OTR-21 Tochka

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OTR-21 Tochka
SS-21 Scarab
Tochka-U rep parad Yekat.jpg
Missiles systems Tochka-U at a Russian Federation rehearsal for the parade in Yekaterinburg
TypeTactical ballistic missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1976–present (Scarab A)
1989–present (Scarab B)
1990–present (Scarab C)
Used bySee Operators
WarsYemeni Civil War (1994)
First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbass
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
Production history
ManufacturerKBM (Kolomna)
Produced1973
Specifications
Mass2,000 kg (4,400 lb) Scarab A
2,010 kg (4,430 lb) Scarab B
1,800 kg (4,000 lb) Scarab C
Length6.4 m (21 ft)
Diameter0.65 m (2 ft 2 in)
WarheadChemical, 100 kt nuclear warhead, EMP, or fragmentation filling

EngineSingle-stage Solid-fuel rocket
96kN[1]
Operational
range
70 km (43 mi) Scarab A
120 km (75 mi) Scarab B
185 km (115 mi) Scarab C
Speed1.8 km/s (1.1 mi/s; Mach 5.3)
Guidance
system
Inertial guidance, Tochka-P added passive radar against radar installations
Accuracy150 m (Scarab A)
Launch
platform
BAZ-5921 Mobile TEL

OTR-21 Tochka (Russian: оперативно-тактический ракетный комплекс (ОТР) «Точка» ("point"); English: Tactical Operational Missile Complex "Tochka") is a Soviet tactical ballistic missile. Its GRAU designation is 9K79; its NATO reporting name is SS-21 Scarab. It is transported in a 9P129 vehicle and raised prior to launch. It uses an inertial guidance system.

The OTR-21 forward deployment to East Germany began in 1981, replacing the earlier Luna-M series of unguided artillery rockets.

Description[edit]

The OTR-21 is a mobile missile launch system, designed to be deployed along with other land combat units on the battlefield. While the 9K52 Luna-M is large and relatively inaccurate, the OTR-21 is much smaller. The missile itself can be used for precise strikes on enemy tactical targets, such as control posts, bridges, storage facilities, troop concentrations and airfields. The fragmentation warhead can be replaced with a nuclear, biological or chemical warhead. The solid propellant makes the missile easy to maintain and deploy.

OTR-21 units are usually managed in a brigade structure. There are 18 launchers in a brigade; each launcher is provided with 2 or 3 missiles. The vehicle is completely amphibious, with a maximum road speed of 60 km/h (37 mph) and 8 km/h (5.0 mph) in water. It is NBC-protected. The system has been in development since 1968. Three variants were developed.

Scarab A[edit]

The initial Scarab A entered service with the Soviet Army in 1975. It carries one of three types of warhead:

  • 482 kg (1,063 lb) of conventional HE
  • fragmentation (lethal radius more than 200 m (660 ft)
  • nuclear

The minimal range is about 15 km (9.3 mi), maximum range is 70 km (43 mi); its circular error probable (CEP) is estimated to be about 150 m (490 ft).

9M79K missile for 9K79 Tochka missile system

Scarab B[edit]

The improved Scarab B (Tochka-U) passed state tests from 1986 to 1988 and introduced in 1989. Improved propellant increased the range to 120 km (75 mi). CEP significantly improved, to less than 95 m (312 ft).

Scarab C[edit]

A third variant, Scarab C, was developed in the 1990s. Again, range increased (185 km (115 mi)), and CEP decreased to less than 70 m (229 ft). Scarab C weighs 1,800 kg (4,000 lb).


Configuration[edit]

  • 9M79 missiles with various types of warheads (-9M79-1 for Tochika U Complex).
  • Launcher 9P129 or 9P129-1M (SPU);
  • Transport and loading machine 9T218 or 9T128-1 (TZM);
  • Transport vehicle 9T222 or 9T238 (TM);
  • Automatic testing machine 9V819 or 9V819-1 (AKIM);
  • Technical service vehicle 9V844 or 9V844M (MTO).
  • Set of weapon equipment 9F370-1 (KAO);

Educational means

  • Simulator 9F625M;
  • Missile overall weight model (such as 9M79K-GVM).
  • 9M79-UT training missile and 9N123F (K) -UT, 9N39-UT warhead. 9H123F-R UT;
  • 9M79-RM missile and 9N123K-RM missile split training model.

Use in combat[edit]

Operators[edit]

Map of OTR-21 operators in blue with former operators in red
Ukrainian OTR-21 Tochka missiles during the Independence Day parade in Kiev

Current operators[edit]

 Armenia
At least 40 launchers Tochka
 Azerbaijan
3 Tochka launchers with 4 missiles
 Belarus
36[29]
 Bulgaria
18[30]
 Kazakhstan
unknown number
 North Korea
unknown number of variant Hwasong-11
 Russia
220 launchers.[31] Missile systems have been upgraded since 2004 (replacing the onboard automated control systems)[32][33] and are scheduled to be replaced by the 9K720 Iskander missiles[34][35] by 2020.[36]
 Ukraine
90[37]
 Syria
unknown number
 Yemen
large numbers

Former operators[edit]

 Czechoslovakia
Passed on to successor states.
 Czech Republic
Inherited from Czechoslovakia, retired.
 East Germany
Passed on to Germany.
 Germany
Retired.
 Poland
4[38] retired in 2005, because of lack of rockets and service parts
 Yemen
North Yemen Ordered a number of scarab missiles and launchers and used them during the 1994 civil war and were passed on to unified Yemen after. Have seen action during the ongoing civil war.
 Slovakia
a small number, inherited from Czechoslovakia, all retired.
 Soviet Union
Passed on to successor states.

