TOS-1 Buratino/TOS-1A Solntsepyok
|Type||Multiple rocket launcher|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||Soviet Union (historically), Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia|
Second Chechen War
Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbas
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
|Designer||Omsk Transmash Design Bureau|
|Mass||45.3 t (100,000 lb)|
|Length||9.5 m (31 ft 2 in)|
|Width||3.6 m (11 ft 10 in)|
|Height||2.22 m (7 ft 3 in)|
|Caliber||220 mm (8.7 in)|
|Rate of fire||30 rounds/15 s|
|Effective firing range||500–3,500 m (TOS-1)|
6,000 m (TOS-1A)
840 hp (630 kW)
|550 km (340 mi)|
|Maximum speed||60 km/h (37 mph)|
TOS-1 (Russian: тяжёлая огнемётная система [ТОС-1], Heavy Flamethrower System) is a Soviet 220 mm 30-barrel (original system, Object 634 or TOS-1M) or 24-barrel (Object 634B or TOS-1A) multiple rocket launcher and thermobaric weapon mounted on a T-72 tank chassis. TOS-1 was designed to attack enemy fortified positions, open country and lightly armoured vehicles and transports. First combat tests took place in 1988–1989 in the Panjshir Valley during the Soviet–Afghan War. The TOS-1 was shown for the first time in public in 1999 in Omsk.
TOS-1 is not assigned to the artillery units of the Russian Armed Forces but is found in Russian NBC Protection Troops (Russian: Войскa радиационной, химической и биологической защиты (Войска РХБ защиты)). That is why it does not have a GRAU index but rather an RKhBZ index—МO.1.01.00.
The idea of a heavy short-range MLRS to launch rockets equipped with incendiary and thermobaric warheads arose in the late 1970s. The combat system consisting of the combat vehicle, rockets, and loading vehicle was developed in early 1980s at KBTM in Omsk and was named TOS-1, remaining a secret development for a long time.
The TOS-1 Buratino is intended to engage military personnel, equipment, and buildings, including fortified constructions. The nickname "Buratino" originates with the name of the hero of a Russian retelling of the Pinocchio tale (by Alexey Tolstoy), given the perception of the big "nose" of the launcher. The combat vehicle acts within the combat order of infantry and tanks. The large mass of the launcher and the need for a high-level of protection [due to the relatively short range of 3,500 m (11,500 ft)] helped determine the use of the chassis of the T-72 main battle tank. The TZM reloading vehicle was built on the chassis of a KrAZ-255B cross-country truck and equipped with a crane for loading/unloading of the launcher. Production of KrAZ-255B has officially stopped in 1994. Therefore TZM-T for later Soltsepyok was created based on the chassis of a T-72 variation T-72A.
In 2003, the improved TOS-1A system Solntsepyok entered service with the range extended to 6 kilometers and a better ballistic computer.
In March 2020, Russia introduced a new rocket for the TOS-1A with a range of 10 km, achieved in part by weight and size reductions of a new fuel air explosive mixture in the warhead, while also increasing its power. Minimum range is extended from 400 m to 1.6 km, so the shorter-range M0.1.01.04M rocket will be retained for close combat environments. In 2018, Russian NBC Protection Troops received 30 TOS-1A Solntsepyok (Sunburn) 220 mm multiple rocket launchers.
Saudi Arabian Military Industries signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Rosoboronexport for the local production of the TOS-1A. The new TOS-2 system was first used during the Kavkaz-2020 drills in September 2020. It is based on an Ural all-terrain vehicle. It is also equipped with a more powerful TBS-M3 rocket and its own crane and it has an increased range. It is protected from precision weapons.
TOS-1s were first used in combat in Afghanistan's Panjshir valley by the Soviet Union during the Soviet–Afghan War. Later, they were used during the Second Chechen War, prominently by the Russian Army during the Battle of Grozny in 1999.
TOS-1As were first used in combat in Iraq by the Iraqi Army in the recapture of Jurf Al Sakhar on October 24, 2014 from ISIL forces. The Iraqi Army launched at least three TOS-1 rockets on 18 June 2017 during the first day of an offensive to recapture the Old City of Mosul, Iraq, from the Islamic State, targeting school buildings held by Islamic State forces and known to be devoid of civilians.
The TOS-1 was used in Syria on October 10, 2015 by Syrian Army forces against rebel forces in Hama. In 2016 it was used against rebel forces in the Latakia mountains. It was used again by the Syrian Army in April 2017 in the area of Palmyra, and later in the same month to destroy an ISIS camp. In November 2018, the system was deployed by the SAA against ISIS in Al-Safa region.
