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Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases NELFCD, NELF-C, NELF-D, TH1, TH1L, HSPC130, negative elongation factor complex member C/D
External IDs MGI: 1926424 HomoloGene: 9496 GeneCards: NELFCD
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TH1L 220607 x at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 20: 58.98 – 59 Mb Chr 2: 174.42 – 174.43 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Negative elongation factor C/D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TH1L gene.[3][4][5]


The NELF complex of proteins interacts with the DSIF protein complex to repress transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II. The protein encoded by this gene is an essential part of the NELF complex. Alternative translation initiation site usage results in the formation of two isoforms with different N-termini.[5]


TH1L has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Bonthron DT, Hayward BE, Moran V, Strain L (Aug 2000). "Characterization of TH1 and CTSZ, two non-imprinted genes downstream of GNAS1 in chromosome 20q13". Human Genetics. 107 (2): 165–75. doi:10.1007/s004390000344. PMID 11030415. 
  4. ^ Zhang QH, Ye M, Wu XY, Ren SX, Zhao M, Zhao CJ, Fu G, Shen Y, Fan HY, Lu G, Zhong M, Xu XR, Han ZG, Zhang JW, Tao J, Huang QH, Zhou J, Hu GX, Gu J, Chen SJ, Chen Z (Oct 2000). "Cloning and functional analysis of cDNAs with open reading frames for 300 previously undefined genes expressed in CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells". Genome Research. 10 (10): 1546–60. doi:10.1101/gr.140200. PMC 310934Freely accessible. PMID 11042152. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: TH1L TH1-like (Drosophila)". 
  6. ^ Yuryev A, Wennogle LP (Feb 2003). "Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid analysis". Genomics. 81 (2): 112–25. doi:10.1016/s0888-7543(02)00008-3. PMID 12620389. 
  7. ^ Yin XL, Chen S, Gu JX (Feb 2002). "Identification of TH1 as an interaction partner of A-Raf kinase". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 231 (1-2): 69–74. doi:10.1023/A:1014437024129. PMID 11952167. 
  8. ^ a b Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T, Figeys D (2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3: 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948Freely accessible. PMID 17353931. 
  9. ^ a b Narita T, Yamaguchi Y, Yano K, Sugimoto S, Chanarat S, Wada T, Kim DK, Hasegawa J, Omori M, Inukai N, Endoh M, Yamada T, Handa H (Mar 2003). "Human transcription elongation factor NELF: identification of novel subunits and reconstitution of the functionally active complex". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 23 (6): 1863–73. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.6.1863-1873.2003. PMC 149481Freely accessible. PMID 12612062. 

Further reading[edit]