TOROS artillery rocket system
TOROS artillery rocket system (Turkish: Topçu Roket Sistemi, TOROS) is a Turkish artillery rocket system that has been developed in both 230 and 260 mm calibre. The system was developed by TÜBİTAK-SAGE, and is used by the Turkish Army. The larger calibre rockets have a maximum range of 110 km (68 mi) deliver a 145 kg (320 lb) high-explosive fragmentation warhead containing 30,000 steel balls. This system is in general copy of Military Technical Institute Belgrade M-87 Orkan with some minor modification in rocket design, different fuel for rocket and tubes. It is developed trough reverse engineering and plans obtained for Orkan M-87 including launcher M-87 and rocket 262mm used in that process all obtained from BNT Bratstvo Novi Travnik from Bosnia and Herzegovina.   
The system consists of four vehicles:
- Launcher vehicle 6×6
- Logistics vehicle 6×6
- Maintenance vehicle 6×6
- Fire Command-Control vehicle 4×4
The 230 mm calibre system consists of six TOROS-230 unguided medium range rockets in a disposable launcher pod. The 260 mm calibre system consists of four TOROS-260 rockets in a disposable launcher pod. The launcher vehicle is designed to accept two TOROS-230 or TOROS-260 launcher pods.
Both rockets use an HTPB/AP solid propellent, and are stabilised in flight by four wrap-around fins. Sabots are fitted to the front of the rocket which fall away shortly after launch. Both rockets use a fin detent system to reduce wind dispersion, and are reported as having a dispersion of between one and two percent of their range. A variety of warheads have been proposed for the system including the basic blast fragmentation warhead, an electronic warfare warhead and a bunker busting warhead.
The launcher pods and advanced fire control system enable fast supply, loading, unloading, positioning and orientation operations. The unloading and reloading operations for two launch pods can be completed in less than twelve minutes. The system can be moved into position, oriented to target, and fired, all without the crew leaving the armoured cab. The launcher has a crew of three, but can be operated by a single person if needed.
Dispersion is reduced by helical rails which provide high roll rate during launch.
|Diameter||230 mm||260 mm|
|Length||4.1 m (13 ft)||4.8 m (16 ft)|
|Mass||326/197 kg||485/280 kg|
|Range||20–100 km (12–62 mi)||25–160 km (16–99 mi)|
|Shelf life||10 year||10 year|
|Number of tubes||6||4|
|Length||4.2 m (14 ft)||4.9 m (16 ft)|
|Width||1.0 m (3.3 ft)||0.9 m (3.0 ft)|
|Height||0.8 m (2.6 ft)||0.9 m (3.0 ft)|
|Empty mass||552 kg (1,217 lb)||647 kg (1,426 lb)|
|Loaded mass||2,442 kg (5,384 lb)||2,441 kg (5,381 lb)|
- Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005-2006
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