From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
TOS-1 Buratino/TOS-1A Solntsepyok
Object 634/634B/MO.1.01.00
Heavy flamethrower system "Solntsepyok" during the "Armiya 2020" exhibition (front view).jpg
TOS-1A Solntsepyok during the Army-2020 exhibition
TypeMultiple rocket launcher
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1988–present
Used bySoviet Union (historically), Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Algeria, Syria, Iraq
WarsSoviet–Afghan War
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Second Chechen War
War in Iraq (2013–2017)[1]
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbas
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Production history
DesignerOmsk Transmash Design Bureau
ProducedTOS-1: 1987–present
TOS-1A: 2003–present
TOS-2: 2021-present
VariantsTOS-1A, TOS-2
Mass45.3 t (100,000 lb)
Length9.5 m (31 ft 2 in)
Width3.6 m (11 ft 10 in)
Height2.22 m (7 ft 3 in)

Caliber220 mm (8.7 in)
Rate of fire30 rounds/15 s
Effective firing range.5-3 km (TOS-1)
10 km (TOS-1A)

EngineV-84 Diesel
840 hp (630 kW)
550 km (340 mi)
Maximum speed 60 km/h (37 mph)

TOS-1 (Russian: тяжёлая огнемётная система [ТОС-1], Heavy Flamethrower System) is a Soviet 220 mm 30-barrel (original system, Object 634 or TOS-1M) or 24-barrel (Object 634B or TOS-1A) multiple rocket launcher capable of using thermobaric warheads, mounted on a T-72 tank chassis. TOS-1 was designed to attack enemy fortified positions and lightly armoured vehicles and transports, in open terrain in particular. First combat tests took place in 1988 and 1989 in the Panjshir Valley during the Soviet–Afghan War. The TOS-1 was shown for the first time in public in 1999 in Omsk.

TOS-1 is not assigned to the artillery units of the Russian Armed Forces but is found in Russian NBC Protection Troops.[2]


BM-1 - Russian 24-barrel multiple rocket launcher, part of ТОS-1A system

The idea of a heavy short-range MLRS to launch rockets equipped with incendiary and thermobaric warheads arose in the late 1970s. The combat system consisting of the combat vehicle, rockets, and loading vehicle was developed in early 1980s at KBTM in Omsk and was named TOS-1, remaining a secret development for a long time.

The TOS-1 Buratino is intended to engage military personnel, equipment, and buildings, including fortified constructions. The nickname "Buratino" originates with the name of the hero of a Russian retelling of the Pinocchio tale (by Alexey Tolstoy), given the perception of the big "nose" of the launcher (in the original Italian text of Pinocchio, the protagonist is a "burattino", the Italian word for "puppet"). The combat vehicle acts within the combat order of infantry and tanks.The large mass of the launcher, combined with the short range of rockets launches (3,500 m (11,500 ft)), forced an increase in the level of armor and use the chassis of the T-72 main battle tank. The TZM reloading vehicle was built on the chassis of a KrAZ-255B cross-country truck and equipped with a crane for loading/unloading of the launcher. Production of KrAZ-255B has officially stopped in 1994. Therefore, TZM-T for later Soltsepyok was created based on the chassis of a T-72 variation T-72A.

In 2003, the improved TOS-1A Solntsepyok ("Scorching sunlight") system entered service with the range extended to 6 kilometers and a better ballistic computer.[3]

In March 2020, Russia introduced a new rocket for the TOS-1A with a range of 10 km, achieved in part by weight and size reductions of a new fuel air explosive mixture in the warhead, while also increasing its power. Minimum range is extended from 400 m to 1.6 km, so the shorter-range M0.1.01.04M rocket will be retained for close combat environments.[4] In 2018, Russian NBC Protection Troops received 30 TOS-1A Solntsepyok (Sunburn) 220 mm multiple rocket launchers.[5]

Saudi Arabian Military Industries signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Rosoboronexport for the local production of the TOS-1A.[6]


TOS-2 during the "Armiya 2022" exhibition.

