Sopwith Camel

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Camel
RAF Sopwith Camel.jpg
Sopwith Camel
Role Biplane fighter
Manufacturer Sopwith Aviation Company
Designer Herbert Smith[1]
First flight 22 December 1916
Introduction June 1917
Retired January 1920
Primary users Royal Flying Corps
Royal Naval Air Service
Royal Air Force
Number built 5,490
Developed from Sopwith Pup

The Sopwith Camel was a British First World War single-seat biplane fighter aircraft introduced on the Western Front in 1917. It was developed by the Sopwith Aviation Company as a successor to the earlier Sopwith Pup and became one of the most iconic fighter aircraft of the First World War.

The Camel was powered by a single rotary engine and was armed with twin synchronized machine guns. Though proving difficult to handle, it provided for a high level of manoeuvrability to an experienced pilot, an attribute which was highly valued in the type's principal use as a fighter aircraft. In total, Camel pilots have been credited with the shooting down of 1,294 enemy aircraft, more than any other Allied fighter of the conflict. Towards the end of the Great War, the type had also seen use as a ground-attack aircraft, partially due to it having become increasingly outclassed as the capabilities of fighter aircraft on both sides was rapidly advancing at that time.

The main variant of the Camel was designated as the F.1; several dedicated variants were built for a variety of roles, including the 2F.1 Ship's Camel, which was used for operating from the flight decks of aircraft carriers, the Comic night fighter variant, and the T.F.1, a dedicated 'trench fighter' that had been armoured for the purpose of conducting ground attacks upon heavily defended enemy lines. The Camel also saw use as a two-seat trainer aircraft. In January 1920, the last aircraft of the type were withdrawn from RAF service.

Development[edit]

Harry Cobby sitting in the cockpit of a Sopwith Camel

The Camel's predecessor, the Sopwith Pup, was no longer competitive against newer German fighters such as the Albatros D.III; consequently the Camel was developed specifically to replace the Pup,[2] as well as the Nieuport 17s that had been purchased from the French as an interim measure. It was recognised that the new fighter needed to be faster and have a heavier armament. The design effort to produce this successor, initially designated as the Sopwith F.1, was headed by Sopwith's chief designer, Herbert Smith.[3][4]

Early in its development, the new aircraft was simply referred to as the "Big Pup". A metal fairing over the gun breeches, intended to protect the guns from freezing at altitude, created a "hump" that led pilots to call the aircraft "Camel". However,the aircraft was never officially designated with this name.[2][5] On 22 December 1916, the prototype Camel was first flown by Harry Hawker at Brooklands, Weybridge, Surrey, it was powered by a 110 hp Clerget 9Z.[4]

In May 1917, the first production contract for an initial batch of 250 Camels was issued by the British War Office.[6] Throughout 1917, a total of 1,325 Camels were manufactured, almost entirely of the initial F.1 variant. By the time that production of the type came to an end, approximately 5,490 Camels of all types had been built.[7] In early 1918, production of the navalised "Ship's" Camel 2F.1 began.[8]

Design[edit]

Overview[edit]

Replica Sopwith Camel showing internal structure

The Camel had a mostly conventional design for its era, featuring a wooden box-like fuselage structure, an aluminium engine cowling, plywood panels around the cockpit, and fabric-covered fuselage, wings and tail. While possessing some clear similarities with the Pup, it was furnished with a noticeably bulkier fuselage.[3] For the first time on an operational British-designed fighter, two 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine guns were mounted directly in front of the cockpit, synchronised to fire forwards through the propeller disc.[4][2] In addition to the machine guns, a total of four Cooper bombs could be carried for ground attack purposes.[4]

The bottom wing was rigged with 3° dihedral while the top wing lacked any dihedral; this meant that the gap between the wings was less at the tips than at the roots; this change had been made at the suggestion of Fred Sigrist, the Sopwith works manager, as a measure to simplify the aircraft's construction. The upper wing featured a central cutout section for the purpose of providing improved upwards visibility for the pilot.[9]

