TGF-beta receptor family

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Ser/Thr protein kinase, TGFB receptor

The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) receptors are a family of serine/threonine kinase receptors involved in TGF beta signaling pathway. These receptors bind growth factor and cytokine signaling proteins in the TGF-beta family such as TGFβs (TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TGFβ3), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth differentiation factors (GDFs), activin and inhibin, myostatin, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and NODAL.[1]

TGFβ family receptors[edit]

TGFβ family receptors are grouped into three types, type I, type II, and type III. There are seven type I receptors, termed the activin-like receptors (ALK1–7), five type II receptors, and one type III receptor, for a total of 13 TGFβ superfamily receptors.[2][3] In the transduction pathway, ligand-bound type II receptors activate type I receptors by phosphorylation, which then autophosphorylate and bind SMAD.[4] The Type I receptors have a glycine-serine (GS, or TTSGSGSG) repeat motif of around 30 AA, a target of type II activity. At least three, and perhaps four to five of the serines and threonines in the GS domain, must be phosphorylated to fully activate TbetaR-1.[5]

Type I[edit]

Transforming growth factor beta type I GS-motif

Type II[edit]

Type III[edit]

Unlike the Type I and II receptors which are kinases, TGFBR3 has a Zona pellucida-like domain. Its core domain binds TGF-beta family ligands and its heparan sulfate chains bind bFGF. It acts as a reservoir of ligand for TGF-beta receptors.[6][7]


  1. ^ "Prosite Documentation PDOC00223". Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2006-07-01.
  2. ^ Fliesler SJ, Kisselev OG (26 December 2007). Signal Transduction in the Retina. CRC Press. pp. 273–. ISBN 978-1-4200-0716-9.
  3. ^ Thiriet M (14 December 2011). Signaling at the Cell Surface in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 666–. ISBN 978-1-4614-1991-4.
  4. ^ Wrana JL, Attisano L, Cárcamo J, et al. (December 1992). "TGF beta signals through a heteromeric protein kinase receptor complex". Cell. 71 (6): 1003–14. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90395-S. PMID 1333888.
  5. ^ Huse, M; Muir, TW; Xu, L; Chen, YG; Kuriyan, J; Massagué, J (September 2001). "The TGF beta receptor activation process: an inhibitor- to substrate-binding switch". Molecular Cell. 8 (3): 671–82. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00332-X. PMID 11583628.
  6. ^ Andres JL, Stanley K, et al. (1989). "Membrane-anchored and soluble forms of betaglycan, a polymorphic proteoglycan that binds transforming growth factor-beta". J. Cell Biol. 109 (6 (Pt 1)): 3137–3145. doi:10.1083/jcb.109.6.3137. PMC 2115961. PMID 2592419.
  7. ^ Andres JL, DeFalcis D, et al. (1992). "Binding of two growth factor families to separate domains of the proteoglycan betaglycan". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (9): 5927–5930. PMID 1556106.