TL Ultralight TL-96 Star
|Role||Two side by side seat ultralight|
|National origin||Czech Republic|
|Manufacturer||TL Ultralight, Hradec Králové|
|First flight||November 1997|
Design and development
The TL-96 Star is a single-engine, low wing monoplane seating two side by side under a prominent single-piece, forward-hinging canopy. A second, fixed transparency forms the rear of the cabin. The structure is all composite, a mixture of glass and carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP). Its wings are unswept and have constant chord apart from a slight rounding of the leading edge at the tips; they carry plain inboard flaps. The one-piece, all-moving tailplane has a similar plan and is fitted with a central anti-balance tab. The fin and rudder are swept, the latter horn balanced. It has a tricycle undercarriage with faired wheels and cable brakes.
The Star can be powered by one of several flat four engines, including the 60 kW (80 hp) Rotax 912, the 86 kW (115 hp) Rotax 914 or the 67 kW (90 hp) Aero Prag AP-45. The Rotax engines drive three-blade propeller, the Aero Prag a two-blade wooden one.
The Star flew for the first time in November 1997 and had achieved German certification before 2000.
- TL-2000 StingCarbon
- An all CFRP version, introduced in 2002, that gained Czech certification. Its span was reduced by 760 mm (30 in) and length by 570 mm (22.4 in), though the empty weight increased by 10 kg (22 lbs).
- TL 2000 RG
- A retractable gear model with a cruise speed of 285 km/h (177 mph) that was announced before the first flight at Aero '03 in Friedrichshafen.
- TL StingSport
- US SLSA model introduced in 2005
- TL-2000 Sting S3
- Model announced at Sun'n'Fun, Lakeland, Florida, succeeding the StingSport. This is an advanced version of the StingSport with a new, tapered wing of greater span (9.11 m or 29 ft 11 in), area and aspect ratio and with larger flaps. It has a higher level of instrumentation and a Rotax 912ULS engine.
- TL-2000 Sting S4
- Model introduced in 2010 that is an improved version of the S3. It incorporates a revised canopy, cockpit, nose landing gear and engine cowling. Standard engines available are the 80 hp (60 kW) Rotax 912UL, 100 hp (75 kW) Rotax 912ULS and 912iS, and the turbocharged 115 hp (86 kW) Rotax 914 four-stroke powerplants.
- TL-2000 Sting S4 RG
- Retractable gear version of the S4 witha maximum level speed of 285 km/h (154 kn). Standard engines available are the 100 hp (75 kW) Rotax 912ULS and 912iS, and the turbocharged 115 hp (86 kW) Rotax 914 four-stroke powerplants.
As of mid-2010, there were 202 TL-96 Stars and 153 TL-2000 Stings on European civil registers, excluding Russia.
- 9 April 2015. Sting S4 crashed next to Airport of Urhida, Hungary after engine failure during practice of local traffic pattern, killing one person on board.
Specifications (TL-96 Star, Rotax 912)
Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2010-11
- Capacity: 2
- Length: 6.50 m (21 ft 4 in)
- Wingspan: 9.20 m (30 ft 2 in)
- Height: 2.15 m (7 ft 1 in)
- Wing area: 12.20 m2 (131.3 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 265 kg (584 lb)
- Gross weight: 450 kg (992 lb) limited by European ultralight category
- Fuel capacity: 50 L (11.0 Imp gal, 13.2 US gal)
- Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 912 UL-DCDI air/water-cooled flat four
- Propellers: 3-bladed Albastar, composite
- Maximum speed: 255 km/h (158 mph; 138 kn)
- Cruise speed: 220 km/h (137 mph; 119 kn) at 75% power
- Stall speed: 63 km/h (39 mph; 34 kn)
- Never exceed speed: 275 km/h (171 mph; 148 kn)
- Range: 1,000 km (621 mi; 540 nmi)
- Maximum glide ratio: 16:1 power off
- Rate of climb: 6.0 m/s (1,180 ft/min) max, at sea level
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to TL-96.|
- Jackson, Paul (2000). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2000-01. London: Jane's Information Group. pp. 104–5. ISBN 0-7106-2011-X.
- Simpson, Rod (2001). Airlife's World Aircraft. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing Ltd. pp. 550–1. ISBN 1-84037-115-3.
- Jackson, Paul (2010). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2010-11. Coulsdon, Surrey: IHS Jane's. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7106-2916-6.
- Bayerl, Robby; Martin Berkemeier; et al: World Directory of Leisure Aviation 2011-12, page 82. WDLA UK, Lancaster UK, 2011. ISSN 1368-485X
- "Sting S4". Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Tacke, Willi; Marino Boric; et al: World Directory of Light Aviation 2015-16, pages 84-85. Flying Pages Europe SARL, 2015. ISSN 1368-485X
- Partington, Dave (2010). European registers handbook 2010. Air Britain (Historians) Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85130-425-0.