Production Camels were powered by various rotary engines, most commonly either the Clerget 9B or the Bentley BR1.[10] In order to evade a potential manufacturing bottleneck being imposed upon the overall aircraft in the event of an engine shortage, several other engines were also adopted to power the type as well.[11]

Flight characteristics[edit]

Unlike the preceding Pup and Triplane, the Camel was considered to be difficult to fly.[12] The type owed both its extreme manoeuvrability and its difficult handling to the close placement of the engine, pilot, guns and fuel tank (some 90% of the aircraft's weight) within the front seven feet of the aircraft, and to the strong gyroscopic effect of the rotating mass of the cylinders common to rotary engines.[Note 1] Aviation author Robert Jackson notes that: "in the hands of a novice it displayed vicious characteristics that could make it a killer; but under the firm touch of a skilled pilot, who knew how to turn its vices to his own advantage, it was one of the most superb fighting machines ever built".[4]

The Camel soon gained an unfortunate reputation with pilots.[13] Some inexperienced pilots crashed on take-off when the full fuel load pushed the aircraft's centre of gravity beyond the rearmost safe limits. When in level flight, the Camel was markedly tail-heavy. Unlike the Sopwith Triplane, the Camel lacked a variable incidence tailplane, so that the pilot had to apply constant forward pressure on the control stick to maintain a level attitude at low altitude. The aircraft could be rigged so that at higher altitudes it could be flown "hands off". A stall immediately resulted in a dangerous spin.

A two-seat trainer version of the Camel was later built to ease the transition process:[14] in his Recollections of an Airman Lt Col L.A. Strange, who served with the central flying school, wrote: "In spite of the care we took, Camels continually spun down out of control when flew [sic?] by pupils on their first solos. At length, with the assistance of Lieut Morgan, who managed our workshops, I took the main tank out of several Camels and replaced [them] with a smaller one, which enabled us to fit in dual control." Such conversions, and dual instruction, went some way to alleviating the previously unacceptable casualties incurred during the critical type-specific solo training stage.[13]

Operational history[edit]

Western front[edit]

Camels being prepared for a sortie.

In June 1917, the Sopwith Camel entered service with No. 4 Squadron of the Royal Naval Air Service, which was stationed near Dunkirk, France; this was the first squadron to operate the type.[15] Its first combat flight and reportedly its first victory claim were both made on 4 July 1917.[6] By the end of July 1917, the Camel also equipped No. 3 and No. 9 Naval Squadrons; and it had become operational with No. 70 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps.[8] By February 1918, 13 squadrons had Camels as their primary equipment.[citation needed]

The Camel proved to have better manoeuvrability than the Albatros D.III and D.V and offered heavier armament and better performance than the Pup and Triplane. Its controls were light and sensitive. The Camel turned more slowly to the left, which resulted in a nose-up attitude due to the torque of the rotary engine, but the torque also resulted in being able to turn to the right quicker than other fighters,[16] although that resulted in a tendency towards a nose-down attitude from the turn. Because of the faster turning capability to the right, some pilots preferred to change heading 90° to the left by turning 270° to the right.[citation needed]

Agility in combat made the Camel one of the best-remembered Allied aircraft of the First World War. RFC crew used to joke that it offered the choice between "a wooden cross, the Red Cross, or a Victoria Cross"[17] Together with the S.E.5a and the SPAD S.XIII, the Camel helped to re-establish the Allied aerial superiority that lasted well into 1918.[citation needed]

Major William Barker's Sopwith Camel (serial no. B6313, the aircraft in which he scored the majority of his victories),[18] was used to shoot down 46 aircraft and balloons from September 1917 to September 1918 in 404 operational flying hours, more than any other single RAF fighter.