On 12 January 2018, it was announced that NPO Splav was working on a prototype of a next generation TOS system for preliminary tests. The system with improved tactical and technical characteristics will be made on a wheeled chassis.[7]

The new TOS-2 (Tosochka) system was first unveiled during the 2020 Moscow Victory Day Parade,[8] and further showcased during the Kavkaz-2020 drills in September 2020. It is equipped with a more powerful TBS-M3 rocket and its own crane. It has also an increased range and is protected from precision weapons.[9][10] The system uses the 6x6 Ural-63706-0120 all-terrain vehicle instead of the tracked armored chassis of the TOS-1A.[8]

The TOS-2 entered service with the Central Military District of Russia on 6 January 2021.[11]

In late May 2022, TASS reported that the system was deployed in Ukraine during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[8]

Combat history[edit]

TOS-1A in action

TOS-1s were first used in combat in Afghanistan's Panjshir valley by the Soviet Union during the Soviet–Afghan War.[12][13][14] Later, they were used during the Second Chechen War.[15]

TOS-1As were first used in combat in Iraq by the Iraqi Army in the recapture of Jurf Al Sakhar on October 24, 2014, from ISIL forces.[16] The Iraqi Army launched at least three TOS-1 rockets on 18 June 2017 during the first day of an offensive to recapture the Old City of Mosul, Iraq, from the Islamic State, targeting school buildings held by Islamic State forces and known to be devoid of civilians.[17]

The OSCE reported in September 2015 that the TOS-1 was sighted in a rebel training area in eastern Ukraine.[18]

The TOS-1 was used in Syria on October 10, 2015, by Syrian Army forces against rebel forces in Hama.[19][20] In 2016, it was used against rebel forces in the Latakia mountains,[21] with at least one being destroyed by a rebel Kornet ATGM near Northern Aleppo.[22] It was used again by the Syrian Arab Army in April 2017 in the area of Palmyra,[23] and later in the same month to destroy an ISIS camp.[citation needed] In November 2018, the system was deployed by the SAA against ISIS in Al-Safa region.[24]

Azerbaijan used the TOS-1A against the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army on 4 April 2016[25] and 28 September 2020.[citation needed]

It took part in the large-scale Russian-Belarusian exercise Zapad in September 2021.[26]

Remains of TOS-1 in Izium (Ukraine) after the battle for the city

TOS-1A units were being deployed during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[27] Several sightings of the system were reported during the invasion. A verified image of a TOS-1A claimed to have been captured by the Ukrainian Army has been widely shared across social media.[28] On 9 March 2022, the UK Ministry of Defence said on Twitter that the Russian Ministry of Defence had confirmed the use of the weapon system in the Russian invasion of Ukraine.[29][30] Ukrainian forces went on to capture several units which were left abandoned by the Russians, and have used a captured unit against the Russians.[31][32][33] The TOS-1A was reportedly used by Russian forces during the battle of Pisky.[34]

System description[edit]

The TOS-1A Solntsepyok (Russian: Солнцепёк (Blazing Sun)) system consists of the following items:[35][36]

  • The "combat vehicle" BM-1 (Russian: боевая машина) (Object 634B) based on a modified T-72A chassis and fitted with a rotating launch system for 24 unguided thermobaric rockets. All rockets can be launched within 6 to 12 seconds. The launch vehicle is equipped with a fire control system with a ballistic computer, aiming sight and 1D14 laser range finder. The other standard equipment consists of a TKN-3A sight for the commander, a GPK-59 navigation system, an R-163-50U radio station, an R-174 intercom and a 902G smoke grenade launcher with four barrels. The 3-man crew is armed with one AKS-74, one RPKS-74, three RPG-26s, and 10 F-1 hand grenades. The BM-1 is fitted with the same equipment as the T-72 tank (NBC protection, fire-fighting, observation etc.).
TZM-T loader-transport vehicle for TOS-1A during the "Armiya 2020" exhibition
TZM-T with a cover off one of the rocket storage racks, with two rockets
  • Two TZM-T (Russian: транспортно-заряжающая машина) (Object 563) re-supply vehicles, fitted with a 10 kN crane. Each vehicle carries 2x12 spare rockets and 400 litres of fuel for the BM-1 and has a combat weigh of 39 t (86,000 lb). The TZM-T has a crew of three, armed with two AKS-74s, one RPKS-74, five RPG-26s, and 10 F-1 hand grenades.
  • A set of rockets NURS (Russian: неуправляемый реактивный снаряд) MO.1.01.04 and MO.1.01.04M. These are 3.3 m (10 ft 10 in) and 3.7 m (12 ft 2 in) long and weigh 173 kg (381 lb) and 217 kg (478 lb) respectively. The original rocket for the TOS-1A had a range of only 2,700 m (8,900 ft), but the improved version extends the range to 6,000 m (20,000 ft). Some sources say its range is 12 km.[citation needed] The system was modernized in 2016.[37] Modernized systems with active protection, new engine and launchers and other improvements were delivered in early 2018.[38][39] In March 2020, Russia introduced a new rocket for the TOS-1A with a range of 10 km.