Comparable missiles[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.b14643.de/Spacerockets/Specials/RT-Missiles/index.htm#9M79 Archived 2017-11-07 at the Wayback Machine & 9M79M (Totchka)
  2. ^ Zaloga, Steven J. Scud Ballistic Missile and Launch Systems 1955-2005, page 39.
  3. ^ "It Was No Spontaneous, But Planned War". Novaya Gazeta. Archived from the original on 2008-09-30.
  4. ^ Fulghum, David A.; Douglas Barrie; Robert Wall; Andy Nativi (2008-08-15). "Georgian Military Folds Under Russian Attack". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
  5. ^ "Ukraine denies using ballistic missiles". Deutsche Welle. 2 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  6. ^ "NATO flip-flops over Kiev use of ballistic missiles against militants". RT. 1 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  7. ^ Tim Lister (3 September 2014). "Wrecked tanks, deserted playgrounds: Inside the kill zone of eastern Ukraine". CNN. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. In a burned field south of Ilovaisk, on what was the frontline of combat a few days ago, we found a large green tube amid bushes and trees. Military experts have identified it as the rocket motor section of a Russian-made SS-21 "Scarab" ballistic missile. But both the Ukrainian and Russian militaries have the SS-21.
  8. ^ "( + ) -". 2014-12-15. Archived from the original on 2014-12-17. Retrieved 2014-12-23.
  9. ^ "Oryx Blog: Houthis continue to fire ballistic missiles at Saudi Arabia". Spioenkop.blogspot.fr. 2015-08-20. Archived from the original on 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  10. ^ "Toll From Yemen Rebel Attack Rises as 10 Saudi Troops Killed". Archived from the original on 2015-09-13. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  11. ^ "UAE soldier deaths in Yemen rise to 52". Al Bawaba. Archived from the original on 2017-09-04. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  12. ^ "TSG IntelBrief: The Endless Fight for Yemen". The Soufan Group. Archived from the original on 2017-06-14. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  13. ^ Gould, Joe (2015-12-14). "united-arab-emirates". Defensenews.com. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  14. ^ "Yemen conflict: Gulf commanders 'killed in missile strike'". BBC News. 2015-12-14. Archived from the original on 2017-04-22. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  15. ^ "Cease-fire in Yemen Ushers In Talks to End War". Wall Street Journal. 2015-12-14. Archived from the original on 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  16. ^ ""توشكا" جديد يقصم ظهر "التحالف" | الأخبار". Al-akhbar.com. Archived from the original on 2017-05-29. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  17. ^ "Dozens of Saudi-led Forces Killed in Yemen New Tochka Attack- Al Manar TV Website Archive". Almanar.com.lb. 2016-01-18. Archived from the original on 2016-01-27. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  18. ^ Leith Fadel. "Over 200 Saudi-led Coalition fighters killed in Tochka missile strike". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  19. ^ "Yemen's Tochka Attack Kills Blackwater Commander, Saudi Mercenaries- Al Manar TV Website Archive". Almanar.com.lb. 2016-01-31. Archived from the original on 2016-02-13. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  20. ^ "Defense Digest on Twitter: "Updated #Tochka strike damage in Al Anad in #Yemen, 120 Sudanese dead out of the 145 killed & more than 250 injured"". postskriptum.org.com. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  21. ^ Leith Fadel. "Over 200 Saudi-led Coalition fighters killed in Tochka missile strike". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  22. ^ "Tochka-U fired by regime in West Aleppo". Map of Syrian Civil war/ Global conflict in Syria - liveuamap.com. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-04-27.
  23. ^ "شبكة الثورة السورية on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2016-04-27.
  24. ^ Fadel, Leith (16 June 2016). "Islamist offensive in the East Ghouta turns disastrous". Al Masdar News. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-03-20. Retrieved 2018-03-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-02-25. Retrieved 2019-02-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ "Second David's Sling-missile fell in Syria without hitting target", The Jerusalem Post, 25 July 2018
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-07-23. Retrieved 2018-07-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "Belarus Army Equipment". Archived from the original on 2017-02-16. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
  30. ^ Milev, Momchil (2014-04-11). "Da izkovem ot plugovete mechove". Economedia. p. 2. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  31. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-13. Retrieved 2015-01-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ "24.02.12 СМИ: Минобороны отказалось ремонтировать тактические ракеты "Точка-У"". militaryparitet.com. 24 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  33. ^ The Military Balance 2010. P. 223.
  34. ^ "Великий воин и защитник "Искандер"". vpk.name. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  35. ^ Денис Тельманов. "Сухопутные войска теряют тактические ракеты". Известия. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  36. ^ Artillery units of Russia will replace Tochka-U tactical missile with Iskander-M Archived 2017-09-14 at the Wayback Machine - Armyrecognition.com, 28 November 2016
  37. ^ "Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine". Archived from the original on 2017-07-07. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
  38. ^ MILITARIUM - Wojsko Polskie - Uzbrojenie Archived 2013-08-26 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]