It took part in the large-scale Russian-Belarussian exercise Zapad in September 2021.
- The "combat vehicle" BM-1 (Russian: боевая машина) (Object 634B) based on a modified T-72A chassis and fitted with a rotating launch system for 24 unguided thermobaric rockets. All rockets can be launched within 6 to 12 seconds. The launch vehicle is equipped with a fire control system with a ballistic computer, aiming sight and 1D14 laser range finder. The other standard equipment consists of a TKN-3A sight for the commander, a GPK-59 navigation system, an R-163-50U radio station, an R-174 intercom and a 902G smoke grenade launcher with four barrels. The 3-man crew is armed with one AKS-74, one RPKS-74, three RPG-26s, and 10 F-1 hand grenades. The BM-1 is fitted with the same equipment as the T-72 tank (NBC protection, fire-fighting, observation etc.).
- Two TZM-T (Russian: транспортно-заряжающая машина) (Object 563) re-supply vehicles, fitted with a 10 kN crane. Each vehicle carries 2x12 spare rockets and 400 litres of fuel for the BM-1 and has a combat weigh of 39 t (86,000 lb). The TZM-T has a crew of three, armed with two AKS-74s, one RPKS-74, five RPG-26s, and 10 F-1 hand grenades.
- A set of rockets NURS (Russian: неуправляемый реактивный снаряд) MO.1.01.04 and MO.1.01.04M. These are 3.3 m (10 ft 10 in) and 3.7 m (12 ft 2 in) long and weigh 173 kg (381 lb) and 217 kg (478 lb) respectively. The original rocket for the TOS-1A had a range of only 2,700 m (8,900 ft), but the improved version extends the range to 6,000 m (20,000 ft). Some sources say its range is 12 km. The system was modernized in 2016. Modernized systems with active protection, new engine and launchers and other improvements were delivered in early 2018.
- Algeria – 52
- Azerbaijan – 36
- Armenia – Part of Russian–Armenian arms deal
- Iraq – 12
- Kazakhstan – 3
- Russia – ~45 + TOS-1A and a number of TOS-2
- Saudi Arabia: Used by the Royal Saudi Land Forces. A license to produce TOS-1A was granted to Saudi Arabia in 2017.
- Syria – 8+
- Soviet Union – Passed on to Russia.
At NPO Splav, work is underway to manufacture a prototype of a new generation of the system for preliminary tests. The system with improved tactical and technical characteristics will be made on a wheeled chassis. It is planned to complete state tests by the end of 2021, after which a decision will be made on putting it into service.
- "Iraq: See the EXPLOSIVE Russian firepower helping Iraqi forces fight IS". Archived from the original on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2014 – via YouTube.
- http://www.otvaga2004.narod.ru/otvaga2004/caleidoscope/flamethrowers_1.htm Archived February 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-12-24. Retrieved 2018-12-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Russian CBRN protection troops receive 30 TOS-1A MRLs | Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Archived from the original on 2018-09-05. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
- "Saudi Arabia signs agreement to manufacture Russian weapons locally". english.alarabiya.net. 5 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-10-06. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
- "New Russian military equipment used during 'Kavkaz 2020' exercise".
- "Russian military use newest TOS-2 heavy flamethrower for the first time".
- Deutschland+Russland (21 September 2015). "Putin schickt nach Syrien & Irak die effektivste Waffe gegen den IS - TOS-1A". Archived from the original on 6 May 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017 – via YouTube.
- "This Russian Tank-Mounted Rocket Launcher Can Incinerate 8 City Blocks". 14 September 2015. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- Pike, John. "TOS-1 Buratino 220mm Multiple Rocket Launcher". www.globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
- Boring, War Is (28 March 2015). "The Chechen Wars Cast a Long Shadow". Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- Salami, Jassem Al (26 November 2014). "Led by an Armored Bulldozer, Shia Militia Fought to Restore Their Credibility". War is Boring. Medium.com. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- "Morris, Loveday, "Iraqi forces fight their way into the narrow streets of Mosul's historic center," Washington Post, June 18, 2017". Archived from the original on June 18, 2017. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
- "Ukraine rebels 'have new rockets'". BBC News. 2 October 2015. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Archived from the original on 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
- odzadze123 (25 November 2015). "TOS-1 Buratino Russian MLRS, burn up islamic terrorists in Hama". Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017 – via YouTube.