Home defence and night fighting[edit]

An important role for the Camel was home defence. The RNAS flew Camels from Eastchurch and Manston airfields against daylight raids by German bombers, including Gothas, from July 1917.[14] The public outcry against the night raids and the poor response of London's defences resulted in the RFC deciding to divert Camels that had been heading to the frontlines in France to Britain for the purposes of home defence; in July 1917, 44 Squadron RFC reformed and reequipped with the Camel to conduct the home defence mission.[19] By March 1918, the home defence squadrons had been widely equipped with the Camel; by August 1918, a total of seven home defence squadrons were operating Camels.[20]

When the Germans switched to performing their attacks during nighttime, the Camel proved capable of being flown at night as well.[15] Accordingly, those aircraft assigned to home defence squadrons were quickly modified with navigation lights in order that they could serve as night fighters. A smaller number of Camels were more extensively reconfigured; on these aircraft, the Vickers machine guns were replaced by overwing Lewis guns and the cockpit was moved rearwards so the pilot could reload the guns. This modification, which became known as the "Sopwith Comic" allowed the guns to be fired without affecting the pilot's night vision, and allowed the use of new, more effective incendiary ammunition that was considered unsafe to fire from synchronised Vickers guns.[21][22][Note 2]

The Camel was successfully used to intercept and shoot down German bombers on multiple occasions during 1918, serving in this capacity through to the final German bombing raid upon Britain on the night of the 20/21 May 1918.[24] During this final air raid, a combined force of 74 Camels and Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5s intercepted 28 Gothas and Zeppelin-Staaken R.VIs; three German bombers were shot down, while two more were downed by anti-aircraft fire from the ground and a further aircraft was lost to engine failure, the heaviest losses suffered by German bombers during a single night's operation over England.[25]

Navalised Camels on the aircraft carrier HMS Furious prior to raiding the Tondern airship hangars

The Camel night fighter was also operated by 151 Squadron to intercept German night bombers operating over the Western Front.[26] These aircraft were not only deployed defensively, but often carried out night intruder missions against German airstrips. After five months of operations, 151 Squadron had claimed responsibility for shooting down a total of 26 German aircraft.[26]

Shipboard and parasite fighter[edit]

Sopwith 2F.1 Camel suspended from airship R 23 prior to a test flight

The RNAS operated a number of 2F.1 Camels that were suitable for launching from platforms mounted on the turrets of major warships as well as from some of the earliest aircraft carriers to be built. Furthermore, the Camel could be deployed from aircraft lighters, which were specially-modified barges; these had to be towed fast enough that a Camel could successfully take off. The aircraft lighters served as means of launching interception sorties against incoming enemy air raids from a more advantageous position than had been possible when using shore bases alone.

During the summer of 1918, a single 2F.1 Camel (N6814) participated in a series of trials as a parasite fighter. The aircraft used Airship R23 as a mothership.[27]

Ground attack[edit]

By mid-1918, the Camel had become obsolescent as a day fighter as its climb rate, level speed and performance at altitudes over 12,000 ft (3,650 m) were outclassed by the latest German fighters, such as the Fokker D.VII. However, it remained viable as a ground-attack and infantry support aircraft and instead was increasingly used in that capacity. The Camel inflicted high losses on German ground forces, albeit suffering from a high rate of losses itself in turn, through the dropping of 25 lb (11 kg) Cooper bombs and low-level strafing runs.[28] The protracted development of the Camel's replacement, the Sopwith Snipe, resulted in the Camel remaining in service in this capacity until well after the signing of the Armistice.[29]

During the German Spring Offensive of March 1918, squadrons of Camels participated in the defence of the Allied lines, harassing the advancing German Army from the skies.[28] Jackson observed that "some of the most intense air operations took place" during the retreat of the British Fifth Army, in which the Camel provided extensive aerial support. Camels flew at multiple altitudes, some as low as 500 feet for surprise strafing attacks upon ground forces, while being covered from attack by hostile fighters by the higher altitude aircraft.[29] Strafing attacks formed a major component of British efforts to contain the offensive, the attacks often having the result of producing confusion and panic amongst the advancing German forces. As the March offensive waned, the Camel was able to operate within and maintain aerial superiority for the remainder of the war.[29]

Postwar service[edit]

