Forschungszentrum Jülich ("Jülich Research Centre") is a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres and is one of the largest interdisciplinary research centres in Europe. It was founded on 11 December 1956 by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia as a registered association, before it became "Kernforschungsanlage Jülich GmbH" or Nuclear Research Centre Jülich in 1967. In 1990, the name of the association was changed to "Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH". It has close collaborations with RWTH Aachen in the form of Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA).
- 1 Location
- 2 Financing
- 3 Staff/size
- 4 Structure
- 5 Research at Forschungszentrum Jülich
- 6 Large-scale facilities at Forschungszentrum Jülich
- 6.1 Cooler Synchrotron COSY
- 6.2 Research reactor FRJ-2
- 6.3 Supercomputers
- 6.4 TEXTOR tokamak
- 6.5 Magnetic resonance tomography
- 6.6 SAPHIR Atmosphere Simulation Chamber
- 6.7 PhyTec experimental facility for cultivating plants
- 6.8 Beamlines at synchrotrons
- 7 Further research projects at Forschungszentrum Jülich
- 8 Infrastructure
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The annual budget of Forschungszentrum Jülich is approximately € 530 million (in 2009). Public funds are split between the German Federal Government (90%) and the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (10%).
Forschungszentrum Jülich employs more than 5,700 members of staff (2015) and works within the framework of the disciplines physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and engineering on the basic principles and applications in the areas of health, information, environment and energy. Amongst the members of staff, there are approx. 1,500 scientists including 400 PhD students and 130 diploma students. Around 600 people work in the administration and service areas, 500 work for project management agencies, and there are 1,600 technical staff members, while around 330 trainees are completing their training in more than 20 different professions.
More than 800 visiting scientists come to Forschungszentrum Jülich every year from about 50 different countries.
Training and apprenticeships
In 2003, 367 people were trained in 20 different professions at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The proportion of trainees lies around 9% and is more than twice as high as the German national average (for companies with more than 500 employees). In cooperation with RWTH Aachen University and Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Forschungszentrum Jülich also offers combined practical and academic courses. After they have successfully completed their exams, graduates are offered six months employment in their chosen profession. Between 1959 and 2007 around 3,800 trainees completed their training in more than 25 different professions.
No lectures are held at Forschungszentrum Jülich itself, but in line with the so-called "Jülich model", the directors of the institutes are appointed professors at nearby universities in a joint procedure with the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (usually Aachen, Bonn, Cologne, Düsseldorf, but also universities farther away such as Duisburg-Essen or Münster). By holding a lectureship there, they can fulfil their teaching duties. Many other scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich who have achieved habilitation also undertake lectureships in the nearby universities. In cooperation with the universities, what are known as "research schools" (e.g. "German Research School for Simulation Science" with RWTH Aachen University or "International Helmholtz Research School of Biophysics and Soft Matter" with the universities of Cologne and Düsseldorf) are founded in an effort to support the scientific training of students.
An exception to this is the training of mathematical-technical software developers. In cooperation with Aachen University of Applied Sciences (Campus Jülich), the lectures required for the B.Sc. in "Applied Mathematics and Computer Science" are largely held in the Central Institute for Applied Mathematics (ZAM) by university professors and ZAM instructors. For the subsequent M.Sc. in "Technomathematics", the same model applies and some of the lectures are held by ZAM staff.
Every year, Forschungszentrum Jülich hosts a two-week IFF Summer School, which addresses current issues in solid-state physics.
Forschungszentrum Jülich is organised into
- 8 institutes,
- 4 central divisions,
- 2 programme groups,
- 2 projects and
- 2 project management organizations
- Project Management Jülich
- Project Management Organization "Energy, Technology, Sustainability" (ETN)
The bodies of Forschungszentrum Jülich are:
- the Partners' Meeting
- the Supervisory Board
- the Board of Directors, which is made up of
- Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Marquardt (Chairman)
- Karsten Beneke (Deputy Chairman)
- Prof. Dr. Sebastian M. Schmidt (Scientific Division I)
- Prof. Dr. Dr. Hans-Harald Bolt (Scientific Division II)
Committees of Forschungszentrum Jülich are:
- the Scientific Advisory Council (WB)
- the Scientific and Technical Council (WTR)
Research at Forschungszentrum Jülich
Research at Jülich is divided into four research areas: health, information, environment, and energy. The key competencies of physics and scientific computing provide the basis for world-class research in these areas.
- Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS)
- Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG)
- Institute of Complex Systems (ICS)
- Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK)
- Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM)
- Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS)
- Nuclear Physics Institute (IKP)
- Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI)
Large-scale facilities at Forschungszentrum Jülich
Cooler Synchrotron COSY
COSY (Cooler Synchrotron) is a particle accelerator (synchrotron) and storage ring (circumference: 184 m) for accelerating protons and deuterons operated by the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IKP) at Forschungszentrum Jülich.