Map with TOS-1 operators in blue, former operators in red.

Current operators[edit]

Former operators[edit]

  •  Soviet Union – Passed on to Russia.



  1. ^ "Iraq: See the EXPLOSIVE Russian firepower helping Iraqi forces fight IS". Archived from the original on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2014 – via YouTube.
  2. ^ "Ukrainian army fires TOS-1A Heavy Flamethrower against its former Russian owner | Ukraine - Russia conflict war 2022 | analysis focus army defence military industry army".
  3. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / В декабре исполняется 15 лет со дня принятия на вооружение ВС РФ ТОС-1А "Солнцепек"". Archived from the original on 2018-12-24. Retrieved 2018-12-24.
  4. ^ "Troops fire next-generation shells for heavy flamethrowers in Siberia drills".
  5. ^ "Russian CBRN protection troops receive 30 TOS-1A MRLs | Jane's 360". Archived from the original on 2018-09-05. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
  6. ^ "Saudi Arabia signs agreement to manufacture Russian weapons locally". 5 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-10-06. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
  7. ^ "Опытный образец тяжелой огнеметной системы нового поколения создается в России". ТАСС.
  8. ^ a b c "Russia deploys in Ukraine its new TOS-2 thermobaric rocket launcher system". 28 May 2022.
  9. ^ "New Russian military equipment used during 'Kavkaz 2020' exercise".
  10. ^ "Russian military use newest TOS-2 heavy flamethrower for the first time".
  11. ^ a b "В войска ЦВО поступили новые тяжелые огнеметные системы "Тосочка"". 6 January 2021.
  12. ^ Deutschland+Russland (21 September 2015). "Putin schickt nach Syrien & Irak die effektivste Waffe gegen den IS - TOS-1A". Archived from the original on 6 May 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017 – via YouTube.
  13. ^ "This Russian Tank-Mounted Rocket Launcher Can Incinerate 8 City Blocks". 14 September 2015. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  14. ^ Pike, John. "TOS-1 Buratino 220mm Multiple Rocket Launcher". Archived from the original on 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
  15. ^ Boring, War Is (28 March 2015). "The Chechen Wars Cast a Long Shadow". Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  16. ^ Salami, Jassem Al (26 November 2014). "Led by an Armored Bulldozer, Shia Militia Fought to Restore Their Credibility". War is Boring. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
  17. ^ "Morris, Loveday, "Iraqi forces fight their way into the narrow streets of Mosul's historic center," Washington Post, June 18, 2017". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 18, 2017. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  18. ^ "Ukraine rebels 'have new rockets'". BBC News. 2 October 2015. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  19. ^ "YouTube". Archived from the original on 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  20. ^ odzadze123 (25 November 2015). "TOS-1 Buratino Russian MLRS, burn up islamic terrorists in Hama". Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017 – via YouTube.
  21. ^ "YouTube". Archived from the original on 2017-08-17. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  22. ^ Janovsky, Jakub [@Rebel44CZ] (20 February 2022). "2016.06.04 Tal Sheikh Yusef. N. Aleppo. Kornet vs. TOS-1 MRLS, hit (Fatah Halab)" (Tweet). Retrieved 2022-03-16 – via Twitter.
  23. ^ ""Солнцепек" работает под Пальмирой (видео) | Еженедельник "Военно-промышленный курьер"". Archived from the original on April 8, 2017.
  24. ^ "Российский спецназ и ТОС-1А помогают сирийской армии добивать боевиков | Еженедельник "Военно-промышленный курьер"". Archived from the original on 2018-11-20. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
  25. ^ "For the first time Azerbaijan has used heavy flamethrower systems". AZERI DAILY. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  26. ^ "Remote minelayer, heavy flamethrower first used together in Zapad exercise".
  27. ^ Zitser, Joshua. "Russian army deploys its TOS-1 heavy flamethrower, capable of vaporizing human bodies, near Ukrainian border, footage shows". Business Insider.
  28. ^ "Putin nightmare: Ukrainian army captures Russian TOS-1A thermobaric rocket launcher". 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2022-03-02.
  29. ^ "Russia-Ukraine war: Russia admits using thermobaric weapons, UK says". The Guardian. 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  30. ^ "Russian MoD confirmed the use of the TOS-1A". Twitter. 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  31. ^ "ЗСУ вперше застосували проти росіян їхню ж вогнеметну систему ТОС-1А "Солнцепек"". (in Ukrainian). 2022-04-05. Retrieved 2022-04-07.
  32. ^ "Бють окупантів їхньою ж зброєю: ЗСУ вперше застосували трофейний ТОС-1А Солнцепек". Голос Карпат. Retrieved 2022-04-07.
  33. ^ Grylls, George. "Ukrainian forces use Russians' 'blazing sun' thermobaric weapon against them". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2022-04-07.