In the aftermath of the First World War, the Camel saw further combat action. Multiple British squadrons were deployed into Russia as a part of the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War.[29] Between the Camel and the S.E.5, which were the two main types deployed to the Caspian Sea area in order to bomb Bolshevik bases and to provide aerial support to the Royal Navy warships present, Allied control of the Caspian region had been achieved by May 1919. Starting in March 1919, direct support was also provided for White Russian forces, carrying out reconnaissance, ground attack, and escort operations.[30] During the summer of 1919, Camels of No. 47 Squadron conducted offensive operations in the vicinity of Tsaritsyn, primarily against Urbabk airfield; targets including enemy aircraft, cavalry formations, and river traffic. In September 1919, 47 Squadron was related to Kotluban, where its aircraft operations mainly focused on harassing enemy communication lines.[31] During late 1919 and early 1920, the RAF detachment operated in support of General Vladimir May-Mayevsky's counter-revolutionary volunteer army during intense fighting around Kharkov. In March 1920, the remainder of the force was evacuated and their remaining aircraft were deliberately destroyed to avoid them falling into enemy hands.[31]

Variants[edit]

Camels were powered by several rotary engines:

  • 130 hp Clerget 9B rotary (standard powerplant)
  • 140 hp Clerget 9Bf rotary
  • 110 hp Le Rhône 9J rotary
  • 150 hp Bentley BR1 rotary (gave best performance – standard for R.N.A.S. machines)
  • 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape 9B-2 rotary
  • 150 hp Gnome Monosoupape 9N rotary

Sopwith Camel F.1[edit]

The F.1 was the main production version. It was armed with twin synchronised Vickers guns.

The Sopwith 2F.1 Camel used to shoot down Zeppelin L 53, at the Imperial War Museum, London. Note mounting of twin Lewis guns over the top wing

Sopwith Camel 2F.1[edit]

The 2F.1 was a shipboard variant, flown from HMS Furious (47).[32] It had a slightly shorter wingspan and a Bentley BR1 as its standard engine. Additionally, one Vickers gun was replaced by an overwing Lewis gun.

Sopwith Camel "Comic" Night fighter[edit]

The "Comic" was a Camel variant designed specifically for night-fighting duties. The twin Vickers guns were replaced by two Lewis guns on Foster mountings firing forward over the top wing, as the muzzle flash of the Vickers guns could blind the pilot. To allow reloading of the guns, the pilot was moved about 12 inches (30 cm) to the rear and to compensate the fuel tank was moved forward.[33] It served with Home Defence Squadrons against German air raids. The "Comic" nickname was unofficial, and was shared with the night fighter version of the Sopwith 1½ Strutter.

F.1/1[edit]

The F1/1 was a version with tapered wings.

T.F.1[edit]

The T.F.1 was an experimental trench fighter used for development work for Sopwith Salamander. Its machine guns were angled downwards for efficient strafing, and it featured armour plating for protection.

Trainer[edit]

The trainer variant had a second cockpit behind the normal pilot's position. The weapons were removed, although the hump was sometimes kept.

Operators[edit]

Belgian Sopwith Camel flown by Adj. Léon Cremers with n° 11 Squadron "Cocotte" marking
Portrait of Major Wilfred Ashton McCloughry MC, the Commanding Officer of No. 4 Squadron AFC, and his Sopwith Camel, 6 June 1918
A downed Sopwith Camel near Zillebeke, West Flanders, Belgium, 26 September 1917
 Australia
 Belgium
 Canada
 Estonia
 France
  • French Government
 Greece
 Latvia
 Netherlands
 Poland
 Russia
 Soviet Union
 United Kingdom
USAS Sopwith Camel
 United States

Survivors[edit]

Media related to Sopwith Camel museum aircraft at Wikimedia Commons

Sopwith Camel at the Royal Air Force Museum

There are only eight known original Sopwith Camels left:[39]

Reproductions[edit]

Media related to Sopwith Camel replicas at Wikimedia Commons

Replica of Camel F.1 flown by Lt. George Vaughn Jr., 17th Aero Squadron at the USAF Museum

Specifications (F.1 Camel)[edit]

Sopwith F.1 Camel drawing
Pilot's view from the cockpit of a Camel, June 1918

Data from Quest for Performance,[75] Profile Publications[76]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

Notable appearances in media[edit]

Snoopy
piloting his
"Sopwith Camel"