COSY is characterised by what is known as beam cooling, which reduces the deviation of particles from their predetermined path (can also be understood as the thermal motion of particles) using electron or stochastic cooling. At COSY there are a number of experimental facilities for studies in the field of hadron physics. These include the ANKE magnetic spectrometer, the TOF flight spectrometer and the WASA universal detector, which was moved to COSY from the CELSIUS storage ring of The Svedberg Laboratoriet (TSL) in Uppsala, Sweden in 2005.
COSY is one of the only accelerators in the medium energy range with both electron cooling and stochastic cooling.
The synchrotron is used by scientists from German and international research institutions at internal and external target stations. It is one of the research facilities used for collaborative research supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany).
Research reactor FRJ-2
FRJ-2 was a reactor of the same class as DIDO and was used for neutron scattering experiments. It has been operated by the Central Research Reactors Division (ZFR). FRJ-2 was the strongest neutron source in the Helmholtz Association and it was primarily used to conduct scattering and spectroscopic experiments on condensed matter.
On May 2, 2006, FRJ-2 was shut down after almost 44 years or 18,875 days of operation. The experiments at FRJ-2 were dismantled bit by bit and transferred to Jülich's outstation at the FRM II research reactor in Garching near Munich.
In May 2006, the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS was founded as response to the shut down of FRJ-2. JCNS operates instruments at the national and international leading sources FRM II, Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France, and Spallation Neutron Source SNS in OakRidge, USA, under a common scientific objective and provides external users with access to world class instruments under standardized conditions. The breadth of JCNS is comparable to a facility based around a medium flux research reactor, though it offers the quality of high flux sources. JCNS also provides a frame for the method and instrument development program of FZJ and for its in-house research in the condensed matter and key technology programmes.
JUGENE - Petascale BlueGene/P system
From autumn 2007 the JUGENE, an IBM Blue Gene/P computer is running and was officially started in February 2008. Its 65,000 processors reached 220 TFLOPS. It started out as the fastest computer in Europe and the second fastest in the world. On May 26, 2009, the newly upgraded JUGENE was unveiled. It includes 294 912 processor cores, 144 terabyte memory, 6 petabyte storage in 72 racks. With a peak performance of about one PetaFLOPS, it was the third fastest computer and fastest computer in Europe and it currently (November 2010) is the ninth fastest supercomputer in the world.
JuRoPA (Jülich Research on Petascale Architecture) is an Intel Xeon X5570 based Cluster supercomputer with a peak performance of 308 TFLOPS and 79 terabyte main memory; in June 2009 it was the 10th fastest computer of the world and the second fastest (after JUGENE) in Europe. It currently (November 2010) is the 23rd fastest supercomputer worldwide.
JUBL (Jülich BlueGene/L) was a massively parallel supercomputer, based on IBMs Blue Gene/L architecture, with 16,384 processors (8192 nodes each with two processors) and an internal memory of 4.1 terabytes (512 megabytes per node). It was capable of a peak performance (Rpeak) of 45.87 TFLOPS. The LINPACK performance (Rmax) is 37.33 TFLOPS. At the time when it officially went into operation, JUBL was the 6th most powerful computer in the world.
Since spring 2007, JUICE (Juelich Initiative Cell Cluster) has been in operation. It is a cluster based on IBMs Cell microprocessor. Twelve QS20 blades with 24 Cell CPUs and 12GB RAM provide a peak LINPACK performance of 4.8 TFLOP/s. The cluster uses Mellanox 4x Infiniband cards and a 24-port Voltaire switch for highspeed communication.
IBM p690 Cluster Jump
The massively parallel supercomputer IBM p690 Cluster Jump has been in operation since the beginning of 2004.
With 1312 processors (41 nodes each with 32 processors) and an internal memory of 5 terabytes (128 gigabytes per node), the computer can achieve a maximum performance of 5.6 TFLOPS, which placed it at number 21 in the list of the most powerful computers in the world at the time of its inauguration. The nodes are linked to each other through a high performance switch (HPS). Through a globally parallel data system, applications have access to more than 60 terabytes of storage space and an integrated cassette storage with a capacity of one petabyte. The IBM p690 Cluster Jump is run on the AIX 5.1 operating system.
A new building (1,000 m²) was built especially for the IBM p690 Cluster Jump beside the Central Institute for Applied Mathematics.
No longer in operation
The vector computer CRAY SV1ex was the successor of CRAY J90, which was in operation between 1996 and 2002. It represented the next stage in the computer series of the parallel vector computers with a shared memory, CRAY X-MP, Y-MP and C90. With 16 CPUs and an internal memory of 32 gigabytes, the CRAY SV1ex had a performance of 32 GFLOPS. It was run on the UNICOS 10.0 operating system. This computer was decommissioned on June 30, 2005.
No longer in operation
The vector computer CRAY J90 was used as a file server. It had 12 processors, an internal memory of 2 gigabytes and boasted a performance of 3 GFLOPS. CRAY J90 was also run on UNICOS 10.0 and it too was decommissioned on June 30, 2005.