  34. ^ "Russian vacuum bombs destroy Ukrainian town in horrifying new footage". Yahoo News. 12 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  35. ^ ARG. "TOS-1A Heavy Flamethrower System -". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-08-22.
  36. ^ "Тяжёлая огнемётная система ТОС-1А". Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  37. ^ "Russian defense contractor puts new types of armament into production this year". Archived from the original on 2016-12-23. Retrieved 2016-12-23.
  38. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / На вооружение полка РХБ защиты ЗВО поступили модернизированные тяжелые огнеметные системы ТОС-1А "Солнцепек"". Archived from the original on 2018-04-01. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  39. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / В ЮВО поступили модернизированные тяжелые огнеметные системы ТОС-1А "Буратино"". Archived from the original on 2018-04-11. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  40. ^ "Алжир закупил у России ТОС-1А "Солнцепек"". Военное.РФ. Archived from the original on 2017-08-27. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
  41. ^ "Les premières images du TOS 1A Algérien - MENADEFENSE". MENADEFENSE (in French). 2018-02-22. Archived from the original on 2018-02-28. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  42. ^ "Algeria unveils Tos-1A - Jane's 360". Archived from the original on 2018-05-17. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
  43. ^ Еще одна сенсационная сделка: Азербайджан закупил огнеметные системы ТОС-1А на базе Т-90 (in Russian). Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  44. ^ "APA – Russia to deliver another batch of TOS-1A heavy flamethrowers to Azerbaijan in the near future". Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  45. ^ The Military Balance 2017, p.201
  46. ^ "bmpd". Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  47. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / "Известия": тяжелая огнеметная система "Солнцепек" получит новейшие дальнобойные ракеты". Archived from the original on 2016-09-23. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
  48. ^ "TOS-1 multiple rocket launcher". Bubblews. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  49. ^ Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 – "TOS-1 Buratino Flamethrower | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia's Military Forces". Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  50. ^ "Войска ЦВО получили комплект тяжелых огнеметов "Солнцепек"". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 2018-02-14. Archived from the original on 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  51. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / ТОС-1А "Солнцепек" последней модификации впервые поступили в общевойсковую армию ВВО в Приамурье". Archived from the original on 2018-04-23. Retrieved 2018-04-22.
  52. ^ "Solntsepek triples fire power of RChB troops, Eastern Military District : Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation". Archived from the original on 2018-05-08. Retrieved 2018-05-08.
  53. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / Новое подразделение РХБ защиты на Алтае получило на вооружение тяжелые огнеметные системы "Солнцепек"". Archived from the original on 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
  54. ^ "Janes | Latest defence and security news". Archived from the original on 2018-09-04. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  55. ^ "ЦАМТО / / "Омсктрансмаш" отправил в войска партию ТОС-1А".
  56. ^ "Omsktransmash delivers batch of flamethrowers to Russian military ahead of time".
  57. ^ "ЦАМТО / / Подразделения РХБ защиты ЦВО в ноябре получили около 15 образцов современной военной техники".
  58. ^ "Россия начала поставки ТОС "Солнцепек" в Саудовскую Аравию, утверждает источник "РИА Новости"". Centre for Analysis of World Arms Trade. 10 April 2019. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  59. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (10 April 2019). "Saudi Arabia takes delivery of TOS-1A MRLs". Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  60. ^ "Saudi Arabia signs agreement to manufacture Russian weapons locally". Al Arabiya. 5 October 2017. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017.
  61. ^ "Saudi Arabian Military Industries Signs Agreement And MOU With Russia's ROSOBORONEXPORT". The Saudi Center for International Communication. October 5, 2017.
  62. ^ "Hier zerstört Putins Höllenkanone eine Festung der Rebellen" (in German). Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  63. ^ Mitzer, Stijn; Oliemans, Joost (4 October 2022). "Central Asian Armour: Tajikistan's Inventory Of AFVs". Oryx Blog.
  64. ^ "Attack On Europe: Documenting Russian Equipment Losses During The 2022 Russian Invasion Of Ukraine". Oryx Blog. 24 February 2022.
  65. ^ Axe, David (17 April 2022). "Ukrainian Troops Reportedly Fired A Captured Russian Rocket Launcher ... Back At The Russians". Forbes.

External links[edit]