Biggles flies a Sopwith Camel in the novels by W.E. Johns during Biggles's spell in 266 Squadron during the First World War. The first collection of Biggles stories, titled The Camels are Coming, was published in 1932.[77]

The Camel is the "plane" of Snoopy in the Peanuts comic strip, when he imagines himself as a World War I flying ace and the nemesis of the Red Baron.[78]

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ As compared with radial engines in which a conventional rotating crankshaft is driven by a fixed engine block.
  2. ^ The ammunition in question was the RTS (Richard Thelfall and Sons) round, a combined incendiary and explosive round with a nitroglycerin and phosphorus filling. While more effective than earlier incendiary bullets such as the phosphorus-filled Buckingham bullet, they required careful handling, and were initially banned from synchronised weapons, both because of fears about the consequences of bullets striking the propeller of the fighter, and to prevent cooking off of the sensitive ammunition in the chambers of the Vickers guns, which fired from a closed bolt—a required feature for guns used in synchronized mounts—where heat could build up much quicker than in the open bolted Lewis gun.[21][23]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Mason 1992, p. 89.
  2. ^ a b c Bruce Flight 22 April 1955, p. 527.
  3. ^ a b Bruce 1965, p. 3.
  4. ^ a b c d e Jackson 2007, p. 2.
  5. ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 4-5.
  6. ^ a b Bruce 1965, p. 5.
  7. ^ Bruce Flight 29 April 1955, p. 563.
  8. ^ a b Bruce 1965, p. 6.
  9. ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 3-5.
  10. ^ Bruce 1968, pp. 148-149.
  11. ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 7-8.
  12. ^ Bruce 1965, pp. 5-6.
  13. ^ a b Jackson 2005, pp.15–16.
  14. ^ a b Bruce 1965, p. 9.
  15. ^ a b Jackson 2007, p. 3.
  16. ^ Clark 1973, p. 134.
  17. ^ Leinburger 2008, p. 30.
  18. ^ Ralph 1999, p. 80.
  19. ^ a b Davis 1999, p. 96.
  20. ^ Davis 1999, p. 98.
  21. ^ a b Davis 1999, p. 97.
  22. ^ Bruce 1968, p. 151, 153.
  23. ^ Williams and Gustin 2003, pp. 11, 14.
  24. ^ Jackson 2007, pp. 3-6.
  25. ^ Jackson 2007, p. 6.
  26. ^ a b Davis 1999, pp. 98–99.
  27. ^ Fitzsimons, p.521.
  28. ^ a b Jackson 2007, pp. 7-8.
  29. ^ a b c d Jackson 2007, p. 8.
  30. ^ Jackson 2007, pp. 8-10.
  31. ^ a b Jackson 2007, p. 10.
  32. ^ "Sopwith 2F.1 Ship's Camel". Their Flying Machines. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  33. ^ Mason 1992, p. 91.
  34. ^ Davis 1999, p. 102.
  35. ^ "9 Bomb Squadron (ACC)." Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved: 19 December 2010.
  36. ^ "17 Weapons Squadron (ACC)." Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved: 19 December 2010.
  37. ^ "27 Fighters Squadron (ACC)." Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved: 19 December 2010.
  38. ^ "37 Bomb Squadron (ACC)."Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved: 19 December 2010.
  39. ^ "Sopwith Camel". Demobbed - Out of Service British Military Aircraft. 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  40. ^ "Airframe Dossier - SopwithCamel, s/n B5747 RAF". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  41. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N629JA]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  42. ^ "GINFO Search Results [G-ASOP]". Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  43. ^ "Aeroplane: Sopwith F.1 Camel". Polish Aviation Museum. NeoServer. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  44. ^ "Lincoln-built Sopwith Camel from the First World War is restored to its former glory". LincolnshireLive. Local World. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  45. ^ "SOPWITH CAMEL". National Naval Aviation Museum. Naval Aviation Museum Foundation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  46. ^ "Aircraft A5658 Data". Airport-Data.com. Airport-Data.com. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  47. ^ "Sopwith F1 Camel". Royal Air Force Museum. Trustees of the Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  48. ^ Simpson, Andrew (2015). "INDIVIDUAL HISTORY [F6314]" (PDF). Royal Air Force Museum. Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  49. ^ "Sopwith Camel". Imperial War Museums. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  50. ^ Ellis 2008, p. 148.