- "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Archived from the original on 2017-08-17. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
- http://vpk-news.ru/news/36062 Archived 2017-04-08 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
- "Российский спецназ и ТОС-1А помогают сирийской армии добивать боевиков | Еженедельник «Военно-промышленный курьер»". Archived from the original on 2018-11-20. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
- "For the first time Azerbaijan has used heavy flamethrower systems". AZERI DAILY. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- ARG. "TOS-1A Heavy Flamethrower System - Military-Today.com". www.military-today.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-08-22.
- "Тяжёлая огнемётная система ТОС-1А". Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "The Global Intelligence Files - RUSSIA - New brigade for radiation defence formed in Russia's Southern Military District". wikileaks.org. Archived from the original on 2017-01-10. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- "Russian defense contractor puts new types of armament into production this year". Archived from the original on 2016-12-23. Retrieved 2016-12-23.
- "ЦАМТО / Новости / На вооружение полка РХБ защиты ЗВО поступили модернизированные тяжелые огнеметные системы ТОС-1А "Солнцепек"". www.armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 2018-04-01. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
- "ЦАМТО / Новости / В ЮВО поступили модернизированные тяжелые огнеметные системы ТОС-1А "Буратино"". www.armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 2018-04-11. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
- "Алжир закупил у России ТОС-1А "Солнцепек"". Военное.РФ. Archived from the original on 2017-08-27. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
- "Les premières images du TOS 1A Algérien - MENADEFENSE". MENADEFENSE (in French). 2018-02-22. Archived from the original on 2018-02-28. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
- "Algeria unveils Tos-1A - Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Archived from the original on 2018-05-17. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
- Еще одна сенсационная сделка: Азербайджан закупил огнеметные системы ТОС-1А на базе Т-90 (in Russian). Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "APA – Russia to deliver another batch of TOS-1A heavy flamethrowers to Azerbaijan in the near future". Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- The Military Balance 2017, p.201
- "bmpd". Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- "ЦАМТО / Новости / "Известия": тяжелая огнеметная система "Солнцепек" получит новейшие дальнобойные ракеты". www.armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 2016-09-23. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
- "TOS-1 multiple rocket launcher". Bubblews. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 – email@example.com. "TOS-1 Buratino Flamethrower | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia's Military Forces". Warfare.ru. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
- "Войска ЦВО получили комплект тяжелых огнеметов "Солнцепек"". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 2018-02-14. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
- "ЦАМТО / Новости / ТОС-1А "Солнцепек" последней модификации впервые поступили в общевойсковую армию ВВО в Приамурье". www.armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 2018-04-23. Retrieved 2018-04-22.
- "Solntsepek triples fire power of RChB troops, Eastern Military District : Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation". eng.mil.ru. Archived from the original on 2018-05-08. Retrieved 2018-05-08.
- "ЦАМТО / Новости / Новое подразделение РХБ защиты на Алтае получило на вооружение тяжелые огнеметные системы "Солнцепек"". www.armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
- "Janes | Latest defence and security news". Archived from the original on 2018-09-04. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
- "В войска ЦВО поступили новые тяжелые огнеметные системы "Тосочка"". 6 January 2021.
- "Россия начала поставки ТОС "Солнцепек" в Саудовскую Аравию, утверждает источник "РИА Новости"". Centre for Analysis of World Arms Trade. 10 April 2019. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- Binnie, Jeremy (10 April 2019). "Saudi Arabia takes delivery of TOS-1A MRLs". Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
- "Saudi Arabia signs agreement to manufacture Russian weapons locally". Al Arabiya. 5 October 2017. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017.
- "Saudi Arabian Military Industries Signs Agreement And MOU With Russia's ROSOBORONEXPORT". The Saudi Center for International Communication. October 5, 2017.
- "Hier zerstört Putins Höllenkanone eine Festung der Rebellen" (in German). STERN.de. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Опытный образец тяжёлой огнемётной системы нового поколения создаётся в России
- До конца года тяжелая огнеметная система ТОС-2 "Тосочка" завершит госиспытания - Армия и ОПК - ТАСС
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to TOS-1.|
- Video of the TOS-1 in action (in Russian)
- GlobalSecurity profile
- FAS profile
- TOS-1A article on Military Today
- TOS-1 article on Military Today
- Detailed article on Rbase (in Russian)
- V. Kuzmin's photo blog about the 2010 Victory Parade in Moscow (in Russian)
- Russia's TOS-1: Moscow's Most Powerful Weapon of War (That Isn't Nuclear) - National Interest