TRAPPIST-1g

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TRAPPIST-1g
Exoplanet List of exoplanets
TRAPPIST-1g Artist's Impression.png
Artist's impression of TRAPPIST-1g.
Parent star
Star TRAPPIST-1[1]
Spectral type M8[1][2]:1236
Mass (m) 0.08 (± 0.009) (± 0.02)[1] M
Radius (r) 0.117 (± 0.004)[1] R
Temperature (T) 2550.0 (± 55.0)[1] K
Age 0.5[1] Gyr
Orbital elements
Semi-major axis(a) 0.0451 (± 0.0014)[1] AU
Eccentricity (e) 0.0 ( −0.0 +0.061 )[1]
Orbital period(P) 12.35294 (± 0.00012)[1] Juliean d
Inclination (i) 100.2 (± 0.025)[1]°
Physical characteristics
Mass(m)1.34[3] M
Minimum mass(m sin i)0.46[3] M
Maximum mass(m sin i)2.22[3] M
Radius(r)0.1005 (± 0.0037) [1] RJ
(1.127 ± 0.041[3] R)
Stellar flux(F)0.258 ± 0.020[3]
Density(ρ)5.18 ± 3.48 g cm−3
Surface gravity(g)~10.35 m/s²
Temperature (T) 198.6 ± 3.8 K (−74.55 ± 3.80 °C; −102.19 ± 6.84 °F)[3]
Discovery information
Discovery date 2017
Discoverer(s)
Discovery method Transit
Discovery status Published

TRAPPIST-1g, also designated as 2MASS J23062928-0502285 g, is an exoplanet orbiting around the ultra-cool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 39 light-years (12 parsecs) away from Earth in the constellation Aquarius. It was one of four new exoplanets to be discovered orbiting the star using observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope.[4] The exoplanet is within the habitable zone.[5] It was found by using the transit method, in which the dimming effect that a planet causes as it crosses in front of its star is measured.

Characteristics[edit]

Mass, radius, and temperature[edit]

TRAPPIST-1g is an Earth-sized exoplanet, meaning it has a mass and radius close to that of Earth. It has an equilibrium temperature of 198.6 K (−75 °C; −102 °F). This planet has a mass of 1.34 earth masses and a radius of 1.13 R, resulting in an estimated surface gravity of 10.3 m/s2 and a density of 5.13 g/cm3, both similar to Earth.

Host star[edit]

The planet orbits an (M-type) ultracool dwarf star named TRAPPIST-1. The star has a mass of 0.08 M and a radius of 0.11 R. It has a temperature of 2550 K and is at least 500 million years old. In comparison, the Sun is 4.6 billion years old and has a temperature of 5778 K. The star is metal-rich, with a metallicity ([Fe/H]) of 0.04, or 109% the solar amount. This is particularly odd as such low-mass stars near the boundary between brown dwarfs and hydrogen-fusing stars should be expected to have considerably less metal content than the Sun. Its luminosity (L) is 0.05% of that of the Sun.

The star's apparent magnitude, or how bright it appears from Earth's perspective, is 18.8, too dim to be seen with the naked eye.

Orbit[edit]

TRAPPIST-1g orbits its host star with an orbital period of about 12.353 days and an orbital radius of about 0.0451 times that of Earth's (compared to the distance of Mercury from the Sun, which is about 0.38 AU). This is in the outer limit of TRAPPIST-1's habitable zone. The orbit of TRAPPIST-1g has an eccentricity of 0.003, much lower than that of Earth and similar to that of TRAPPIST-1e. Its orbit varies by only about 41,000 kilometers (compared to about 5 million km for Earth), probably making the planet's climate very stable. It is in a 3:2 orbital resonance with TRAPPIST-1h and a 3:4 resonance with TRAPPIST-1f.

Water[edit]

On 31 August 2017, astronomers at the Hubble Space Telescope reported the first evidence of possible water content on the TRAPPIST-1 exoplanets.[6][7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Planet TRAPPIST-1 g". Exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2017-02-22. 
  2. ^ Costa, E.; Mendez, R.A.; Jao, W.-C.; Henry, T.J.; Subasavage, J.P.; Ianna, P.A. (August 4, 2006). "The Solar Neighborhood. XVI. Parallaxes from CTIOPI: Final Results from the 1.5 m Telescope Program" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. The American Astronomical Society. 132 (3): 1234. Bibcode:2006AJ....132.1234C. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.622.2310Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/505706. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Gillon, Michaël; et al. "Seven temperate terrestrial planets around the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1". Nature. 542 (7642): 456–460. arXiv:1703.01424Freely accessible. Bibcode:2017Natur.542..456G. doi:10.1038/nature21360. 
  4. ^ "Temperate Earth-Sized Planets Found in Extraordinarily Rich Planetary System TRAPPIST-1". SpaceRef. 22 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017. 
  5. ^ "NASA telescope reveals largest batch of Earth-size, habitable-zone planets around single star". Exoplanet Exploration: Planets Beyond our Solar System (Press release). Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  6. ^ Bourrier, Vincent; de Wit, Julien; Jäger, Mathias (31 August 2017). "Hubble delivers first hints of possible water content of TRAPPIST-1 planets". www.SpaceTelescope.org. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  7. ^ PTI (4 September 2017). "First evidence of water found on TRAPPIST-1 planets - The results suggest that the outer planets of the system might still harbour substantial amounts of water. This includes the three planets within the habitable zone of the star, lending further weight to the possibility that they may indeed be habitable". The Indian Express. Retrieved 4 September 2017.