specifically on the CXXC domain) that fuses to the gene MLL. Another study confirmed that this protein was a translocation partner of MLL in an 8-year-old patient with t(10;11)(q22;q23) AML and named the protein Ten-Eleven Translocation 1.
Colon, breast, prostate and liver tumors have significantly reduced levels of TET1 compared to the healthy colon cells and normal epithelial colon cells with downgraded TET1 levels have greater levels of proliferation. Additionally, increasing TET1 expression levels in colon cancer cells decreased cell proliferation in both cell cultures and mice through demethylation of promoters of the WNT signaling pathway.
Breast cancer cell lines with silenced TET1 expression have increased rates of invasion and breast cancers that spread to the lymph nodes are characterized by lower TET1 levels. TET1 levels could be used to detect breast cancer metastasis. A histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A increased levels of TET1 in breast cancer tissues but was a less effective tumor suppressor in patients with low TET1 expression. Breast cancer patients with high TET1 levels had significantly higher survival probabilities than patients with low TET1 levels.
Degradation of TET1 in hypoxia-induced EMT lung cancer cells led to reduced metastasis rates and cells. Healthy cells transitioning to cancer cells have decreased levels of TET1 but decreasing TET1 expression does not lead to malignancy. Cancer cells using the KRAS pathway had decreased invasive potential after reintroducing TET1, likewise downgrading KRAS increased TET1 levels.
^Ono R, Taki T, Taketani T, Taniwaki M, Kobayashi H, Hayashi Y (July 2002). "LCX, leukemia-associated protein with a CXXC domain, is fused to MLL in acute myeloid leukemia with trilineage dysplasia having t(10;11)(q22;q23)". Cancer Research. 62 (14): 4075–80. PMID12124344.
^Lorsbach RB, Moore J, Mathew S, Raimondi SC, Mukatira ST, Downing JR (March 2003). "TET1, a member of a novel protein family, is fused to MLL in acute myeloid leukemia containing the t(10;11)(q22;q23)". Leukemia. 17 (3): 637–41. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2402834. PMID12646957.
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