Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 3, also known as TRPV3, is a human gene encoding the protein of the same name.
The TRPV3 protein belongs to a family of nonselective cation channels that function in a variety of processes, including temperature sensation and vasoregulation. The thermosensitive members of this family are expressed in subsets of sensory neurons that terminate in the skin, and are activated at distinct physiological temperatures. This channel is activated at temperatures between 22 and 40 degrees C. The gene lies in close proximity to another family member (TRPV1) gene on chromosome 17, and the two encoded proteins are thought to associate with each other to form heteromeric channels.
The TRPV3 channel is widely expressed in the human body, especially in the skin in keratinocytes, but also in the brain. It functions as a molecular sensor for innocuous warm temperatures. Mice lacking these protein are unable to sense elevated temperatures (>33 °C) but are able to sense cold and noxious heat. In addition to thermosensation TRPV3 channels seem to play a role in hair growth because mutations in the TRPV3 gene cause hair loss in mice. The role of TRPV3 channels in the brain is unclear, but researchers found that they play a role in mood regulation, and that a protective effects of Incensole acetate were partially mediated by TRPV3 channels.
The TRPV3 channel is directly activated by various natural compounds like carvacrol, thymol and eugenol. Several other monoterpenoids which cause either feeling of warmth or are skin sensitizers can also open the channel. Monoterpenoids also induce agonist-specific desensitization of TRPV3 channels in a calcium-independent manner.
^Peier AM, Reeve AJ, Andersson DA et al. (2002). "A heat-sensitive TRP channel expressed in keratinocytes". Science296 (5575): 2046–9. doi:10.1126/science.1073140. PMID12016205.CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
^Moqrich A, Hwang SW, Earley TJ et al. (2005). "Impaired thermosensation in mice lacking TRPV3, a heat and camphor sensor in the skin". Science307 (5714): 1468–72. doi:10.1126/science.1108609. PMID15746429.CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
^Imura K, Yoshioka T, Hikita I et al. (2007). "Influence of TRPV3 mutation on hair growth cycle in mice". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.363 (3): 479–83. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.08.170. PMID17888882.CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
^Moussaieff A, Yu J, Zhu H, Gattoni-Celli S, Shohami E, Kindy MS et al. (2012). "Protective effects of incensole acetate on cerebral ischemic injury". Brain Res1443: 89–97. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2012.01.001. PMID22284622.CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
^Xu H, Delling M, Jun JC, Clapham DE (2006). "Oregano, thyme and clove-derived flavors and skin sensitizers activate specific TRP channels". Nat. Neurosci.9 (5): 628–35. doi:10.1038/nn1692. PMID16617338.
Islam, Md. Shahidul (January 2011). Transient Receptor Potential Channels. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 704. Berlin: Springer. p. 700. ISBN978-94-007-0264-6.
Clapham DE, Julius D, Montell C, Schultz G (2006). "International Union of Pharmacology. XLIX. Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of transient receptor potential channels.". Pharmacol. Rev.57 (4): 427–50. doi:10.1124/pr.57.4.6. PMID16382100.