  51. ^ "SOPWITH 2F.1 SHIP CAMEL". Canada Aviation and Space Museum. Canada Science and Technology Museums Corporation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  52. ^ Oman, Noel (16 March 2011). "History Takes Flight: Vintage aircraft sold to pay center’s bills". Northwest Arkansas Democrat Gazette. Northwest Arkansas Newspapers LLC. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  53. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N6254]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  54. ^ Jackson 1988, p. 349.
  55. ^ "Sopwith Camel (replica) (B6401)". Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm Museum. Fleet Air Arm Museum. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  56. ^ "Sopwith F-1 Camel". National Museum of the US Air Force. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  57. ^ "Aircraft". Cavanaugh Flight Museum. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  58. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N86678]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  59. ^ "Sopwith Camel F1 (replica)". Brooklands Museum. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  60. ^ "GINFO Search Results [G-BFCZ]". Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  61. ^ "Sopwith Camel". Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome. Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  62. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N7157Q]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  63. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N8343]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  64. ^ "Sopwith Camel Replica". The Canadian Museum of Flight. Retrieved January 27, 2017. 
  65. ^ "Sopwith F.1 Camel". Aviation Heritage Museum. Aviation Heritage Museum. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  66. ^ "SOPWITH CAMEL". Shuttleworth. Shuttleworth. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  67. ^ "Civil Aviation Authority [G-BZSC]". Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  68. ^ Kozura, Tom. "Sopwith F1 Camel". Koz Aero. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  69. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N6557]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  70. ^ Shaw, John S. "Sopwith Camel Introduction". John S Shaw Aviation. John S Shaw Aviation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  71. ^ Shaw, John S. "Le Clerget 9ba rotary engine". John S Shaw Aviation. John S Shaw Aviation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  72. ^ Shaw, John S. "F-AZZB". John S Shaw Aviation. John S Shaw Aviation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  73. ^ Shaw, John S. "Gnome". John S Shaw Aviation. John S Shaw Aviation. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  74. ^ "Heritage Centre Layout". Montrose Air Station Heritage Centre. Ian McIntosh Memorial Trust. Retrieved 12 May 2017. 
  75. ^ Loftin, LK, Jr. "Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. NASA SP-468". NASA. Retrieved: 22 April 2006.
  76. ^ Bruce 1965, p. 12.
  77. ^ Butts, D (2000). "Biggles – Hero of the Air". In Watkins, T; Jones, D. A Necessary Fantasy?: The Heroic Figure in Children's Popular Culture. New York: Garland Publishing. pp. 137–152. ISBN 0-8153-1844-8. 
  78. ^ Murphy and McNiece 2003, p. 87.

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Bruce, J.M. "Sopwith Camel: Historic Military Aircraft No 10: Part II." Flight, 29 April 1955. pp. 560–563.
  • Bruce, J.M. "Aircraft Profile No. 31. The Sopwith Camel F.1" Profile Publications, 1965.
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  • Murphy, Justin D. and Matthew A. McNiece. Military Aircraft, 1919-1945: An Illustrated History of their Impact. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2009. ISBN 1-85109-498-9.
  • Ralph, Wayne. Barker VC: The Classic Story of a Legendary First World War Hero. London: Grub Street, 1999. ISBN 1-902304-31-4.
  • Robertson, Bruce. Sopwith: The Man and His Aircraft. London: Harleyford, 1970. ISBN 0-900435-15-1.
  • Sturtivant, Ray and Gordon Page. The Camel File. Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1993. ISBN 0-85130-212-2.
  • United States Air Force Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.
  • Williams, Anthony G. and Emmanuel Gustin. Flying Guns: World War I and its Aftermath 1914–32. Ramsbury, Wiltshire: Airlife, 2003. ISBN 1-84037-396-2.
  • Winchester, Jim, ed. "Sopwith Camel." Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes (Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-641-3.

External links[edit]