TEXTOR (Tokamak EXperiment for Technology Oriented Research) was a tokamak in the field of plasma-wall interaction operated by the Institute of Energy Research - Plasma Physics (IEK-4) at Forschungszentrum Jülich.
Until it was decommissioned in December 2013, TEXTOR was used for research into nuclear fusion. In experiments, hydrogen was heated to a temperature of up to 50 megakelvins so that it took the form of a plasma. Studies of the interaction of this plasma with the surrounding wall constituted a major part of the research performed. The knowledge gained is mainly being applied to a new experimental reactor, ITER, which is currently under construction in Cadarache (South France) with the help of Forschungszentrum Jülich among others.
Magnetic resonance tomography
The Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4) houses several magnetic resonance scanners, the largest of which is a 9.4 tesla combined PET-MRI machine for scanning humans, which is one of the highest field devices in Europe. The institute also houses a 3T combined PET-MR system, a 3T and a 4T MR system, all for human use, and a 9.4T small-animal scanner.
SAPHIR Atmosphere Simulation Chamber
In the 20-meter long SAPHIR chamber (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber), a group in the Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere - Troposphere (ICG-II) investigates photochemical reactions in the atmosphere.
PhyTec experimental facility for cultivating plants
Since 2003, a greenhouse with cutting-edge technology has been available at Forschungszentrum Jülich. The maximum transparency of the panels (over 95%) is achieved in the spectral range important for photosynthesis thanks to a special type of glass and an anti-reflective coating. Moreover, UV-B rays can pass through the glass panels. The CO2 concentration can be increased and decreased in two chambers, the humidity can be varied, and the temperatures can be kept at 25 °C, even in summer when the sun is constantly shining. Scientists at the Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere - Phytosphere (ICG-III) simulate different climate scenarios here and investigate their influence on the key processes in plants, such as growth, transport, exchange processes with the atmosphere and soil, and biotic interactions.
Beamlines at synchrotrons
The Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI) supports a number of beamlines for research with synchrotron radiation at various synchrotrons:
- BL5 U-250-PGM at DELTA (Dortmund)
- UE56/1-SGM at BESSY (Berlin)
- MuCAT at APS (Argonne, USA)
- JUSIFA at HASYLAB (Hamburg)
- NanoESCA beamline Elettra (Trieste, Italy)
Further research projects at Forschungszentrum Jülich
CLaMS: Atmosphere Model for Climate Research
Understanding the chemical processes in the atmosphere is the basis of many climate models. Environmental researchers at Forschungszentrum Jülich investigate the chemistry of the atmosphere with airplanes, balloons and satellites. They use their findings to generate chemical models such as CLaMS, which are then used in simulations on supercomputers.
MEM-BRAIN: carbon dioxide separation
Together with its research partners, Forschungszentrum Jülich is developing ceramic membranes. These membranes could be put to use as filters in power plants, which would separate process gases and effectively retain carbon dioxide.
UNICORE: easy access to computing resources
Today, computing and storage resources are often split between a number of computer systems, computer centres or even between different countries. Science and industry therefore need tools that will allow easy and secure access to these resources. UNICORE  from Jülich is one such grid-based software package.
As well as research institutions and large-scale facilities, Forschungszentrum Jülich has a variety of infrastructure units and central institutions that it needs for its day-to-day operations, including:
- Finance and Controlling Division (F)
- Personnel Division (P)
- Legal and Patent Division (R)
- Operation Management Division (B)
- Safety and Radiation Protection Division (S)
- Purchasing and Materials Division (M)
- Organization and Planning Division (O)
- Corporate Communications (UK)
- Central Institute for Applied Mathematics (ZAM)
- Central Technology Division (ZAT)
- Central Division of Analytical Chemistry (ZCH)
- Central Research Reactors Division (ZFR)
- Central Institute for Electronics (ZEL)
- Central Library (ZB)
- AVR reactor
- In 2007, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Peter Grünberg and Albert Fert for the independent discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance. Grünberg was a leading researcher at Forschungszentrum Jülich.
- "Forschungszentrum Jülich - Company Bodies". Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- "Forschungszentrum Jülich - Committees". Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- Forschungszentrum Jülich Research Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine
- Forschungszentrum Jülich Institutes Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
- JCNS about Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
- "Top500 List - June 2009 - TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-12-02. Retrieved 2011-01-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Top500 List - November 2009 - TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-12-02. Retrieved 2011-01-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- http://www.fz-juelich.de/inm/inm-4/EN/UeberUns/Einrichtungen/_node.html Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4): Facilities
- Flyer (PDF) Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
- "CO2Separation". Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- Forschungszentrum Jülich
- Events organised by Forschungszentrum Jülich for its 50th anniversary
- Research areas at Forschungszentrum Jülich
- Radiation protection glossary of Forschungszentrum Jülich
- "The SSB pages" at Forschungszentrum Jülich for radiation protection officers and persons occupationally exposed to radiation
- E-Journals instead of Print Journals – a Research Library Makes the Changeover